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Cigarette Smoke Toxicity: Linking Individual Chemicals to Human Diseases

David Bernhard (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32681-5
388 pages
April 2011
Cigarette Smoke Toxicity: Linking Individual Chemicals to Human Diseases (3527326812) cover image
Smoking causes and contributes to a large number of human diseases, yet due to the large number of potentially hazardous compounds in cigarette smoke -- almost 5,000 chemicals have been identified, establishing the link between smoking and disease has often proved difficult.
This unbiased and scientifically accurate overview of current knowledge begins with an overview of the chemical constituents in cigarette smoke, their fate in the human body, and their documented toxic effects on various cells and tissues. Recent results detailing the many ways components of cigarette smoke adversely affect human health are also presented, highlighting the role of smoking in cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious and other diseases. A final chapter discusses current strategies for the treatment and prevention of smoking-induced illness.
Despite the obvious importance of the topic, this is the first comprehensive reference on tobacco smoke toxicity, making for essential reading for all toxicologists and healthcare professionals dealing with smoking-related diseases.
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Preface.

List of Contributors.

1 From Discarded Leaf to Global Scourge – The Extraordinary History of the Ascent of Tobacco and its Many Modes of Consumption (Barry A. Finegan and Garrett J. Finegan).

1.1 Public Health Policy and Commercial Interest – An Uneasy Equilibrium.

1.2 Blessed Offspring of an Uncouth Land.

1.3 A Valuable Poison.

1.4 Sniffing, Chewing, and Smoking.

1.5 The Development of the Cigarette – A Perfect Nicotine Delivery System.

1.6 A Century of Growth.

1.7 An Epidemic of Disease.

1.8 Tobacco Manufactured Products – Multiple Routes to Addiction.

1.9 History Revisited or Lesson Learned.

References.

Part I Cigarette Smoking.

2 Components of a Cigarette (Andreas Zemann).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Components of a Cigarette.

2.3 Generation of Cigarette Smoke.

2.4 Regulation and Future Perspectives of Cigarette Smoking.

3 The Process of Cigarette Smoking (Jian Wang and Xing Li Wang).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Bio-complexity of Pathogenic Components of Smoking.

3.3 Multiplicity of Tobacco-Induced Diseases.

3.4 Topography of Cigarette Smoking.

3.5 How to Defi ne a Human Smoker?

3.6 Will there be Standardized Experimental Models to Study Biological Impact by Smoking?

3.7 Summary.

Acknowledgment.

4 Smoke Chemistry (Andreas Zemann).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Cigarette Smoke.

4.3 Factors Influencing Smoke Chemistry.

5 Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (André Conrad).

5.1 Active Smoking.

5.2 Secondhand Smoke.

5.3 Third-hand Smoke.

5.4 Quantifying Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

5.5 Policy Measures for Reducing Tobacco-Related Exposure.

6 An Epidemiological Appraisal of Smoking-Related Outcomes (Elke Munters and Tim S. Nawrot).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Meta-Analytical Evidence on Active Smoking.

6.3 Cancer.

6.4 Cardiovascular.

6.5 Fractures.

6.6 Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

6.7 Fertility.

6.8 Ocular Damage.

6.9 Neurological Effects of Smoking.

6.10 Rheumatoid Arthritis.

6.11 Prenatal and Postnatal Effects of Smoking in Children.

6.12 Review of Meta-Analysis on Secondhand Smoke.

6.13 Mortality, Biological Aging, and Smoking.

6.14 Conclusion.

Part II Linking Cigarette Smoke Chemicals to Human Diseases and Pathophysiology.

7 Smoking and Cardiovascular Diseases (David Bernhard).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Cardiovascular Diseases.

7.3 Smoking and CVDs.

7.4 Summary.

Acknowledgment.

8 Smoking and Cancer (Parimal Chowdhury and Stewart MacLeod).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Facts on Smoking and Cancer.

8.3 Cancer of the Lung.

8.4 Tobacco Use and Pancreatic Cancer.

8.5 Tobacco Smoke Combustion Products: Heterocyclic Amines.

8.6 Smoking, K-ras Mutations and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

8.7 Interindividual Variation in the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer.

8.8 Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis by Cigarette Smoke.

8.9 Summary.

9 Smoking and COPD and Other Respiratory Diseases (Thomas E. Sussan and Shyam Biswal).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Pathogenesis of COPD.

9.3 Molecular Determinants of Protease Activity in COPD.

9.4 Molecular Determinants of Inflammation in COPD.

9.5 Molecular Determinants of Oxidative Stress in COPD.

9.6 Activation of Nrf2 by Cigarette Smoke.

9.7 Exacerbations of COPD.

9.8 Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Innate Immunity and COPD Exacerbations.

9.9 Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Asthma.

9.10 Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Other Respiratory Diseases.

9.11 Other Molecular Effects of Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

9.12 Effects of Individual Components of Cigarette Smoke in Lungs.

9.13 Concluding Remarks.

10 Smoking, Infectious Diseases and Innate Immune (Dys)function (David A. Scott and Juhi Bagaitkar).

10.1 Smoking and Susceptibility to Bacterial Diseases.

10.2 The Needle in the Haystack.

10.3 Recognition of Infectious Agents by the Innate Immune Response.

10.4 The Cholinergic Anti-Infl ammatory System.

10.5 Tobacco Smoking and Neutrophil Function.

10.6 Tobacco Smoking and Bacterial Virulence.

10.7 Nicotine and Cells of the Adaptive Immune System.

10.8 Conclusions.

11 Smoking and Reproduction (Martina Prelog).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Smoking and Female Fertility.

11.3 Reproductive Consequences of Smoking for Men.

11.4 Consequences of in utero Tobacco Exposure in Later Life of Offspring.

12 Smoking Tobacco and Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology and Diseases (Hitoshi Asakura).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The Esophagus.

12.3 Stomach.

12.4 Intestine.

12.5 Liver and Pancreas.

12.6 Summary.

13 Smoking and Oral Health (Eman Allam, Weiping Zhang, Cunge Zheng, Richard L. Gregory, and L. Jack Windsor).

13.1 Periodontal Disease.

13.2 Dental Caries.

13.3 Oral Cancer.

13.4 Other Oral Conditions.

13.5 Other Dental Conditions.

13.6 Conclusion.

14 Smoking and Eye Diseases (Maria E. Marin-Castaño and Marianne Pons).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Smoking and Cataract.

14.3 Smoking and Glaucoma.

14.4 Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

14.5 Association Between Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

14.6 Smoking and Uveitis.

14.7 Ocular Ischemia.

14.8 Smoking and Diabetic Retinopathy.

14.9 Other Ocular Diseases.

14.10 Conclusions.

14.11 Acknowledgments.

Part III Prevention and Treatment of Smoking–Induced Diseases.

15 Smoking: Prevention and Cessation (Adam Csordas).

15.1 Strategies for Smoking Prevention and Cessation.

15.2 Cessation and Risk Reversal: Health Benefi ts from Giving up Smoking.

15.3 Smoking Cessation and Gender.

15.4 Smoking Cessation and Genetics.

16 Interfering with Smoking-Induced Pathophysiology (Adam Csordas).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Cellular Redox Mechanisms Affected by Cigarette Smoke.

16.3 Perspectives for Prevention and Treatment of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pathophysiology in Different Tissues.

16.4 Dietary and Lifestyle Considerations as Related to Pathophysiology in Smokers.

16.5 Concluding Remarks.

Part IV Summary.

17 Summary (David Bernhard).

17.1 Cigarette Smoking and Human Diseases – A Critical Concluding Comment.

17.2 Concluding Remarks to this Book.

Index.

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David Bernhard gained his PhD degree in microbiology at the University of Innsbruck, Faculty of Medicine, and the Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute, Austria. After a scientific stay abroad he served as a postdoc at the Institute of Biomedical Aging Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, by which time he was already focusing on the effects of cigarette smole on the cardiovascular system. Following another postdoc period at the Institute for Pathophysiology of the Medical University in Innsbruck, he became head of the university's cardiac surgery research laboratory, and expanded his research towards a more application-oriented field. Currently Dr. Bernhard is head of the cardiac surgery research laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, where his major fields of interest are the pathophysiological understanding of smoking and metal ion-induced atherosclerosis, as well as the search for natural compounds in the treatment of cardiovascular dieseases, while he has recently started work on tissue engineering projects in the cardiovascular setting.
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