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Hydrogen Storage Technologies: New Materials, Transport, and Infrastructure

ISBN: 978-3-527-32683-9
264 pages
October 2012
Hydrogen Storage Technologies: New Materials, Transport, and Infrastructure (3527326839) cover image
An exploration of current and possible future hydrogen storage technologies, written from an industrial perspective. The book describes the fundamentals, taking into consideration environmental, economic and safety aspects, as well as presenting infrastructure requirements, with a special focus on hydrogen applications in production, transportation, military, stationary and mobile storage.

A comparison of the different storage technologies is also included, ranging from storage of pure hydrogen in different states, via chemical
storage right up to new materials already under development. Throughout, emphasis is placed on those technologies with the potential
for commercialization.
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1 Introduction 1

1.1 History/Background 1

1.2 Tanks and Storage 4

2 Hydrogen – Fundamentals 11

2.1 Hydrogen Phase Diagram 13

2.2 Hydrogen in Comparison with Other Fuels 14

2.3 Hydrogen Production 16

2.4 Hydrogen Storage Safety Aspects 53

References 73

3 Hydrogen Application: Infrastructural Requirements 81

3.1 Transportation 81

3.2 Filling Stations 86

3.3 Distribution 87

3.4 Military 89

3.5 Portables 92

3.6 Infrastructure Requirements 93

References 96

Further Reading 96

4 Storage of Pure Hydrogen in Different States 97

4.1 Purification of Hydrogen 97

4.2 Compressed Hydrogen 98

4.3 Liquid/Slush Hydrogen 114

4.4 Metal Hydrides 131

References 166

5 Chemical Storage 171

5.1 Introduction 171

5.2 Materials and Properties 172

5.3 Hydrogen Storage in Hydrocarbons 173

5.4 Hydrocarbons as Hydrogen Carrier 177

5.5 Application: Automotive 178

5.6 Ammonia 181

5.6.7 Hydrogen from Ammonia and Metal Hydride 189

5.7 Borohydrides 191

References 194

6 Hydrogen Storage Options: Comparison 197

6.1 Economic Considerations/Costs 197

6.2 Safety Aspects 200

6.3 Environmental Considerations: Waste, Hazardous Materials 209

6.4 Dimension Considerations 212

6.5 Sociological Considerations 216

6.6 Comparison with Other Energy Storage System 218

References 222

7 Novel Materials 225

7.1 Silicon and Hydropolysilane (HPS) 225

7.2 Carbon-Based Materials – General 228

7.3 Microspheres 239

References 246

Index 249

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Agata Godula-Jopek is a fuel cell expert in the Department of Energy & Propulsion at EADS Innovation Works (European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company), Germany. Her research interests centre on fuel cells, hydrogen storage and fuel processing for fuel cells. After obtaining her three academic degrees (MSc) at the Technical University in Cracow in Chemical Engineering, Foreign Trade and Marketing & Management in Scientific Activities respectively, she was working as a scientist in the Department of Electrochemical Oxidation of Gaseous Fuels at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, completing here her PhD thesis in 1999. She was an official representative for Aeronautics in Transportation Core Group at the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform, Implementation Panel in Brussels. Presently she is a board member of Fuel Cell Europe in Brussels. She has authored several scientific publications and patents.

Walter Jehle is presently a system engineer for the Department of Energy and Life Support Systems at EADS Astrium, Germany. After graduating in Chemical Engineering from the Technical University of Stuttgart, he worked for the Daimler Chrysler Institute and the EADS Innovation Works. His areas of expertise include Hydrogen Production, Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells. Walter Jehle has authored several scientific publications and patents.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Wellnitz is Chair and Professor of Light-Weight Design and CAE and is Vice-Dean of Faculty Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Ingolstadt, Germany. After he studied Aviation and Space Technology in Munich, he worked as Captain and Squadroon Commander at the German Air Defence Artillery. After that, he was chief of the "Core-Competence Composites" and head of the section "Strength Powerplant System" at Rolls-Royce in Germany. Professor Jörg Wellnitz has authored numerous peer-reviewed articles and books.
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