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Handbook of Battery Materials, 2nd Edition, 2 Volume Set

Claus Daniel (Editor), J. O. Besenhard (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32695-2
1023 pages
September 2011
Handbook of Battery Materials, 2nd Edition, 2 Volume Set (3527326952) cover image
A one-stop resource for both researchers and development engineers, this comprehensive handbook serves as a daily reference, replacing heaps of individual papers.
This second edition features twenty percent more content with new chapters on battery characterization, process technology, failure mechanisms and method development, plus updated information on classic batteries as well as entirely new results on advanced approaches.
The authors, from such leading institutions as the US National Labs and from companies such as Panasonic and Sanyo, present a balanced view on battery research and large-scale applications. They follow a distinctly materials-oriented route through the entire field of battery research, thus allowing readers to quickly find the information on the particular materials system relevant to their research.
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Preface XXVII

List of Contributors XXIX

Part I Fundamentals and General Aspects of Electrochemical Energy Storage 1

1 Thermodynamics and Mechanistics 3
Karsten Pinkwart and Jens Tubke

1.1 Electrochemical Power Sources 3

1.2 Electrochemical Fundamentals 6

1.3 Thermodynamics 13

1.4 Criteria for the Judgment of Batteries 21

2 Practical Batteries 27
Koji Nishio and Nobuhiro Furukawa

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Alkaline-Manganese Batteries 27

2.3 Nickel-Cadmium Batteries 30

2.4 Nickel-MH Batteries 36

2.5 Lithium Primary Batteries 43

2.6 Coin-Type Lithium Secondary Batteries 55

2.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries 66

2.8 Secondary Lithium Batteries with Metal Anodes 78

Part II Materials for Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries 87

3 Structural Chemistry of Manganese Dioxide and Related Compounds 89
Jorg H. Albering

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Tunnel Structures 90

3.3 Layer Structures 104

3.4 Reduced Manganese Oxides 116

3.5 Conclusion 120

4 Electrochemistry of Manganese Oxides 125
Akiya Kozawa, Kohei Yamamoto, and Masaki Yoshio

4.1 Introduction 125

4.2 Electrochemical Properties of EMD 126

4.2.1 Discharge Curves and Electrochemical Reactions 126

4.3 Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of EMD 137

4.4 Conversion of EMD to LiMnO2 or LiMn2O4 for Rechargeable Li Batteries 140

4.5 Discharge Curves of EMD Alkaline Cells (AA and AAA Cells) 147

5 Nickel Hydroxides 149
James McBreen

5.1 Introduction 149

5.2 Nickel Hydroxide Battery Electrodes 150

5.3 Solid-State Chemistry of Nickel Hydroxides 151

5.4 Electrochemical Reactions 161

6 Lead Oxides 169
Dietrich Berndt

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Lead/Oxygen Compounds 170

6.3 The Thermodynamic Situation 173

6.4 PbO2 as Active Material in Lead–Acid Batteries 181

6.5 Passivation of Lead by Its Oxides 189

6.6 Ageing Effects 192

7 Bromine-Storage Materials 197
Christoph Fabjan and Josef Drobits

7.1 Introduction 197

7.2 Possibilities for Bromine Storage 199

7.3 Physical Properties of the Bromine Storage Phase 204

7.4 Analytical Study of a Battery Charge Cycle 210

7.5 Safety, Physiological Aspects, and Recycling 212

8 Metallic Negatives 219
Leo Binder

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Overview 219

8.3 Battery Anodes ('Negatives') 220

9 Metal Hydride Electrodes 239
James J. Reilly

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Theory and Basic Principles 239

9.3 Metal Hydride–Nickel Batteries 244

9.4 Super-Stoichiometric AB5+x Alloys 259

9.5 AB2 Hydride Electrodes 261

9.6 XAS Studies of Alloy Electrode Materials 264

9.7 Summary 265

10 Carbons 269
Kimio Kinoshita

10.1 Introduction 269

10.2 Physicochemical Properties of Carbon Materials 269

10.3 Electrochemical Behavior 274

10.4 Concluding Remarks 283

11 Separators 285
Werner Bohnstedt

11.1 General Principles 285

11.2 Separators for Lead–Acid Storage Batteries 293

11.3 Separators for Alkaline Storage Batteries 328

Part III Materials for Alkali Metal Batteries 341

12 Lithium Intercalation Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries 343
Arumugam Manthiram and Theivanayagam Muraliganth

12.1 Introduction 343

12.2 History of Lithium-Ion Batteries 343

12.3 Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 345

12.4 Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes 347

12.5 Layered LiCoO2 348

12.6 Layered LiNiO2 350

12.7 Layered LiMnO2 352

12.8 Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 - LiMO2 Solid Solutions 352

12.9 Other Layered Oxides 354

12.10 Spinel Oxide Cathodes 355

12.11 Spinel LiMn2O4 355

12.12 5 V Spinel Oxides 359

12.13 Other Spinel Oxides 361

12.14 Polyanion-containing Cathodes 362

12.15 Phospho-Olivine LiMPO4 363

12.16 Silicate Li2MSiO4 369

12.17 Other Polyanion-containing Cathodes 370

12.18 Summary 370

13 Rechargeable Lithium Anodes 377
Jun-ichi Yamaki and Shin-ichi Tobishima

13.1 Introduction 377

13.2 Surface of Uncycled Lithium Foil 379

13.3 Surface of Lithium Coupled with Electrolytes 380

13.4 Cycling Efficiency of Lithium Anode 381

13.5 Morphology of Deposited Lithium 382

13.6 The Amount of Dead Lithium and Cell Performance 385

13.7 Improvement in the Cycling Efficiency of a Lithium Anode 385

13.8 Safety of Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cells 398

13.9 Conclusion 400

14 Lithium Alloy Anodes 405
Robert A. Huggins

14.1 Introduction 405

14.2 Problems with the Rechargeability of Elemental Electrodes 406

14.3 Lithium Alloys as an Alternative 407

14.4 Alloys Formed In situ from Convertible Oxides 409

14.5 Thermodynamic Basis for Electrode Potentials and Capacities under Conditions in which Complete Equilibrium can be Assumed 409

14.6 Crystallographic Aspects and the Possibility of Selective Equilibrium 412

14.7 Kinetic Aspects 413

14.8 Examples of Lithium Alloy Systems 414

14.9 Lithium Alloys at Lower Temperatures 419

14.10 The Mixed-Conductor Matrix Concept 423

14.11 Solid Electrolyte Matrix Electrode Structures 427

14.12 What about the Future? 429

15 Lithiated Carbons 433
Martin Winter and J¨urgen Otto Besenhard

15.1 Introduction 433

15.2 Graphitic and Nongraphitic Carbons 437

15.3 Lithiated Carbons vs Competing Anode Materials 462

15.4 Summary 466

16 The Anode/Electrolyte Interface 479
Emanuel Peled, Diane Golodnitsky, and Jack Penciner

16.1 Introduction 479

16.2 SEI Formation, Chemical Composition, and Morphology 480

16.3 SEI Formation on Carbonaceous Electrodes 490

16.4 Models for SEI Electrodes 508

16.5 Summary and Conclusions 518

17 Liquid Nonaqueous Electrolytes 525
Heiner Jakob Gores, Josef Barthel, Sandra Zugmann, Dominik Moosbauer, Marius Amereller, Robert Hartl, and Alexander Maurer

17.1 Introduction 525

17.2 Components of the Liquid Electrolyte 526

17.3 Intrinsic Properties 550

17.4 Bulk Properties 560

17.5 Additives 609

18 Polymer Electrolytes 627
Fiona Gray and Michel Armand

18.1 Introduction 627

18.2 Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes 629

18.3 Hybrid Electrolytes 643

18.4 Looking to the Future 652

19 Solid Electrolytes 657
Peter Birke and Werner Weppner

19.1 Introduction 657

19.2 Fundamental Aspects of Solid Electrolytes 658

19.3 Applicable Solid Electrolytes for Batteries 668

19.4 Design Aspects of Solid Electrolytes 674

19.5 Preparation of Solid Electrolytes 676

19.6 Experimental Techniques for the Determination of the Properties of Solid Electrolytes 681

20 Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries 693
Robert Spotnitz

20.1 Introduction 693

20.2 Market 694

20.3 How a Battery Separator Is Used in Cell Fabrication 697

20.4 Microporous Separator Materials 700

20.5 Gel Electrolyte Separators 707

20.6 Polymer Electrolytes 708

20.7 Characterization of Separators 708

20.8 Mathematical Modeling of Separators 712

20.9 Conclusions 714

21 Materials for High-Temperature Batteries 719
H. Bohm

21.1 Introduction 719

21.2 The ZEBRA System 720

21.3 The Sodium/Sulfur Battery 728

21.4 Components for High-Temperature Batteries 735

Part IV New Emerging Technologies 757

22 Metal-Air Batteries 759
Ji-Guang Zhang, Peter G. Bruce, and X. Gregory Zhang

22.1 General Characteristics 759

22.2 Air Electrode 764

22.3 Zinc-Air Batteries 767

22.4 Lithium-Air Batteries 773

22.5 Other-Air Batteries 789

22.6 Conclusions 792

23 Catalysts and Membranes for New Batteries 797
Chaitanya K. Narula

23.1 Introduction 797

23.2 Catalysts 798

23.3 Separators 802

23.4 Future Directions 807

24 Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 811
Zengcai Liu, Wujun Fu, and Chengdu Liang

24.1 Introduction 811

24.2 Polysulfide Shuttle and Capacity-Fading Mechanisms 812

24.3 Cell Configuration 816

24.4 Positive Electrode Materials 818

24.5 Electrolytes 830

24.6 Negative Electrode Materials 833

24.7 Conclusions and Prospects 835

Part V Performance and Technology Development for Batteries 841

25 Modeling and Simulation of Battery Systems 843
Partha P. Mukherjee, Sreekanth Pannala, and John A. Turner

25.1 Introduction 843

25.2 Macroscopic Model 848

25.3 Aging Model 859

25.4 Stress Model 861

25.5 Abuse Model 863

25.6 Life Prediction Model 865

25.7 Other Battery Technologies 866

25.8 Summary and Outlook 869

26 Mechanics of Battery Cells and Materials 877
Xiangchun Zhang, Myoungdo Chung, HyonCheol Kim, Chia-Wei Wang, and Ann Marie Sastry

26.1 Mechanical Failure Analysis of Battery Cells and Materials: Significance and Challenges 877

26.2 Key Studies in the Mechanical Analysis of Battery Materials 883

26.3 Key Issues Remaining to be Addressed 897

26.4 Outlook for the Future 900

27 Battery Safety and Abuse Tolerance 905
Daniel H. Doughty

27.1 Introduction 905

27.2 Evaluation Techniques for Batteries and Battery Materials 907

27.3 Typical Failure Modes 910

27.4 Safety Devices 918

27.5 Discussion of Safety and Abuse Response for Battery Chemistries 919

28 Cathode Manufacturing for Lithium-Ion Batteries 939
Jianlin Li, Claus Daniel, and David L. Wood III

28.1 Introduction 939

28.2 Electrode Manufacturing 940

28.3 Summary 955

References 957

Index 961

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Dr. Claus Daniel is a research staff member at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Materials Science and Technology Division, USA, and holds an adjunct faculty position at University of Tennessee's Department of Materials Science and Engineering. His current research focuses on the surface science, processing and advancement of materials for energy storage devices. Claus Daniel is recipient of a number of R&D awards including the Carl-Eduard-Schulte-Prize, the Dr. Eduard Martin Award, and the Werner Köster Prize.
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The second edition of the successful "Handbook of Battery Materials" covers more materials and more applications, reflecting the tremendous progress in the field of the last decade. In addition, as portable electronic devices have become abundant and research into alternative drivetrains intensifies, the commercial potential of modern batteries receives its due attention.
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“On the whole, this handbook is certainly suitable not only for Ph.D. students freshly entering the field, but moreover for scientists and engineers who already have some experience with battery research, development, and applications.”  (Energy Technology, 1 August 2013)

“Nevertheless the book is a must for any university and research library where research in electrochemical energy conversion and storage is in the focus of research and development.”  (Journal Solid State Electrochem, 1 May 2013)

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