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Nanomaterials: Processing and Characterization with Lasers

S. C. Singh (Editor), H.B. Zeng (Editor), Chunlei Guo (Editor), Weiping Cai (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32715-7
810 pages
October 2012
Nanomaterials: Processing and Characterization with Lasers (3527327150) cover image
The first in-depth treatment of the synthesis, processing, and characterization of nanomaterials using lasers, ranging from fundamentals to
the latest research results, this handy reference is divided into two main sections. After introducing the concepts of lasers, nanomaterials, nanoarchitectures and laser-material interactions in the first three chapters, the book goes on to discuss the synthesis of various nanomaterials in vacuum, gas and liquids. The second half discusses various nanomaterial characterization techniques involving lasers, from Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies to light dynamic scattering, laser spectroscopy and such unusual techniques as laser photo acoustic, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, ultrafast dynamics and laser-induced thermal pulses.

The specialist authors adopt a practical approach throughout, with an emphasis on experiments, set-up, and results. Each chapter begins
with an introduction and is uniform in covering the basic approaches, experimental setups, and dependencies of the particular method on
different parameters, providing sufficient theory and modeling to understand the principles behind the techniques.
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Preface XXI

List of Contributors XXVII

1 Lasers: Fundamentals, Types, and Operations 1
Subhash Chandra Singh, Haibo Zeng, Chunlei Guo, and Weiping Cai

1.1 Introduction of Lasers 1

1.2 Types of Laser and Their Operations 8

1.3 Methods of Producing EUV/VUV, X-Ray Laser Beams 22

1.4 Properties of Laser Radiation 26

1.5 Modification in Basic Laser Structure 30

References 34

2 Introduction of Materials and Architectures at the Nanoscale 35
Subhash Chandra Singh, Haibo Zeng, Chunlei Guo, Ram Gopal, and Weiping Cai

2.1 Origin and Historical Development 35

2.2 Introduction 36

2.3 Band Theory of Solids 37

2.4 Quantum Confinement 41

2.5 Defects and Imperfections 44

2.6 Metal, Semiconductor, and Insulator Nanomaterials 48

2.7 Various Synthesis Methods of Nanoscale Materials 53

2.8 Various Techniques of Materials Characterization 54

2.9 Self-Assembly and Induced Assembly, Aggregation, and Agglomeration of Nanoparticles 58

2.10 Applications of Lasers in Nanomaterial Synthesis, Modification, and Characterization 59

2.11 Summary and Future Prospects 64

References 65

Part I Nanomaterials: Laser Based Processing Techniques 67

3 Laser–Matter Interaction 69

3.1 High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Interactions with Gases and Clusters 69
Alan M. Heins and Chunlei Guo

3.2 Laser-Matter Interaction: Plasma and Nanomaterials Processing 85
Subhash Chandra Singh

Acknowledgments 103

References 103

4 Nanomaterials: Laser-Based Processing in Gas Phase 105

4.1 Synthesis and Analysis of Nanostructured Thin Films Prepared by Laser Ablation of Metals in Vacuum 105
Rashid Ashirovich Ganeev

4.2 Synthesis of Nanostructures with Pulsed Laser Ablation in a Furnace 117
Rusen Yang and Jung-Il Hong

4.3 ZnO Nanowire and Its Heterostructures Grown with Nanoparticle-Assisted Pulsed Laser Deposition 145
Bingqiang Cao, Ruiqian Guo, and Tatsuo Okada

Acknowledgments 164

References 164

4.4 Laser-Vaporization-Controlled Condensation for the Synthesis of Semiconductor, Metallic, and Bimetallic Nanocrystals and Nanoparticle Catalysts 167
M. Samy El-Shall

Acknowledgments 197

References 198

5 Nanomaterials: Laser-Induced Nano/Microfabrications 203

5.1 Direct Femtosecond Laser Nanostructuring and Nanopatterning on Metals 203
Anatoliy Vorobyev and Chunlei Guo

5.2 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer: an Approach to Direct Write of Patterns in Film Form 219
Hironobu Sakata and Moriaki Wakaki

5.3 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer: Transfer of Micro-Nanomaterials on Substrate 241
Qing Wang, Vahit Sametoglu, and Ying Yin Tsui

5.4 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer for the Fabrication of Devices 255
Matthias Nagel and Thomas Lippert

References 306

6 Nanomaterials: Laser-Based Processing in Liquid Media 317

6.1 Liquid-Assisted Pulsed Laser Ablation/Irradiation for Generation of Nanoparticles 317
Subhash Chandra Singh

6.2 Synthesis of Metal Compound Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquid 439
Haibo Zeng, Shikuan Yang, and Weiping Cai

6.3 Synthesis of Fourth Group (C, Si, and Ge) Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Liquids 457
Minghui Hong, Guoxin Chen, and Tow Chong Chong

Acknowledgments 491

References 491

Part II Nanomaterials: Laser-Based Characterization Techniques 495

7 Raman Spectroscopy: Basics and Applications 497

7.1 Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in the Characterization of Semiconductor Devices 497
Patrick J. McNally

7.2 Effect of Particle Size Reduction on Raman Spectra 511
Vasant G. Sathe

References 532

8 Size Determination of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Light Scattering 535
Haruhisa Kato

8.1 Introduction 535

8.2 General Principles of DLS (Photon Correlation Spectroscopy) 537

8.3 Particle Size Standards Applied to DLS 542

8.4 Unique DLS Instruments 546

8.5 Sample Characterization Using DLS Measurements of Nanoparticles 547

8.6 Result of DLS Characterization 551

8.7 Conclusion 552

References 552

9 Photolumniscence/Fluorescence Spectroscopic Technique for Nanomaterials Characterizations 555

9.1 Application of Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in the Characterizations of Nanomaterials 555
Bingqiang Cao, Haibo Gong, Haibo Zeng, and Weiping Cai

9.2 Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials 573
Kaushal Kumar, Luigi Sanguigno, Filippo Causa, and Paolo Antonio Netti

9.3 Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials 597
Yashashchandra Dwivedi

References 617

10 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Its Applications in Characterization of Nanomaterials 621
Kaushal Kumar, Aditya Kumar Singh, and Avinash Chandra Pandey

10.1 Introduction 621

10.2 Instrumentation 629

10.3 Applications of PA Spectroscopy to the Nanomaterials 641

References 648

11 Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials 651
Subhash Chandra Singh and Yashashchandra Dwivedi

11.1 Introduction 651

11.2 Ultrafast Time-Resolved Spectroscopy 652

11.3 Other Multiple Wave Ultrafast Spectroscopic Techniques 673

11.4 Measurement of Charge Carrier Dynamics 679

11.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 684

Acknowledgments 685

References 685

12 Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Nanomaterials 693
Rashid Ashirovich Ganeev

12.1 Influence of Laser Ablation Parameters on the Optical and Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Colloidal Solution of Semiconductor Nanoparticles 693

12.2 High-Order Harmonic Generation in Silver-Nanoparticle-Contained Plasma 704

12.3 Studies of Low- and High-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of BaTiO 3 and SrTiO 3 Nanoparticles 714

12.4 Results and Discussion 717

12.5 High-Order Harmonic Generation from the BaTiO 3 – and SrTiO 3 -Nanoparticle-Contained Laser Plumes 723

12.6 Conclusions 725

Acknowledgments 727

References 727

13 Polarization and Space-Charge Profiling with Laser-Based Thermal Techniques 729
Axel Mellinger and Rajeev Singh

13.1 Introduction 729

13.2 Theoretical Foundations and Data Analysis 732

13.3 Experimental Techniques 743

13.4 Applications 748

13.5 Summary and Outlook 753

References 755

Index 759

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Dr. S. C. Singh is currently working as IRCSET, EMPOWER postdoctoral fellow in Prof. John Costello's group at National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Ireland on Development of extreme UV laser light using HHG through laser produced
plasma at the nanostructured surfaces. His current research interest includes laser matter interaction, laser induced nanoparticle synthesis and modification, and materials for energy harvesting and storage.

Dr. Haibo Zeng is currently a Professor at Institute of Nano Science and Department of Material Science, Najing University of Aeronautics and Astronoutics (NUAA), China. His current research interests focus on 1) inorganic graphenes, 2) doped/alloyed nano-ZnO, and 3)
nanostructured cells. Dr. Zeng has published more than 60 refereed papers in journals with more than 1000 citations.

Dr. Chunlei Guo is Associate Professor at the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, USA. He has chaired several optic and laser related committees and has published over 70 papers in refereed journals. Research interests encompass atoms/molecules in strong laser
field, non-linear optics, laser surface nano/microstructuring, femtosecond lasers and optics and ultrafast dynamics in solids.

Prof. Weiping Cai is the Director of the Institute of Solid State Physics, CAS and Head of the Key Laboratory of Materials Physics. He has published over 100 papers in international peerreviewed journals such as Advanced Materials and has organized several international conferences. Current research interests include synthesis and properties of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles, 2D nanoparticle arrays and sensors.
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