Kinetic ProcessesISBN: 9783527327362
453 pages
August 2010

In this completely revised edition, all the chapters have been updated to reflect the current state of crystal growth kinetics. At the same time, fifteen percent additional content now allows coverage of computerassisted modeling of secondorder phase changes, microstructure development, novel data and images of coarsening mechanisms, with the most significant single addition being breakthrough results on spinodal decomposition  published here for the first time in book form.
The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.
The refined didactical approach with a streamlined presentation now allows readers to grasp the kinetic concepts even more easily, coherently introducing the field of kinetic processes, especially those involved in crystal growth, and explaining such phenomena as diffusion, nucleation, segregation and phase transitions at a level accessible to graduate students. In addition to the basic kinetic concepts, the textbook presents modern applications where these processes play a major role, including ion implantation, plasma deposition and rapid thermal processing.
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Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
INTRODUCTION
Arrhenius Plot
The Relationship between Kinetics and Thermodynamics
The Boltzmann Distribution
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Collisions
DIFFUSION IN FLUIDS
Diffusion in a Gas
Diffusion in Liquids
DIFFUSION IN AMORPHOUS MATERIALS
Amorphous Materials
Network Glass Formers
The Glass Transition
The Free Volume Model
Fictive Temperature
Diffusion in Polymers
The StokesEinstein Relationship
DIFFUSION IN CRYSTALS
Diffusion in a Crystal
Diffusion Mechanisms in Crystals
Equilibrium Concentration of Vacancies
Simmons and Balluffi Experiment
Ionic and Covalent Crystals
Stoichiometry
Measurement of Diffuion Coefficients
Surface Diffusion
Diffusion in Grain Boundaries
Kirkendall Effect
Whisker Growth
Electromigration
DIFFUSION IN SEMICONDUCTORS
Introduction
Diffusion in Silicon
Diffusion of Zinc in GaAs
Recombination Enhanced Diffusion
Doping of Semiconductors
Point Defect Generation in Silicon during Crystal Growth
Migration of Interstitials (and Liquid Droplets) in a Temperature Gradient
Oxygen in Silicon
Gettering
SolidState Doping
ION IMPLANTATION
Introduction
Ion Interactions
Implantation Damage
Rutherford Backscattering
Channeling
SilicononInsulator
MATHEMATICS OF DIFFUSION
Random Walk
The Diffusion Equation
Solutions to the Diffusion Equation
Numerical Methods
BoltzmannMatano Analysis
Diffusion During Phase Separation
STEFAN PROBLEMS
Steady State Solutions to the Diffusion Equation
DealGrove Analysis
Diffusion Controlled Growth of a Spherical Precipitate
Diffusion Limited Growth in Cylindrical Coordinates
Diffuion Controlled Growth of a Precipitate
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
Transformation Rate Limited Growth
Diffuion Limited Growth
Thermally Limited Growth
Casting of Metals
Operating Point
CRYSTAL GROWTH METHODS
Melt Growth
Solution Growth
Vapor Phase Growth
Stoichiometry
SEGREGATION
Segregation During a Phase Change
Lever Rule
Scheil Equation
Zone Refining
Diffusion at a Moving Interface
Segregation in Three Dimensions
Burton, Primm and Schlicter Analysis
INTERFACE INSTABILITIES
Constitutional Supercooling
Mullins and Sekerka Linear Instability Analysis
Anisotropic INterface Kinetics
CHEMICAL REACTION RATE THEORY
The Equilibrium Constant
Reaction Rate Theory
Reaction Rate Constant
Transition State Theory
Experimental Determination of the Order of a Reaction
Net Rate of Reaction
Catalysis
QuasiEquilibrium Model for the Rate of a First Order Phase Change
PHASE EQUILIBRIA
First Order Phase Changes
Second Order Phase Changes
Critical Point Between Liquid and Vapor
NUCLEATION
Homogenous Nucleation
Heterogeneous Nucleation
JohnsonMehlAvrami Equation
SURFACE LAYERS
Langmuir Adsorption
CVD Growth by a Surface Decomposition Reaction
LangmuirHinschelwood Reaction
Surface Nucleation
Thin Films
Surface Reconstruction
Amorphous Deposits
Surface Modification
Fractal Deposits
Strain Energy and Misfit Dislocations
Strained Layer Growth
THIN FILM DEPOSITION
Liquid Phase Epitaxy
Growth Configuration for LPE
Chemical Vapor Deposition
MetalOrganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Physical Vapor Deposition
Sputter Deposition
Metallization
Laser Ablation
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Atomic Layer Epitaxy
PLASMAS
Direct Current (DC) Plasmas
Radio Frequency Plasmas
Plasma Etching
Plasma Reactors
Magnetron Sputtering
Electron Cyclotron Resonance
Ion Milling
RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING
Introduction
Rapid Thermal Processing Equipment
Radiative Heating
Temperature Measurement
Thermal Stress
Laser Heating
KINETICS OF FIRST ORDER PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
General Considerations
The Macroscopic Shape of Crystals
General Equation for the Growth Rate of Crystals
Kinetic Driving Force
Vapor Phase Growth
Melt Growth
Molecular Dynamics Studies of Melt Crystallization Kinetics
The KosselStranski Model
Nucleation of Layers
Growth on Screw Dislocations
The Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem
THE SURFACE ROUGHENING TRANSITION
Surface Roughness
The Ising Model
Cooperative Processes
Monte Carlo Simulations of Crystallization
Equilibrium Surface Structure
Computer Simulations
Growth Morphologies
Kinetic Roughening
Polymer Crystallization
ALLOYS: THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS
Crystallization of Alloys
Phase Equilibria
Regular Solution Model
Near Equilibrium Conditions
Phase Diagrams
The DLP Model
PHASE SEPARATION AND ORDERING
Phase Separation versus Ordering
Phase Separation
The Spinodal in a Regular Solution
Analytical Model for Diffusion during Spinodal Decomposition
Microstructure Development
Modeling of Phase Separation and Ordering
NONEQUILIBRIUM CRYSTALLIZATION OF ALLOYS
Non Equilibrium Crystallization
Experiment
Computer Modeling
Analytical Model
Comparison with Experiment
Crystallization of Glasses
COARSENING, RIPENING
Coarsening
Free Energy of a Small Particle
Coarsening in a Solution
Coarsening of Dendritic Structures
Sintering
Bubbles
Grain Boundaries
Scrath Smoothing
DENDRITES
Dendritic Growth
Conditions for Dendritic Growth
Simple Dendrite Model
Phase Field Modeling
Faceted Growth
Distribution Coefficient
EUTECTICS
Eutectic Phase Diagram
Classes of Eutectic Microstructures
Analysis of Lamellar Eutectics
OffComposition Eutectics
Coupled Growth
Third Component Elements
CASTINGS
Grain Structure of Castings
Dendrite ReMelting
Preface to the Second Edition
INTRODUCTION
Arrhenius Plot
The Relationship between Kinetics and Thermodynamics
The Boltzmann Distribution
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Collisions
DIFFUSION IN FLUIDS
Diffusion in a Gas
Diffusion in Liquids
DIFFUSION IN AMORPHOUS MATERIALS
Amorphous Materials
Network Glass Formers
The Glass Transition
The Free Volume Model
Fictive Temperature
Diffusion in Polymers
The StokesEinstein Relationship
DIFFUSION IN CRYSTALS
Diffusion in a Crystal
Diffusion Mechanisms in Crystals
Equilibrium Concentration of Vacancies
Simmons and Balluffi Experiment
Ionic and Covalent Crystals
Stoichiometry
Measurement of Diffuion Coefficients
Surface Diffusion
Diffusion in Grain Boundaries
Kirkendall Effect
Whisker Growth
Electromigration
DIFFUSION IN SEMICONDUCTORS
Introduction
Diffusion in Silicon
Diffusion of Zinc in GaAs
Recombination Enhanced Diffusion
Doping of Semiconductors
Point Defect Generation in Silicon during Crystal Growth
Migration of Interstitials (and Liquid Droplets) in a Temperature Gradient
Oxygen in Silicon
Gettering
SolidState Doping
ION IMPLANTATION
Introduction
Ion Interactions
Implantation Damage
Rutherford Backscattering
Channeling
SilicononInsulator
MATHEMATICS OF DIFFUSION
Random Walk
The Diffusion Equation
Solutions to the Diffusion Equation
Numerical Methods
BoltzmannMatano Analysis
Diffusion During Phase Separation
STEFAN PROBLEMS
Steady State Solutions to the Diffusion Equation
DealGrove Analysis
Diffusion Controlled Growth of a Spherical Precipitate
Diffusion Limited Growth in Cylindrical Coordinates
Diffuion Controlled Growth of a Precipitate
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
Transformation Rate Limited Growth
Diffuion Limited Growth
Thermally Limited Growth
Casting of Metals
Operating Point
CRYSTAL GROWTH METHODS
Melt Growth
Solution Growth
Vapor Phase Growth
Stoichiometry
SEGREGATION
Segregation During a Phase Change
Lever Rule
Scheil Equation
Zone Refining
Diffusion at a Moving Interface
Segregation in Three Dimensions
Burton, Primm and Schlicter Analysis
INTERFACE INSTABILITIES
Constitutional Supercooling
Mullins and Sekerka Linear Instability Analysis
Anisotropic INterface Kinetics
CHEMICAL REACTION RATE THEORY
The Equilibrium Constant
Reaction Rate Theory
Reaction Rate Constant
Transition State Theory
Experimental Determination of the Order of a Reaction
Net Rate of Reaction
Catalysis
QuasiEquilibrium Model for the Rate of a First Order Phase Change
PHASE EQUILIBRIA
First Order Phase Changes
Second Order Phase Changes
Critical Point Between Liquid and Vapor
NUCLEATION
Homogenous Nucleation
Heterogeneous Nucleation
JohnsonMehlAvrami Equation
SURFACE LAYERS
Langmuir Adsorption
CVD Growth by a Surface Decomposition Reaction
LangmuirHinschelwood Reaction
Surface Nucleation
Thin Films
Surface Reconstruction
Amorphous Deposits
Surface Modification
Fractal Deposits
Strain Energy and Misfit Dislocations
Strained Layer Growth
THIN FILM DEPOSITION
Liquid Phase Epitaxy
Growth Configuration for LPE
Chemical Vapor Deposition
MetalOrganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Physical Vapor Deposition
Sputter Deposition
Metallization
Laser Ablation
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Atomic Layer Epitaxy
PLASMAS
Direct Current (DC) Plasmas
Radio Frequency Plasmas
Plasma Etching
Plasma Reactors
Magnetron Sputtering
Electron Cyclotron Resonance
Ion Milling
RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING
Introduction
Rapid Thermal Processing Equipment
Radiative Heating
Temperature Measurement
Thermal Stress
Laser Heating
KINETICS OF FIRST ORDER PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
General Considerations
The Macroscopic Shape of Crystals
General Equation for the Growth Rate of Crystals
Kinetic Driving Force
Vapor Phase Growth
Melt Growth
Molecular Dynamics Studies of Melt Crystallization Kinetics
The KosselStranski Model
Nucleation of Layers
Growth on Screw Dislocations
The Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem
THE SURFACE ROUGHENING TRANSITION
Surface Roughness
The Ising Model
Cooperative Processes
Monte Carlo Simulations of Crystallization
Equilibrium Surface Structure
Computer Simulations
Growth Morphologies
Kinetic Roughening
Polymer Crystallization
ALLOYS: THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS
Crystallization of Alloys
Phase Equilibria
Regular Solution Model
Near Equilibrium Conditions
Phase Diagrams
The DLP Model
PHASE SEPARATION AND ORDERING
Phase Separation versus Ordering
Phase Separation
The Spinodal in a Regular Solution
Analytical Model for Diffusion during Spinodal Decomposition
Microstructure Development
Modeling of Phase Separation and Ordering
NONEQUILIBRIUM CRYSTALLIZATION OF ALLOYS
Non Equilibrium Crystallization
Experiment
Computer Modeling
Analytical Model
Comparison with Experiment
Crystallization of Glasses
COARSENING, RIPENING
Coarsening
Free Energy of a Small Particle
Coarsening in a Solution
Coarsening of Dendritic Structures
Sintering
Bubbles
Grain Boundaries
Scrath Smoothing
DENDRITES
Dendritic Growth
Conditions for Dendritic Growth
Simple Dendrite Model
Phase Field Modeling
Faceted Growth
Distribution Coefficient
EUTECTICS
Eutectic Phase Diagram
Classes of Eutectic Microstructures
Analysis of Lamellar Eutectics
OffComposition Eutectics
Coupled Growth
Third Component Elements
CASTINGS
Grain Structure of Castings
Dendrite ReMelting
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Kenneth A. Jackson is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Arizona in Tucson, USA. He received his PhD degree from Harvard University and was an assistant Professor there before he joined AT&T Bell Laboratories. At Bell Labs he was head of Materials Physics Research for many years. His major scientific interests are the kinetic processes of crystal growth, and his scientific contributions include constitutional supercooling, the surface roughening transition, defect formation in crystals, and studies of alloy crystallization. He pioneered in computer simulation studies of the atomic scale processes during crystal growth. Kenneth A. Jackson has served as President for both the American Association for Crystal Growth and the Materials Research Society. He has received numerous awards for his scientific contributions from both the American and the International Crystal Growth societies. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
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