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Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials

Nicola Pinna (Editor), Mato Knez (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32797-3
472 pages
December 2011
Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials (3527327975) cover image
Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique).

This book is a must-have for all Materials Scientists, Surface Chemists, Physicists, and Scientists in the Semiconductor Industry.
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Foreword V

Preface XVII

Introduction XXI

List of Contributors XXXIII

Part One Introduction to ALD 1

1 Theoretical Modeling of ALD Processes 3
Charles B. Musgrave

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Overview of Atomistic Simulations 3

1.3 Calculation of Properties Using Quantum Simulations 10

1.4 Prediction of ALD Chemical Mechanisms 13

1.5 Example of a Calculated ALD Mechanism: ALD of Al2O3 Using TMA and Water 16

References 20

2 Step Coverage in ALD 23
Sovan Kumar Panda and Hyunjung Shin

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Growth Techniques 24

2.3 Step Coverage Models in ALD 28

2.4 Experimental Verifications of Step Coverage Models 34

2.5 Summary 38

References 38

3 Precursors for ALD Processes 41
Matti Putkonen

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 General Requirements for ALD Precursors 42

3.3 Metallic Precursors for ALD 42

3.4 Nonmetal Precursors for ALD 49

3.5 Conclusions 50

References 51

4 Sol–Gel Chemistry and Atomic Layer Deposition 61
Guylhaine Clavel, Catherine Marichy, and Nicola Pinna

4.1 Aqueous and Nonaqueous Sol–Gel in Solution 61

4.2 Sol–Gel and ALD: An Overview 63

4.3 Mechanistic and In Situ Studies 70

References 76

5 Molecular Layer Deposition of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 83
Steven M. George, B. Yoon, Robert A. Hall, Aziz I. Abdulagatov, Zachary M. Gibbs, Younghee Lee, Dragos Seghete, and Byoung H. Lee

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 General Issues for MLD of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 85

5.3 MLD Using Trimethylaluminum and Ethylene Glycol in an AB Process 87

5.4 Expansion to an ABC Process Using Heterobifunctional and Ring-Opening Precursors 89

5.5 Use of a Homotrifunctional Precursor to Promote Cross-Linking in an AB Process 93

5.6 Use of a Heterobifunctional Precursor in an ABC Process 96

5.7 MLD of Hybrid Alumina–Siloxane Films Using an ABCD Process 99

5.8 Future Prospects for MLD of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 103

References 106

6 Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition 109
Jens Meyer and Thomas Riedl

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Challenges of LT-ALD 110

6.3 Materials and Processes 113

6.4 Toward Novel LT-ALD Processes 115

6.5 Thin Film Gas Diffusion Barriers 117

6.6 Encapsulation of Organic Electronics 119

6.7 Conclusions 125

References 125

7 Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition 131
Erwin Kessels, Harald Profijt, Stephen Potts, and Richard van de Sanden

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Plasma Basics 134

7.3 Plasma ALD Configurations 139

7.4 Merits of Plasma ALD 142

7.5 Challenges for Plasma ALD 149

7.6 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 153

References 154

Part Two Nanostructures by ALD 159

8 Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronic Applications 161
Cheol Seong Hwang

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 ALD Layers for Memory Devices 162

8.3 ALD for Logic Devices 180

8.4 Concluding Remarks 187

References 188

9 Nanopatterning by Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition 193
Han-Bo-Ram Lee and Stacey F. Bent

9.1 Concept of Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition 193

9.2 Change of Surface Properties 195

9.3 Patterning 205

9.4 Applications of AS-ALD 215

9.5 Current Challenges 216

References 218

10 Coatings on High Aspect Ratio Structures 227
Jeffrey W. Elam

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Models and Analysis 228

10.3 Characterization Methods for ALD Coatings in High Aspect Ratio Structures 230

10.4 Examples of ALD in High Aspect Ratio Structures 232

10.5 Nonideal Behavior during ALD in High Aspect Ratios 242

10.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 245

References 246

11 Coatings of Nanoparticles and Nanowires 251
Hong Jin Fan and Kornelius Nielsch

11.1 ALD on Nanoparticles 251

11.2 Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of Nanowires by ALD 254

11.3 Atomic Layer Epitaxy on Nanowires 256

11.4 ALD on Semiconductor NWs for Surface Passivation 257

11.5 ALD-Assisted Formation of Nanopeapods 258

11.6 Photocorrosion of Semiconductor Nanowires Capped by ALD Shell 260

11.7 Interface Reaction of Nanowires with ALD Shell 261

11.8 ALD ZnO on NWs/Tubes as Seed Layer for Growth of  Hyperbranch 265

11.9 Conclusions 267

References 268

12 Atomic Layer Deposition on Soft Materials 271
Gregory N. Parsons

12.1 Introduction 271

12.2 ALD on Polymers for Passivation, Encapsulation, and Surface Modification 274

12.3 ALD for Bulk Modification of Natural and Synthetic Polymers and Molecules 279

12.4 ALD for Polymer Sacrificial Templating: Membranes, Fibers, and Biological and Optical Structures 280

12.5 ALD Nucleation on Patterned and Planar SAMs and Surface Oligomers 283

12.6 Reactions during Al2O3 ALD on Representative Polymer Materials 286

12.7 Summary 291

References 292

13 Application of ALD to Biomaterials and Biocompatible Coatings 301
Mato Knez

13.1 Application of ALD to Biomaterials 302

13.2 Biocompatible Coatings 317

13.3 Summary 320

References 321

14 Coating of Carbon Nanotubes 327
Catherine Marichy, Andrea Pucci, Marc-Georg Willinger, and Nicola Pinna

14.1 Introduction 327

14.2 Purification and Surface Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes 328

14.3 Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Solution Routes 329

14.4 Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Gas-Phase Techniques 330

14.5 Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes 331

14.6 Coating of Large Quantity of CNTs by ALD 337

14.7 ALD Coating of Other sp2-Bonded Carbon Materials 338

14.8 Conclusions 340

References 340

15 Inverse Opal Photonics 345
Davy P. Gaillot and Christopher J. Summers

15.1 Introduction and Background 345

15.2 Properties of Three-Dimensional Photonic Band Structures 349

15.3 Large-Pore and Non-Close-Packed Inverse Opals 352

15.4 Experimental Studies 353

15.5 Tunable PC Structures 366

15.6 Summary 369

References 371

16 Nanolaminates 377
Adriana V. Szeghalmi and Mato Knez

16.1 Introduction 377

16.2 Optical Applications 377

16.3 Thin Film Encapsulation 383

16.4 Applications in Electronics 386

16.5 Copper Electroplating Applications 392

16.6 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 393

16.7 Complex Nanostructures 394

16.8 Summary 395

References 396

17 Challenges in Atomic Layer Deposition 401
Markku Leskelä

17.1 Introduction 401

17.2 Metals 402

17.3 Nonmetal Elements 404

17.4 Binary Compounds 406

17.5 Ternary and Quaternary Compounds 414

17.6 Nucleation 415

17.7 Conclusions 416

References 417

Index 423

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Nicola Pinna studied physical chemistry at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris). He received his PhD in 2001, and in 2002, he moved to the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Berlin). In 2003, he joined the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Potsdam). In 2005, he moved to the Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, as an Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. Since 2006 he is researcher at the Department of Chemistry and CICECO of the University
of Aveiro and since 2009 he is also Assistant Professor at the School of Chemical and Biological Engineering of the Seoul National University. In 2011 he was ranked among the top 100 materials scientists of the past decade by impact. His research activity is focused on the development of novel routes to nanostructured materials, their characterization, and the study of their physical properties.

Mato Knez studied chemistry at the University of Ulm in Germany. He did his dissertation at the Max Planck Institute of solid state research in Stuttgart from 2000-2003. In 2003 he joined the Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle as a Postdoc where he established the ALD-based research direction. Since 2006 he is leading a research group funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). In January 2012 he will join CIC nanoGUNE in San Sebastian (Spain) as an Ikerbasque Research Professor. His research activities are mainly focused on various aspects of the application of ALD, including the synthesis of optical nanolaminates, infi ltration mechanisms when ALD is applied to soft materials, and ALD-assisted nanofabrication of photonic and plasmonic structures. Aside from ALD he has strong research activites in biotemplated inorganic nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology and medicine.
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