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Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion, 2 Volume Set

Jiujun Zhang (Editor), Lei Zhang (Editor), Hansan Liu (Editor), Andy Sun (Editor), Ru-Shi Liu (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32869-7
838 pages
December 2011
Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion, 2 Volume Set (3527328696) cover image
In this handbook and ready reference, editors and authors from academia and industry share their in-depth knowledge of known and novel materials, devices and technologies with the reader. The result is a comprehensive overview of electrochemical energy and conversion methods, including batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, hydrogen generation and storage as well as solar energy conversion. Each chapter addresses electrochemical processes, materials, components, degradation mechanisms, device assembly and manufacturing, while also discussing the challenges and perspectives for each energy storage device in question. In addition, two introductory chapters acquaint readers with the fundamentals of energy storage and conversion, and with the general engineering aspects of electrochemical devices.

With its uniformly structured, self-contained chapters, this is ideal reading for entrants to the field as well as experienced researchers.
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Contents to Volume 1

Contents to Volume 2 XVI

Preface XVII

About the Editors XIX

List of Contributors XXI

1 Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion 1
Neelu Chouhan and Ru-Shi Liu

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Global Energy Status: Demands, Challenges, and Future Perspectives 1

1.3 Driving Forces behind Clean and Sustainable Energy Sources 5

1.4 Green and Sustainable Energy Sources and Their Conversion: Hydro, Biomass, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Biofuel 11

1.5 Electrochemistry: a Technological Overview 15

1.6 Electrochemical Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors (Li Ion Batteries, Lead-Acid Batteries, NiMH Batteries, Zinc–Air Batteries, Liquid Redox Batteries) 17

1.7 Light Fuel Generation and Storage: Water Electrolysis, Chloro-Alkaline Electrolysis, Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic H2 Generation, and Electroreduction of CO2 25

1.8 Fuel Cells: Fundamentals to Systems (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells, PEM Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, Molten Carbon Fuel Cells, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) 32

1.9 Summary 38

Acknowledgments 39

References 39

Further Reading 43

2 Electrochemical Engineering Fundamentals 45
Zhongwei Chen, Fathy M. Hassan, and Aiping Yu

2.1 Electrical Current/Voltage, Faraday’s Laws, Electric Efficiency, and Mass Balance 45

2.2 Electrode Potentials and Electrode–Electrolyte Interfaces 48

2.3 Electrode Kinetics (Charger Transfer (Butler–Volmer Equation) and Mass Transfer (Diffusion Laws)) 53

2.4 Porous Electrode Theory (Kinetic and Diffusion) 55

2.5 Structure, Design, and Fabrication of Electrochemical Devices 58

2.6 Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Applications 64

References 67

3 Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries 69
Dingguo Xia

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Main Types and Structures of Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 70

3.3 Electrochemical Processes in Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 72

3.4 Battery Components (Anode, Cathode, Separator, Endplates, and Current Collector) 73

3.5 Assembly, Stacking, and Manufacturing of Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 84

3.6 Li Ion Battery Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 88

3.7 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 96

3.8 Current and Potential Applications of Secondary Li Ion Batteries 101

References 107

4 Lead-Acid Battery 111
Joey Jung

4.1 General Characteristics and Chemical/Electrochemical Processes in a Lead-Acid Battery 111

4.2 Battery Components (Anode, Cathode, Separator, Endplates (Current Collector), and Sealing) 115

4.3 Main Types and Structures of Lead-Acid Batteries 128

4.4 Charging Lead-Acid Battery 146

4.5 Maintenance and Failure Mode of a Lead-Acid Battery 151

4.6 Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Technology 154

4.7 Lead-Acid Battery Market 169

References 173

Further Reading 174

5 Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Rechargeable Batteries 175
Hua Ma, Fangyi Cheng, and Jun Chen

5.1 Introduction to NiMH Rechargeable Batteries 175

5.2 Electrochemical Processes in Rechargeable Ni-MH Batteries 177

5.3 Battery Components 180

5.4 Assembly, Stacking, Configuration, and Manufacturing of Rechargeable Ni-MH Batteries 206

5.5 Ni-MH Battery Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 219

5.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 221

5.7 Applications (Portable, Backup Power, and Transportation) 224

5.8 Challenges and Perspectives of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries 231

References 232

6 Metal–Air Technology 239
Bruce W. Downing

6.1 Metal–Air Technology 239

6.2 Introduction to Aluminum–Air Technology 242

6.3 Introduction to Lithium–Air Technology 246

6.4 Introduction to Zinc–Air Technology 249

6.5 Introduction to Magnesium–Air Technology 252

6.6 Structure of Magnesium–Air Cell 255

6.7 Electrochemical Processes 255

6.8 Components 258

6.9 Manufacturing 263

6.10 Magnesium–Air Battery Performance 267

6.11 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 269

6.12 Applications 273

6.13 Challenges and Perspectives of Magnesium–Air Cells 274

References 275

7 Liquid Redox Rechargeable Batteries 279
Huamin Zhang

7.1 Introduction 279

7.2 Electrochemical Processes in a Redox Flow Battery 284

7.3 Materials and Properties of Redox Flow Battery 288

7.4 Redox Flow Battery System 295

7.5 Performance Evaluation of Redox Flow Battery 298

7.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 305

7.7 Applications of Redox Flow Batteries 309

7.8 Perspectives and Challenges of RFB 313

References 314

8 Electrochemical Supercapacitors 317
Aiping Yu, Aaron Davies, and Zhongwei Chen

8.1 Introduction to Supercapacitors (Current Technology State and Literature Review) 317

8.2 Main Types and Structures of Supercapacitors 322

8.3 Physical/Electrochemical Processes in Supercapacitors 325

8.4 Supercapacitor Components 338

8.5 Assembly and Manufacturing of Supercapacitors 357

8.6 Supercapacitors Stacking and Systems 359

8.7 Supercapacitor Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 362

8.8 Supercapacitor Configurations 369

8.9 Applications 371

8.10 Challenges and Perspectives of Electrochemical Supercapacitors 375

References 376

Contents to Volume 2

Contents to Volume 1 XIII

Preface XV

About the Editors XVII

List of Contributors XIX

9 Water Electrolysis for Hydrogen Generation 383
Pierre Millet

9.1 Introduction to Water Electrolysis 383

9.2 Thermodynamics 385

9.3 Kinetics 393

9.4 Alkaline Water Electrolysis 401

9.5 PEM Water Electrolysis 406

9.6 High Temperature Water Electrolysis 415

9.7 Conclusion 420

List of Symbols and Abbreviations 421

References 422

10 Hydrogen Compression, Purification, and Storage 425
Pierre Millet

10.1 Introduction 425

10.2 Pressurized Water Electrolysis 425

10.3 Hydrogen Electrochemical Compression 438

10.4 Hydrogen Electrochemical Extraction and Purification 447

10.5 Hydrogen Storage in Hydride-Forming Materials 450

10.6 Conclusion and Perspectives 460

List of Symbols and Abbreviations 460

References 461

11 Solar Cell as an EnergyHarvesting Device 463
Aung Ko Ko Kyaw, Ming Fei Yang, and Xiao Wei Sun

11.1 Introduction 463

11.2 Solar Radiation and Absorption 463

11.3 Fundamentals of Solar Cells 465

11.4 Silicon Solar Cell 470

11.5 Other High-Efficiency Solar Cells 479

11.6 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell 489

11.7 Routes to Boost the Efficiency of Solar Cells 523

11.8 Current Ideas for Future Solar Cell 526

11.9 Summary 528

References 529

12 Photoelectrochemical Cells for Hydrogen Generation 541
Neelu Chouhan, ChihKai Chen, Wen-Sheng Chang, Kong-Wei Cheng, and Ru-Shi Liu

12.1 Introduction 541

12.2 Main Types and Structures of Photoelectrochemical Cells 544

12.3 Electrochemical Processes in Photoelectrochemical Cells 550

12.4 Photoelectrochemical Cell Components 553

12.5 Assembly of Photoelectrochemical Cells 566

12.6 Photoelectrochemical Cell Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 572

12.7 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 581

12.8 Applications (Portable, Stationary, and Transportation) 586

12.9 Conclusions 589

Acknowledgments 590

References 590

13 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 601
Stefania Specchia, Carlotta Francia, and Paolo Spinelli

13.1 Introduction to PEMFCs 601

13.2 Main Types and Structures of PEMFCs 603

13.3 Electrochemical Processes in PEMFCs 608

13.4 PEMFCs Components 618

13.5 Assembly and Manufacture of PEMFCs 623

13.6 PEMFC Stacking and System 627

13.7 PEM Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 629

13.8 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 635

13.9 Applications 645

13.10 Challenges and Perspectives 648

References 651

14 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 671
Jeffrey W. Fergus

14.1 Introduction 671

14.2 Fuel Cell Components 678

14.3 Assembly and Manufacturing 684

14.4 Stacking and Balance of the Plant 685

14.5 Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 688

14.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 689

14.7 Applications 690

14.8 Challenges and Perspectives 694

Acknowledgments 694

References 694

15 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 701
Kan-Lin Hsueh, Li-Duan Tsai, Chiou-Chu Lai, and Yu-Min Peng

15.1 Introduction to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 701

15.2 Main Types and Structures of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 703

15.3 Electrochemical Processes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 705

15.4 Fuel Cell Components 709

15.5 Assembly and Manufacturing of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 712

15.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacking and Systems 714

15.7 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 718

15.8 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 720

15.9 Applications 721

15.10 Challenges and Perspectives of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 724

References 725

16 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 729
Xin-Jian Zhu and Bo Huang

16.1 Introduction to Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 729

16.2 Current Technologic Status of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 730

16.3 Electrochemical Processes in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 733

16.4 Components of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 734

16.5 Structure and Performance of MCFCs 744

16.6 Schematic of MCFC Power Generation Systems 750

16.7 Fabrication and Operation of MCFCs 752

16.8 MCFC Power Plant 754

16.9 Major Factors Affecting the Performance and Lifetime of MCFCs 757

16.10 Challenges and Perspectives of MCFCs 767

References 770

Index 777

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Ru-Shi Liu is Professor at the Department of Chemistry of the National Taiwan University in Teipei where his research is focused on materials chemistry. After his PhD he joined the Materials Research Laboratories at the Industrial Technology Research Institute in Hsinchu, Taiwan, before returning to Teipei. He received various honors, including the Outstanding Young Chemist Award from the Chinese Chemical Society.

Andy Sun holds a Canada Research Chair in the development nanomaterials and clean energy, and is Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at University of Western Ontario, Canada. The scope of his research ranges from fundamental science and applied nanotechnology to emerging engineering issues, specifically fuel cells, Li-ion batteries and energetic materials.

Hansan Liu is Research Associate at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, Canada. He obtained his PhD from Xiamen University, China. Hansan Liu has ten years of research experience in the field of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices, including Ni-MH batteries, lithium ion batteries as well as direct methanol and polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cells.

Lei Zhang is Research Council Officer at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. She received her degrees in materials science and engineering from the Wuhan University of Technology, China, and an additional master degree in inorganic chemistry from the Simon Fraser University, Canada. Her research emphasis is on cost-effective catalyst development for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

Jiujun Zhang is Senior Research Officer at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. He received his PhD from Wuhan University and took up a position at the Huazhong Normal University, followed by postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, USA, University of York, UK, and the University of British Columbia, Canada. Jiujun Zhang has more than thirteen years of experience in fuel cell research and development.
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"In this handbook gives a comprehensive overview of electrochemical energy and conversion methods." (Energy Database, 2012)
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