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Testing Adhesive Joints: Best Practices

ISBN: 978-3-527-32904-5
468 pages
October 2012
Testing Adhesive Joints: Best Practices (3527329048) cover image
Joining techniques such as welding, brazing, riveting and screwing are used by industry all over the world on a daily basis. A further
method of joining has also proven to be highly successful: adhesive bonding. Adhesive bonding technology has an extremely broad range
of applications. And it is difficult to imagine a product - in the home, in industry, in transportation, or anywhere else for that matter - that
does not use adhesives or sealants in some manner. The book focuses on the methodology used for fabricating and testing adhesive and bonded joint specimens. The text covers a wide range of test methods that are used in the field of adhesives, providing vital information for dealing with the range of adhesive properties that are of interest to the adhesive community. With contributions from many experts in the field, the entire breadth of industrial laboratory examples, utilizing different best practice techniques are discussed. The core concept of the book is to provide essential information vital for producing and characterizing adhesives and adhesively bonded joints.
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About the Editors XXI

List of Contributors XXIII

1 Manufacture of Quality Specimens 1

1.1 Preparing Bulk Specimens by Hydrostatic Pressure 1
Lucas F.M. da Silva

1.2 Preparing Bulk Specimens by Injection 8
Stefanos Giannis

1.3 Preparing Bulk Specimens by Pouring 12
Robert D. Adams

1.4 Preparing Lap Joints with Flat Adherends 15
Lucas F.M. da Silva

1.5 SimpleMethods for the Preparation of Single Lap Joints Specimens 22
Edoardo Nicoli

1.6 Preparing Thick Adherend Shear Test Specimens 26
Lucas F.M. da Silva

1.7 Modified Thick Adherend Shear Test 31
Jean-Yves Cognard and Romain Cr´eac’hcadec

1.8 Preparing Butt Joints 37
Lucas F.M. da Silva, Stefanos Giannis, and Robert D. Adams

1.9 Preparing Napkin Ring Specimens 42
Robert D. Adams

1.10 Preparing T Joint Specimens 46
Lucas F.M. da Silva and Robert D. Adams

1.11 Preparing Flexible-to-Rigid Peel Specimens 51
Stefanos Giannis

1.12 Preparing Specimens for Fracture Properties: Double Cantilever Beam and Tapered Double Cantilever Beam 55
Bamber R.K. Blackman

1.13 Preparing Bonded Wood Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Specimens 63
Hitendra K. Singh, Edoardo Nicoli, and Charles E. Frazier

1.14 Modified Arcan Test 69
Jean-Yves Cognard, Laurent Sohier, Bernard Gineste, and Romain Créac’hcadec

References 76

2 Quasi-Static Constitutive and Strength Tests 79

2.1 Quasi-Static Testing of Bulk Tensile Specimens 79
Lucas F.M. da Silva

2.2 Uniaxial and Bulk Compression 85
Patricia Roumagnac and Patrick Heuillet

2.3 Quasi-Static Testing of Bulk Compression on Flat Specimens 93
Lucas F.M. da Silva

2.4 Iosipescu (V-Notched Beam) Test 97
Bruce Duncan

2.5 Arcan (V-Notched Plate) Test 104
Bruce Duncan

2.6 Quasi-Static Testing of Butt Joints in Tension 113
Gregory L. Anderson

2.7 Shear Properties of Adhesives Measured by Napkin Rings and Solid Butt Joints in Torsion 118
Robert D. Adams

2.8 Quasi-Static Testing of Thick Adherend Shear Test Specimens 125
Lucas F.M. da Silva

2.9 Modified Thick Adherend Shear Test 133
Jean-Yves Cognard and Romain Créac’hcadec

2.10 Quasi-Static Testing of Lap Joints 139
Lucas F.M. da Silva

2.11 Modified Arcan Test 147
Jean-Yves Cognard, Laurent Sohier, Bernard Gineste, and Romain Créac’hcadec

2.12 Pin-and-Collar Test Method 155
Juana Abenojar, Yolanda Ballesteros, Juan C. del Real, and Miguel A. Martinez

References 160

3 Quasi-Static Fracture Tests 163

3.1 Measuring Bulk Fracture Toughness 163
Raymond A. Pearson

3.2 Quasi-Static Fracture Tests: Double Cantilever Beam and Tapered Double Cantilever Beam Testing 169
Bamber R.K. Blackman

3.3 End-Notched Flexure 177
Raul D.S.G. Campilho

3.4 Mode II Fracture Characterization of Bonded Joints Using the ELS Test 186
Marcelo F.S.F. de Moura and Nuno M.M. Dourado

3.5 The Notched Torsion Test to Determine the Mode III Fracture Properties of Adhesives 191
Robert D. Adams

3.6 Other Mixed Mode Adhesive Fracture Test Specimens 194
David A. Dillard

3.7 Compact Mixed Mode (CMM) Fracture Test Method 201
John H.L. Pang

3.8 Mixed Mode Bending (MMB) with a Reeder and Crews Fixture 212
Peter Davies

3.9 Mixed Mode Fracture Testing 216
Aboutaleb Ameli, Shahrokh Azari, Marcello Papini, and Jan K. Spelt

3.10 Fracture of Wood Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Specimens 224
Edoardo Nicoli, Hitendra K. Singh, and Charles E. Frazier

3.11 The T-Peel Test 229
David A. Dillard

3.12 Peel Testing at 180◦ 244
Stefanos Giannis

3.13 The Floating Roller Peel Test 248
Robert D. Adams

3.14 Climbing Drum Peel Test 251
Keith B. Armstrong

3.15 The Analysis of Peel Tests 257
Neal Murphy and Luiz F. Kawashita

References 266

4 Higher Rate and Impact Tests 273

4.1 Dynamic Elastic Modulus 273
Lucas F.M. da Silva and Robert D. Adams

4.2 The Pendulum Impact Test for Adhesives and Adhesive Joints 280
Robert D. Adams

4.3 Higher Rate and Impact Tests: Fracture at High Rates 284

Bamber R.K. Blackman

4.4 High-Strain-Rate Testing of Adhesive Specimens and Joints by Hopkinson Bar Technique 289
Luca Goglio and Marco Peroni

4.5 Clamped Hopkinson Bar 297
Chiaki Sato

4.6 Testing of Adhesive Bonds under Peel and Shear Loads at Increased Velocities 309
Klaus Dilger, Michael Frauenhofer, and Stefan Kreling

References 316

5 Durability 319

5.1 Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient 319
Stefanos Giannis

5.2 Tests with Moisture 323
Peter Davies

5.3 Durability Testing Using Open-Faced Specimens 328
Aboutaleb Ameli, Naresh Varma Datla, Shahrokh Azari, Marcello Papini, and Jan K. Spelt

5.4 Tests with Temperature 335
Paul Ludwig Geiss

5.5 The Wedge Test 343
Jacques Cognard

5.6 Fatigue 351

Erol Sancaktar

5.7 Mixed-Mode Fatigue Testing of Adhesive Joints 369
Shahrokh Azari, Aboutaleb Ameli, Marcello Papini, and Jan K. Spelt

5.8 Measurement of Time-Dependent Crack Growth 375
Jan K. Spelt

5.9 Curvature Mismatch Fracture Test for Subcritical Debonding 379
David A. Dillard

6 Other Test Methods 389

6.1 Thermal Characterization 389
John Comyn

6.2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis with a Vibrating Beam Method 395
Lucas F.M. da Silva and Robert D. Adams

6.3 Bimaterial Curvature Method for Residual Stress and Thermal Expansion Coefficient Determination 402
David A. Dillard and Yongqiang Li

6.4 The Pull-Off Test 409
David A. Dillard

6.5 Shaft-Loaded Blister Test 414
Masoud Khabiry and Kai-tak Wan

6.6 Tests under Hydrostatic Pressure 419
Peter Davies

References 423

Index 427

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Lucas F.M. da Silva is Assistant Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP).

David A. Dillard is the Adhesive and Sealant Science Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics at Virginia Tech.

Bamber R.K. Blackman holds a lectureship in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Imperial College London where he is also Deputy Director of Research.

Robert D. Adams is an Emeritus Professor of Applied Mechanics at the University of Bristol and a Visiting Professor of the University of Oxford.
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