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Risk Assessment of Phytochemicals in Food: Novel Approaches

ISBN: 978-3-527-32929-8
476 pages
January 2011
Risk Assessment of Phytochemicals in Food: Novel Approaches (3527329293) cover image


Providing the scientific background on the risk and safety assessment of toxicity in phytochemicals in everyday food, this monograph contains the pros and cons of 20 testing methods, with comments by the internationally acknowledged and independent DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety.
Supplemented by 40 poster contributions on phytochemicals and their effects.
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Table of Contents



1. Bericht und Schlussfolgerungen.

1.1 Einleitung.

1.2 Methodenübergreifende Aspekte.

1.3 Methoden.

1.4 Schlussfolgerungen und Empfehlungen.

1.5 Fazit.

2. Report and Conclusions.

2.1 Preface.

2.2 Transdisciplinary Aspects.

2.3 Methodologies.

2.4 Conclusions and Recommendations.

2.5 Concluding Remarks.

3. Contributions.

3.1 Visions on Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Reflections on a Strategy Document of the US National Research Council (Marcel Leist, Thomas Hartung, and Pierluigi Nicotera).

3.2 Safety Assessment of Botanicals and Botanical Preparations Used as Ingredients in Food Supplements: Testing an European Food Safety Authority-Tiered Approach (Gerrit Speijers, Bernard Botex, Birgit Dusemund et al.).

3.3 In Silico Toxicology Screening of the Rodent Carcinogenic Potential of Phytochemicals Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis (Luis G. Valerio Jr., Naomi L. Kruhlak, and R. Daniel Benz).

3.4 Testing Computational Toxicology Models with Phytochemicals (Luis G. Valerio, Jr., Kirk B. Arvidson, Emily Busta et al.).

3.5 In Silico Models to Establish Level of Safety Concern in Absence of Sufficient Toxicological Data (Benoît Schilter, Manuel Dominguez Estevez, Myriam Coulet et al.).

3.6 In Silico Methods for Physiologically Based Biokinetic (PBBK) Models Describing Bioactivation and Detoxification of Coumarin and Estragole: Implications for Risk Assessment (Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens, Ans Punt, Benoît Schilter et al.).

3.7 In Vitro Models for Carcinogenicity Testing – Reality or Fantasy? (Pablo Steinberg, Carsten Müller, Kristina Ullmann et al.).

3.8 Carcinogen Specific Expression Profiling: Prediction of Carcinogenic Potential? (Hans-Jürgen Ahr, and Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer).

3.9 Safety and Biological Efficacy Testing of Phytochemicals: An Industry Approach (Anette Thiel, Jochen Bausch, Mareike Beck et al.).

3.10 Metabolite Profiling in Rat Plasma as a Potential New Tool for the Assessment of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Hennicke Kamp, Roland Buesen, Eric Fabian et al.).

3.11 Profiling Techniques in Nutrition and Food Research (Hannelore Daniel).

3.12 The Complex Links between Dietary Phytochemicals and Human Health Deciphered by Metabolomics (Claudine Manach, Jane Hubert, Rafael Llorach et al.).

3.13 Anti-Oxidative and Antigenotoxic Properties of Vegetables and Dietary Phytochemicals: The Value of Genomics Biomarkers in Molecular Epidemiology (Theo M. C. M. de Kok, Pim de Waard, Lonneke C. Wilms et al.).

3.14 The Japanese Toxicogenomics Project: Application of Toxicogenomics – Utilizing Toxicogenomics into Drug Safety Screening (Takeki Uehara, Atsushi Ono, Toshiyuki Maruyama et al.).

3.15 Toxicology and Risk Assessment of Coumarin : Focus on Human Data (Klaus Abraham, Friederike Wöhrlin, Oliver Lindtner et al,).

3.16 Risk from Furocounmarins in Food? An Exposure Assessment (Dieter Schrenk, Sabine Guth, Nicole Raquet et al.).

3.17 Transcriptome Analysis in Benefit-Risk Assessment of Micronutrients and Bioactive Food Components (Jaap Keijer, Yvonne G. J. van Helden, Annelies Bunschoten et al.).

3.18 Colerectal and Prostate Cancer: The Role of Candidate Genes in Nutritional Pathways (Ulrike Peters).

3.19 Glucosinolates: DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo and Mutagenicity In Vitro (Chimgee Baasanjav Gerber, Wolfram Engst, Simone Florian et al.).

3.20 Defence Mechanisms against Toxic Phytochemicals in the Diet of Domestic Animals (Johanna Fink-Gremmels).

4. Posters.

4.1 Coumarin Risk Assessment: Lesson from Human Data (Klaus Abraham, Klaus-Erich Appel, and Alfonso Lampen).

4.2 Coffee and Coffee Compounds are Effective Antioxidants in Human Cells and In Vivo (Tamara Bakuradz, Matthias Baum, Gerhard Eisenbrand et al.).

4.3 Studying Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of a Complex Extract (Mareike Beck, Martine Bruchlen, Volker Elste et al.).

4.4 Polyphenolic Apple Extracts and their Constituents Modulate DNA Strand Breaks and Oxidation Damage in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells (Phillip Bellion, Frank Will, Helmut Dietrich el al.).

4.5 Comparative Evaluation of Experimental Data on α-Amylase Inhibition by Flavonoids Using Molecular Modelling (Lisa M. Bode, Thomas Homann, Harshadrai M. Rawel et al.).

4.6 Potential Risk of Furan in Foods (J. Brück, Dieter Schrenk, U. Schauer et al.).

4.7 Comparative Study on the Toxicity of Alternariol and Alternariol Monomethyl Ether in Human Tumour Cells of Different Origin (Julia Burkart, Markus Fehr, Gudrun Pahlke et al.).

4.8 A Role for Resvernatrol and Curcumine in Sensitization of Glioblastoma Cells to Genotoxic   Stress Induced by Alkylating Chemotherapeutics (Markus Christmann, N. Berdelle, G. Nagel et al.).

4.9 BfR Risk Assessment of Alkaloids as Ingredients and Contaminants of Food: Quinine, Opium Alkaloids, and Senecio Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (Birgit Dusemund, Kalus-Erich Appel, and Alfonso Lampen).

4.10 Elucidation of the Genotoxic Activity of the Alkaloid Ellipticine in Human Cell Lines (Eva Frei, Jitka Poljaková, Lucie Bořek-Dohalská et al.).

4.11 Dietary Supplements and Herbal Medicinal Products – for a Clear Differentiation. Statement of the Society for Phytotherapy (FPT) to the “Article 13 Health Claim List” of the EFSA (Frauke Gaedcke, Bernd Eberwein, Olaf Kelber et al.).

4.12 Assessment of Genotoxicity of Herbal Medicinal Preparations According to the Guidelines EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007 – A Model Project of Kooperation Phytopharmaka, Bonn, Germany (Frauke Gaedcke. Olaf Kelber, Karin Kraft et al.).

4.13 Implications for an Adverse Effect f Vitamin C in Photodynamic Therapy (Stefanie Grimm, Nicolle Breusing, and Tilman Grune).

4.14 Using the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to Identify Mode of Action of the Flavonoid Myricetin (Gregor Grünz, B. Spanier, and Hannelore Daniel).

4.15 Low-Temperature Plasma – Mild Preservation Technology for Minimal Processed Fresh Food? (Franziska Grzegorzewski, O. Schlüter, J. Ehlbeck et al.).

4.16 Influence of Fumonisin B 1 on Gene Expression and Cytokine Production (Dorothee C. Hecker, Christian Salzig, and Dieter Schrenk).

4.17 Effects of Quercetin on the Detoxification of the Food Contaminant Benzo[a]pyrene in the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Model (Stefanie Hessel, Andreas John, Albrecht Seidel et al.).

4.18 Risk Assessment of T-2 and HT-2 Toxin Using Human Cells in Primary Culture (Dennis Mulac, Miaka Königs, Gerald Schwerdt et al.).

4.19 Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Honey Bee Products (Michael Kempf, Till Beuerle, Annika Reinhard et al.).

4.20 Identification of Molecular Determinants for Cytotoxicity of Isoloquiritigenin from Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) towards Leukemia Cell Lines (V. Badireenath Konkimalla, Anne Kramer, Yujie Fu et al.).

4.21 Functional Effects of Polyphenol Metabolites Produced by Colonic Microbiota in Colon Cells In Vitro (Claudia Miene and Michael Glei).

4.22 Lifelong Exposure to Isoflavones Results in a Reduced Responsivity of the Mammary Gland in Female Rats towards Oestradiol (Almut Milzberger, Torsten Hertrampf, Frank Möller et al.).

4.23 Derivation of Maximum Amounts for the Addition of Functional Ingredients to Foods (Sina Tischer, Oliver Lindter , Almut Bauch et al.).

4. 24 Constituents of Ginger Induce Micronuclei in Two Mammalian Cell Systems In Vitro (Erika Pfieffer, Julia S. Dempe, Marina J. Gary et al.).

4.25 Relative Photomutagenic Potency of Furocoumarins and Limettin (Christiane Lohr, Dieter Schrenk, and Nicole Raquet).

4.26 Degradation of Green Tea Catechins (Markus Schantz, Thomad Erk, and Elke Richling).

4.27 Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of Herbal Homeopathic Extracts in Primary Human Hepatocytes In Vitro (Ulrike Sobeck, B. Rüdinger, F. Stintzing et al.).

4.28 Modulation of Antioxidant Gene Expression by Apple Juice in Rats (Bülent Soyalan, J. Minn, Hans-Joachim Schmitz et al.).

4.29 Predictivity Comparison between Screening Assays for Bacterial Mutagenicity for Natural Compounds: Micro-Ames vs. Ames Fluctuation Method (Gerlinde Pappa, Tina Wöhrle, Anette Thiel et al.).

4.30 Automated In Vitro Micronucleus Testing of Natural Compounds in Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide (Gerlinde Pappa, Tina Wöhrle, Anette Thiel et al.).

4.31 Permeability of Apple Polyphenols on Inflammatory Gene Model and their Influence on Tight Junctions (Hannah Bergmann, Dorothee Rogoll, Wolfgang Scheppach et al.).

4.32 Influence of Apple Polyphenols on Inflammatory Gene Expression (Sven Triebel, Ralph Melcher, Gerhard Erkel et al.).

4.33 Diethylstilbestrol-Like Effect of Genistein on Gene Expression of Wnt-Signalling Components in the Endometrial Ishikawa Cell Line (Jörg Wagner and Leane Lehmann).

4.34 Effect of Dietary Flavonoids in Different Cell Lines: Comparison of Uptake, Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxic Effects (Wim Wätjen, Sven Ruhl, Ricarda Rohrig et al.).

4.35 Risk-Benefit Considerations of Isoflavone Supplements in the Treatment of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms (Uta Wegewitz, Klaus Richter, A. Jacobs et al.).

4.36 Effect of Different Catechins on the Growth of HT-29 Cells (Stefanie Wiese, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Peter Winterhalter et al.).

4.37 Determination of the Isoflavone Content of Soy-Based Infant Formula of the German Market Using a Box-Behnken Experimental Design for Optimizing the Analytical Conditions (Stefanie Witte, Hans-Peter Kruse, and Sabine E. Kulling).

5. Appendix.

Participants of the Symposium Risk Assessment of Phytochemicals in Food – Novel Approaches.

Members of the DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety: Mandate 2007-2010. 

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