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Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set

Detlef Stolten (Editor), Bernd Emonts (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33012-6
1268 pages
May 2012
Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set (3527330127) cover image
Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also in households. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel for fuel cells and an outstanding and efficient means of bulk storage for renewable energy will spearhead this development together with fuel cells. Moreover, small fuel cells hold great potential for portable devices such as gadgets and medical applications such as pacemakers.

This handbook will explore specific fuel cells within and beyond the mainstream development and focuses on materials and production processes for both SOFC and lowtemperature fuel cells, analytics and diagnostics for fuel cells, modeling and simulation as well as balance of plant design and components. As fuel cells are getting increasingly sophisticated and industrially developed the issues of quality assurance and methodology of development are included in this handbook. The contributions to this book come from an international panel of experts from academia, industry, institutions and government.

This handbook is oriented toward people looking for detailed information on specific fuel cell types, their materials, production processes,
modeling and analytics. Overview information on the contrary on mainstream fuel cells and applications are provided in the book
'Hydrogen and Fuel Cells', published in 2010.
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VOLUME 1

List of Contributors XIX

Part I Technology 1

1 Technical Advancement of Fuel-Cell Research and Development 3
Bernd Emonts, Ludger Blum, Thomas Grube, Werner Lehnert, Jürgen Mergel, Martin Müller, and Ralf Peters

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Representative Research Findings for SOFCs 4

1.3 Representative Research Findings for HT-PEFCs 11

1.4 Representative Research Findings for DMFCs 12

1.5 Application and Demonstration in Transportation 17

1.6 Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications 24

1.7 Special Markets for Fuel Cells 26

1.8 Marketable Development Results 27

1.9 Conclusion 30

References 32

2 Single-Chamber Fuel Cells 43
Têko W. Napporn and Melanie Kuhn

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 SC-SOFCs 44

2.3 SC-SOFC Systems 50

2.4 Applications of SC-SOFCs Systems 60

2.5 Conclusion 61

References 61

3 Technology and Applications of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 67
Barbara Bosio, Elisabetta Arato, and Paolo Greppi

3.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells overview 67

3.2 Analysis of MCFC Technology 76

3.3 Conventional and Innovative Applications 86

3.4 Conclusion 90

List of Symbols 91

References 92

4 Alkaline Fuel Cells 97
Erich Gülzow

4.1 Historical Introduction and Principle 97

4.2 Concepts of Alkaline Fuel-Cell Design Concepts 99

4.3 Electrolytes and Separators 113

4.4 Degradation 114

4.5 Carbon Dioxide Behavior 123

4.6 Conclusion 126

References 126

5 Micro Fuel Cells 131
Ulf Groos and Dietmar Gerteisen

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Physical Principles of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 132

5.3 Types of Micro Fuel Cells 134

5.4 Materials and Manufacturing 137

5.5 GDL Optimization 138

5.6 Conclusion 142

References 143

6 Principles and Technology of Microbial Fuel Cells 147
Jan B.A. Arends, Joachim Desloover, Sebastiá Puig, and Willy Verstraete

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Materials and Methods 149

6.3 Microbial Catalysts 157

6.4 Applications and Proof of Concepts 164

6.5 Modeling 173

6.6 Outlook and Conclusions 173

Acknowledgments 173

References 174

7 Micro-Reactors for Fuel Processing 185
Gunther Kolb

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 Heat and Mass Transfer in Micro-Reactors 185

7.3 Specific Features Required from Catalyst Formulations for Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 188

7.4 Heat Management of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 190

7.5 Examples of Complete Microchannel Fuel Processors 201

7.6 Fabrication of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors 206

References 212

8 Regenerative Fuel Cells 219
Martin Müller

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Principles 220

8.3 History 222

8.4 Thermodynamics 223

8.5 Electrodes 226

8.6 Solid Oxide Electrolyte (SOE) 233

8.7 System Design and Components 234

8.8 Applications and Systems 236

8.9 Conclusion and Prospects 240

References 241

Part II Materials and Production Processes 247

9 Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development Between 1995 and 2010 at Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany 249
Vincent Haanappel

9.1 Introduction 249

9.2 Advances in Research, Development, and Testing of Single Cells 250

9.3 Conclusions 272

Acknowledgments 272

References 272

10 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Fabrication by Infiltration 275
Evren Gunen

10.1 Introduction 275

10.2 SOFC and Electrochemical Fundamentals 275

10.3 Current Status of Electrodes; Fabrication Methods of Electrodes 276

10.4 Electrode Materials 278

10.5 Infiltration 281

10.6 Conclusion 295

References 297

11 Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 301
K. Scott Weil

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Sealing Techniques 306

11.3 Conclusion 328

References 329

12 Phosphoric Acid, an Electrolyte for Fuel Cells – Temperature and Composition Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Proton Conductivity 335
Carsten Korte

12.1 Introduction 335

12.2 Short Overview of Basic Properties and Formal Considerations 337

12.3 Vapor Pressure of Water as a Function of Composition and Temperature 339

12.4 Proton Conductivity as a Function of Composition and Temperature 344

12.5 Equilibria between the Polyphosphoric Acid Species and ‘‘Composition’’ of Concentrated Phosphoric Acid 353

12.6 Conclusion 356

References 357

13 Materials and Coatings for Metallic Bipolar Plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 361
Heli Wang and John A. Turner

13.1 Introduction 361

13.2 Metallic Bipolar Plates 363

13.3 Discussion and Perspective 370

Acknowledgments 374

References 374

14 Nanostructured Materials for Fuel Cells 379
John F. Elter

14.1 Introduction 379

14.2 The Fuel Cell and Its System 380

14.3 Triple Phase Boundary 382

14.4 Electrodes to Oxidize Hydrogen 384

14.5 Membranes to Transport Ions 388

14.6 Electrocatalysts to Reduce Oxygen 393

14.7 Catalyst Supports to Conduct Electrons 397

14.8 Future Directions 402

References 403

15 Catalysis in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells – an Overview 407
Sabine Schimpf and Michael Bron

15.1 Introduction 407

15.2 Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells 408

15.3 Electrocatalyst Degradation 421

15.4 Novel Support Materials 422

15.5 Catalyst Development, Characterization, and In Situ Studies in Fuel Cells 423

15.6 Catalysis in Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells 424

15.7 Perspective 431

References 431

Part III Analytics and Diagnostics 439

16 Impedance Spectroscopy for High-Temperature Fuel Cells 441
Ellen Ivers-Tiffée, André Leonide, Helge Schichlein, Volker Sonn, and

André Weber

16.1 Introduction 441

16.2 Fundamentals 443

16.3 Experimental Examples 452

16.4 Conclusion 465

References 466

17 Post-Test Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Stacks 469
Norbert H. Menzler and Peter Batfalsky

17.1 Introduction 469

17.2 Stack Dissection 472

17.3 Conclusion and Outlook 489

Acknowledgments 490

References 491

18 In Situ Imaging at Large-Scale Facilities 493
Christian Tötzke, Ingo Manke, and Werner Lehnert

18.1 Introduction 493

18.2 X-Rays and Neutrons 494

18.3 Application of In Situ 2D Methods 500

18.4 Application of 3D Methods 513

18.5 Conclusion 517

References 518

19 Analytics of Physical Properties of Low-Temperature Fuel Cells 521
Jürgen Wackerl

19.1 Introduction 521

19.2 Gravimetric Properties 524

19.3 Caloric Properties 527

19.4 Structural Information: Porosity 530

19.5 Mechanical Properties 531

19.6 Conclusion 535

References 536

20 Degradation Caused by Dynamic Operation and Starvation Conditions 543
Jan Hendrik Ohs, Ulrich S. Sauter, and Sebastian Maass

20.1 Introduction 543

20.2 Measurement Techniques 546

20.3 Dynamic Operation at Standard Conditions 550

20.4 Starvation Conditions 553

20.5 Mitigation 562

20.6 Conclusion 565

References 565

Part IV Quality Assurance 571

21 Quality Assurance for Characterizing Low-Temperature Fuel Cells 573
Viktor Hacker, Eva Wallnöfer-Ogris, Georgios Tsotridis, and Thomas Malkow

21.1 Introduction 573

21.2 Test Procedures/Standardized Measurements 574

21.3 Standardized Test Cells 587

21.4 Degradation and Lifetime Investigations 587

21.5 Design of Experiments in the Field of Fuel-Cell Research 592

References 593

22 Methodologies for Fuel Cell Process Engineering 597
Remzi Can Samsun and Ralf Peters

22.1 Introduction 597

22.2 Verification Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering 597

22.3 Analysis Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering 628

22.4 Conclusion 641

Acknowledgments 642

References 642

VOLUME 2

List of Contributors XIX

Part V Modeling and Simulation 645

23 Messages from Analytical Modeling of Fuel Cells 647
Andrei Kulikovsky

23.1 Introduction 647

23.2 Modeling of Catalyst Layer Performance 648

23.3 Polarization Curve of PEMFCs and HT-PEMFCs 658

23.4 Conclusion 665

List of Symbols 665

References 667

24 Stochastic Modeling of Fuel-Cell Components 669
Ralf Thiedmann, Gerd Gaiselmann, Werner Lehnert, and Volker Schmidt

24.1 Multi-Layer Model for Paper-Type GDLs 670

24.2 Time-Series Model for Non-Woven GDLs 676

24.3 Stochastic Network Model for the Pore Phase 677

24.4 Further Results 690

24.5 Structural Characterization of Porous GDL 692

24.6 Conclusion 698

References 699

25 Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Using Supercomputer Calculation Capacity 703
Ralf Peters and Florian Scharf

25.1 Introduction 703

25.2 High-Performance Computing for Fuel Cells 705

25.3 HPC-Based CFD Modeling for Fuel-Cell Systems 711

25.4 CFD-Based Design 728

25.5 Conclusion and Outlook 730

Acknowledgments 731

References 731

26 Modeling Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from the Macroscale to the Nanoscale 733
Emily M. Ryan and Mohammad A. Khaleel

26.1 Introduction 733

26.2 Governing Equations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 735

26.3 Macroscale SOFC Modeling 747

26.4 Mesoscale SOFC Modeling 758

26.5 Nanoscale SOFC Modeling 761

26.6 Conclusion 761

References 762

27 Numerical Modeling of the Thermomechanically Induced Stress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 767
Murat Peksen

27.1 Introduction 767

27.2 Chronological Overview of Numerically Performed Thermomechanical Analyses in SOFCs 768

27.3 Mathematical Formulation of Strain and Stress Within SOFC Components 773

27.4 Effect of Geometric Design on the Stress Distribution in SOFCs 778

27.5 Conclusion 788

References 789

28 Modeling of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 791
Peter Heidebrecht, Silvia Piewek, and Kai Sundmacher

28.1 Introduction 791

28.2 Spatially Distributed MCFC Model 794

28.3 Electrode Models 804

28.4 Conclusion 811

List of Symbols 812

References 814

29 High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Modeling 819
Uwe Reimer

29.1 Introduction 819

29.2 Cell-Level Modeling 821

29.3 Stack-Level Modeling 825

29.4 Phosphoric Acid as Electrolyte 827

29.5 Basic Modeling of the Polarization Curve 829

29.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 834

References 835

30 Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel-Cell Components 839
Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen

30.1 Introduction 839

30.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane 842

30.3 Catalyst Layers 845

30.4 Gas Diffusion Layers and Microporous Layers 850

30.5 Gas Flow Channels 859

30.6 Gas Diffusion Layer-Gas Flow Channel Interface 864

30.7 Bipolar Plates 868

30.8 Coolant Flow 869

30.9 Model Validation 869

30.10 Conclusion 871

List of Symbols 872

References 874

31 Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Stacks 879
Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen

31.1 Introduction 879

31.2 Cell-Level Modeling and Simulation 881

31.3 Stack-Level Modeling and Simulation 906

31.4 Conclusion 911

List of Symbols 912

References 913

Part VI Balance of Plant Design and Components 917

32 Principles of Systems Engineering 919
Ludger Blum, Ralf Peters, and Remzi Can Samsun

32.1 Introduction 919

32.2 Basic Engineering 920

32.3 Detailed Engineering 945

32.4 Procurement 956

32.5 Construction 956

32.6 Conclusion 957

List of Symbols and Abbreviations 958

Subscripts and Superscripts 958

References 959

33 System Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 963
Nguyen Q. Minh

33.1 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Power Generation 963

33.2 Overview of SOFC Power Systems 965

33.3 Subsystem Design for SOFC Power Systems 970

33.4 SOFC Power Systems 991

Acknowledgments 1006

References 1006

34 Desulfurization for Fuel-Cell Systems 1011
Joachim Pasel and Ralf Peters

34.1 Introduction and Motivation 1011

34.2 Sulfur-Containing Molecules in Crude Oil 1011

34.3 Desulfurization in the Gas Phase 1016

34.4 Desulfurization in the Liquid Phase 1022

34.5 Application in Fuel-Cell Systems 1034

34.6 Conclusion 1038

Acknowledgments 1039

References 1039

35 Design Criteria and Components for Fuel Cell Powertrains 1045
Lutz Eckstein and Bruno Gnörich

35.1 Introduction 1045

35.2 Vehicle Requirements 1045

35.3 Potentials and Challenges of Vehicle Powertrains 1049

35.4 Components of Fuel Cell Powertrains 1061

35.5 Conclusion 1072

Acknowledgment 1073

References 1073

36 Hybridization for Fuel Cells 1075
Jörg Wilhelm

36.1 Introduction 1075

36.2 The Fuel-Cell Hybrid 1076

36.3 Components of a Fuel-Cell Hybrid 1081

36.4 Hybridization Concepts 1085

36.5 Technical Overview 1088

36.6 Systems Analysis 1096

36.7 Conclusion 1098

References 1098

Part VII Systems Verification and Market Introduction 1105

37 Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation 1107
Kerry-Ann Adamson

37.1 Introduction 1107

37.2 Premium Power Market Overview 1107

37.3 Off-Grid 1109

37.4 Portable Applications 1113

37.5 Discussion 1117

References 1117

38 Demonstration Projects and Market Introduction 1119
Kristin Deason

38.1 Introduction 1119

38.2 Why Demonstration? 1119

38.3 Transportation Demonstrations 1120

38.4 Stationary Power and Early Market Applications 1139

References 1146

Further Reading 1150

Part VIII Knowledge Distribution and Public Awareness 1151

39 A Sustainable Framework for International Collaboration: the IEA HIA and Its Strategic Plan for 2009–2015 1153
Mary-Rose de Valladares

39.1 Introduction 1153

39.2 The IEA HIA Strategic Framework: Overview 1154

39.3 The Work Program: Issues and Approaches 1166

39.4 IEA HIA: the Past as Prolog 1166

39.5 The 2009–2015 IEA HIA Work Program Timeline 1173

39.6 Conclusion and Final Remarks 1177

References 1179

Further Reading 1179

40 Overview of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Organizations and Initiatives Worldwide 1181
Bernd Emonts

40.1 Introduction 1181

40.2 International Level 1181

40.3 European Level 1187

40.4 National Level 1196

40.5 Regional Level 1201

40.6 Partnerships, Initiatives, and Networks with a Specific Agenda 1204

40.7 Conclusion 1208

References 1209

41 Contributions for Education and Public Awareness 1211
Thorsteinn I. Sigfusson and Bernd Emonts

41.1 Introduction 1211

41.2 Information for Interested Laypeople 1212

41.3 Education for School Students and University Students 1213

41.4 Electrolyzers and Fuel Cells in Education and Training 1215

41.5 Training and Qualification for Trade and Industry 1216

41.6 Education and Training in the Scientific Arena 1218

41.7 Clarification Assistance in the Political Arena 1219

41.8 Analysis of Public Awareness 1220

41.9 Conclusion 1221

References 1221

Index 1223

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Prof. Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells at the Research Center Jülich, Germany. Prof Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. Since 1998 he has been holding the position of Director at the Research Center Jülich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's
research focuses on electrochemical energy engineering including electrochemistry and energy process engineering of Electrolysis, SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. cell and stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten is Chairman of the Implementing Agreement Advanced Fuel Cells, member of the board of the International Association of Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and
is on the advisory boards of the German National Organization of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (NOW), and the journal Fuel Cells. He was chairman of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010 (WHEC 2010).

Dr. Bernd Emonts is the Deputy Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Jülich Research Center, Germany. He received his diploma in structural engineering from the Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany, in 1981. He went on to specialize in the fundamentals
of mechanical engineering at RWTH Aachen University, Germany and was awarded his PhD in 1989. Working as a scientist, Dr. Emonts
has been involved in extensive research and development projects in the areas of catalytic combustion and energy systems with low-temperature fuel cells. Between 1991 and 1994, he concurrently worked as an R & D advisor for a German industrial enterprise in the drying and coating technologies sector. In addition to his scientific activities at Jülich Research Center, Germany, Dr. Emonts lectured at Aachen University of Applied Sciences from 1999 to 2008. Dr. Emonts has published extensively in the field of Fuel Cells.
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“For researchers who already have some history with fuel cells and want to maintain their knowledge of the general progress of fuel cell research this could be a useful addition to one’s personal library.  For those specifically
interested in pgm catalysis for fuel cells, I would recommend the book “Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamentals to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development” (5).”  (Platinum Metals Review, 1 January 2013)



 

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