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Process and Plant Safety: Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics

Jurgen Schmidt (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33027-0
406 pages
May 2012
Process and Plant Safety: Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (3527330275) cover image
The safe operation of plants is of paramount importance in the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Best practice in
process and plant safety allows both the prevention of hazards and the mitigation of consequences. Safety Technology is continuously advancing to new levels and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already successfully established as a tool to ensure the safe operation of industrial plants.
With CFD tools, a great amount of knowledge can be gained as both the necessary safety measures and the economic operation of plants can
be simultaneously determined. Young academics, safety experts and safety managers in all parts of the industry will henceforth be forced to
responsibly judge these new results from a safety perspective. This is the main challenge for the future of safety technology.
This book serves as a guide to elaborating and determining the principles, assumptions, strengths, limitations and application areas of
utilizing CFD in process and plant safety, and safety management. The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants. It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.
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Preface XIX

List of Contributors XXI

1 Computational Fluid Dynamics: the future in safety technology! 1
Jürgen Schmidt

2 Organized by ProcessNet: Tutzing Symposion 2011 CFD its Future in Safety Technology 5
Norbert Pfeil

2.1 ProcessNet – an Initiative of DECHEMA and VDI-GVC 5

2.2 A Long Discussed Question: Can Safety Engineers Rely on Numerical Methods? 7

3 CFD and Holistic Methods for Explosive Safety and Risk Analysis 9
Arno Klomfass and Klaus Thoma

3.1 Introduction 9

3.2 Deterministic and Probabilistic Design Tasks 11

3.3 CFD Applications on Explosions and Blast Waves 12

3.4 Engineering Methods: The TNT Equivalent 22

3.5 QRA for Explosive Safety 25

3.6 Summary and Outlook 27

References 28

Part One CFD Today Opportunities and Limits if Applied to Safety Techology 31

4 Status and Potentials of CFD in Safety Analyses Using the Example of Nuclear Power 33
HorstMichael Prasser

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 Safety and Safety Analysis of Light Water Reactors 33

4.3 Role and Status of Fluid Dynamics Modeling 36

4.4 Expected Benefits of CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety 37

4.5 Challenges 40

4.6 Examples of Applications 42

4.7 Beyond-Design-Based Accidents 53

References 66

Part Two Computer or Experimental Design? 69

5 Sizing and Operation of High-Pressure Safety Valves 71
Jürgen Schmidt and Wolfgang Peschel

5.1 Introduction 71

5.2 Phenomenological Description of the Flow through a Safety Valve 71

5.3 Nozzle/Discharge Coefficient Sizing Procedure 72

5.4 Sizing of Safety Valves Applying CFD 82

5.5 Summary 90

References 93

6 Water Hammer Induced by Fast-Acting Valves Experimental Studies, 1D Modeling, and Demands for Possible Future CFX Calculations 95
Andreas Dudlik and Robert Fröhlich

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 Multi-Phase Flow Test Facility 97

6.3 Extension of Pilot Plant Pipework PPP for Software Validation 99

6.4 Experimental Set-Up 99

6.5 Experimental Results 100

6.7 Possible Chances and Difficulties in the Use of CFX for Water Hammer Calculations 106

6.8 CFD – The Future of Safety Technology? 109

References 110

7 CFD-Modeling for Optimizing the Function of Low-Pressure Valves 113
Frank Helmsen and Tobias Kirchner

References 119

Part Three Fire and Explosions are CFD Simulations Really Profitable? 121

8 Consequences of Pool Fires to LNG Ship Cargo tanks 123
Benjamin Scholz and Gerd-Michael Wuersig

8.1 Introduction 123

8.2 Evaluation of Heat Transfer 125

8.3 CFD-Calculations 128

8.4 Conclusions 136

References 137

9 CFD Simulation of Large Hydrocarbon and Peroxide Pool Fires 139
Axel Schönbucher, Stefan Schälike, Iris Vela, and Klaus-Dieter Wehrstedt

9.1 Introduction 139

9.2 Governing Equations 139

9.3 Turbulence Modeling 140

9.4 Combustion Modeling 141

9.5 Radiation Modeling 142

9.6 CFD Simulation 144

9.7 Results and Discussion 145

9.8 Conclusions 154

9.9 CFD – The Future of Safety Technology? 154

References 155

10 Modeling Fire Scenarios and Smoke Migration in Structures 159
Ulrich Krause, Frederik Rabe, and Christian Knaust

10.1 Introduction 159

10.2 Hierarchy of Fire Models 161

10.3 Balance Equations for Mass, Momentum, and Heat Transfer (CFD Models) 162

10.4 Zone Models 164

10.5 Plume Models 164

10.6 Computational Examples 166

10.7 Conclusions 175

10.8 CFD – The Future of Safety Technology? 175

References 177

Part Four CFD Tomorrow The Way to CFD as a Standard Tool in Safety Technology 179

11 The ERCOFTAC Knowledge Base Wiki An Aid for Validating CFD Models 181
Wolfgang Rodi

11.1 Introduction 181

11.2 Structure of the Knowledge Base Wiki 182

11.3 Content of the Knowledge Base 184

11.4 Interaction with Users 185

11.5 Concluding Remarks 185

12 CFD at its Limits: Scaling Issues, Uncertain Data, and the User.s Role 189
Matthias Münch and Rupert Klein

12.1 Numerics and Under-Resolved Simulations 190

12.2 Uncertainties 196

12.3 Theory and Practice 199

12.4 Conclusions 208

References 210

13 Validation of CFD Models for the Prediction of Gas Dispersion in Urban and Industrial Environments 213
Michael Schatzmann and Bernd Leitl

13.1 Introduction 213

13.2 Types of CFD Models 214

13.3 Validation Data 215

13.4 Wind Tunnel Experiments 227

13.5 Summary 229

References 231

14 CFD Methods in Safety Technology Useful Tools or Useless Toys? 233
Henning Bockhorn

14.1 Introduction 233

14.2 Characteristic Properties of Combustion Systems 234

14.3 Practical Problems 247

14.4 Outlook 256

References 257

Part Five Dynamic Systems Are 1D Models Sufficient? 259

15 Dynamic Modeling of Disturbances in Distillation Columns 261
Daniel Staak, Aristides Morillo, and Günter Wozny

15.1 Introduction 261

15.2 Dynamic Simulation Model 262

15.3 Case Study 268

15.4 CFD- The Future of Safety Technology? 269

15.5 Nomenclature 272

References 274

16 Dynamic Process Simulation for the Evaluation of Upset Conditions in Chemical Plants in the Process Industry 275

16.1 Introduction 275

16.2 Application of Dynamic Process Simulation 277

16.3 Conclusion 293

16.4 Dynamic Process Simulation – The Future of Safety Technology? 293

17 The Process Safety Toolbox The Importance of Method Selection for Safety-Relevant Calculations 295
Andy Jones

17.1 Introduction – The Process Safety Toolbox 295

17.2 Flow through Nitrogen Piping During Distillation Column Pressurization 296

17.3 Tube Failure in a Wiped-Film Evaporator 301

17.4 Phenol-Formaldehyde Uncontrolled Exothermic Reaction 306

17.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics – Is It Ever Necessary? 308

17.6 Computational Fluid Dynamics – The Future of Safety Technology? 309

References 311

18 CFD for Reconstruction of the Buncefield Incident 313
Simon E. Gant and G.T. Atkinson

18.1 Introduction 313

18.2 Observations from the CCTV Records 314

18.3 CFD Modeling of the Vapor Cloud Dispersion 318

18.4 Conclusions 328

18.5 CFD: The Future of Safety Technology? 328

References 329

Part Six Contributions for Discussion 331

19 Do We Really Want to Calculate the Wrong Problem as Exactly as Possible? The Relevance of Initial and Boundary Conditions in Treating the Consequences of Accidents 333
Ulrich Hauptmanns

19.1 Introduction 333

19.2 Models 334

19.3 Case Study 339

19.4 Conclusions 345

References 346

20 Can Software Ever be Safe? 349
Frank Schiller and Tina Mattes

20.1 Introduction 349

20.2 Basics 350

20.3 Software Errors and Error Handling 354

20.4 Potential Future Approaches 366

20.5 CFD - The Future of Safety Technology? 367

References 367

21 CFD Modeling: Are Experiments Superfluous? 369
B. Jörgensen and D. Moncalvo

References 371

Index 373

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Jürgen Schmidt has worked as a safety expert for more than 25 years at Hoechst AG, Frankfurt and BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Since 2002 he lectures in Process and Plant Safety at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. Prof. Schmidt studied Process Engineering at the University Bochum, Germany, and at the Texas A&M University, USA. His main fi elds of interest are smart safety concepts (combining safety and economics), two-phase gas/liquid flow, safety devices and cyclone separators, high pressure fluid flow and condensation in natural gas pipelines. He has published more than 100 scientifi c articles in these areas.
Prof. Schmidt is member of the steering committee of ProcessNet?s Safety Engineering Section (a group of Dechema) in Germany and chairs the working group 'Safe Design of Chemical Plants'. Currently he leads ISO's standardization working party for 'Flashing liquids in safety devices'. In addition he is member of the board in the European DIERS User Group. He has received numerous awards from the Industry
and the European Process Safety Centre.
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“The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants.  It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.”  (ETDE Energy Database, 1 November 2012)

“This book is an excellent primer for students of safety engineering who are new to computational fluid dynamics (CFD).  It is a beacon for process safety technologists seeking to improve their knowledge of safety engineering tools.”  (The Chemical Engineer, 1 November 2012)

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