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Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: Slurries, Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils

ISBN: 978-3-527-33028-7
230 pages
February 2013
Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: Slurries, Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils (3527330283) cover image
The book describes the science and technology of formulation and manufacturing of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate as the main ingredient. Based on the author's industry experience of more than thirty years, it provides an unparalleled treatment of one of the commercially most important classes of explosives and therefore stimulates further research and development efforts in the field of explosives for civil applications.
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Acknowledgment XI

Preface XIII

1 Classification of Explosives 1

1.1 Initiation Sensitivity 1

1.2 Size 1

1.3 Usage 2

1.4 Physical Form 2

2 Explosive Science 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Initiation and Detonation 6

2.3 Propagation and Detonation 7

2.4 Reaction Chemistry in Explosives 11

References 13

3 Ammonium Nitrate Explosives 15

3.1 Introduction 15

3.2 Design of Commercial Explosives 16

3.3 Tests 17

3.4 Assessment of Safety and Stability Characteristics 27

3.5 Summary 29

References 29

4 Ammonium Nitrate and AN/FO 31

4.1 Introduction and History 31

4.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Ammonium Nitrate 32

4.3 Manufacture of Ammonium Nitrate 35

4.4 Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil Explosives 39

References 58

Further Reading 58

5 Slurries and Water Gels 59

5.1 Development 59

5.2 Design 59

5.3 Process Technology 66

5.4 Quality Checks 71

5.5 Process Hazards (Dust Explosions/Fire Hazards/Health Hazards) 91

5.6 Role of GG 92

5.7 Permissible Explosives 98

5.8 General Purpose Small-Diameter Explosives (GPSD) 105

5.9 Sensitizers 106

References 111

Further Reading 112

6 Emulsion Explosives 113

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Concept of Emulsion Explosives 113

6.3 General Composition of Emulsion Explosives 114

6.4 Structure and Rheology 115

6.5 Composition and Theory of Emulsion Explosives 117

6.6 Manufacture 118

6.7 Quality Checks 139

6.8 Explosive Properties of Emulsion Matrix/Explosives 142

6.9 Permissible Emulsions 145

6.10 General Purpose Small-Diameter (GPSD) Emulsion Explosives 147

6.11 Bulk Emulsions 149

6.12 Heavy AN/FO 151

6.13 Packaged Large-Diameter Emulsion Explosives 153

References 154

Further Reading 155

7 Research and Development 157

7.1 Areas of Interest 158

7.2 Development Work and Upscaling 159

7.3 Management of R&D 161

8 Functional Safety during Manufacture of AN Explosives 163

8.1 Introduction – Personal View Point on Safety 163

8.2 Safety Considerations in AN Explosives 165

8.3 Explosion Hazards in Equipment 172

8.4 Concluding Remarks 176

References 177

9 Economics of AN-Based Explosives 179

9.1 In Manufacture 179

9.2 In Applications 181

9.3 Blast Design 186

9.4 Influence of Explosives in Underground Mining 190

References 193

10 Current Status and Concluding Remarks 195

Appendix A 199

Appendix B: Guidelines for Investigation of an Accident 203

B.1 Introduction 203

B.2 Detailed Inspection 204

B.3 Interviewing and Questioning 205

B.4 Collection of Samples 205

B.5 Examination of Witnesses 206

B.6 Examination of Dead/Injured 206

Index 209

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Erode Mahadevan is currently a Technology Consultant based in India. Before that for more than thirty years he was engaged in the field of commercial explosives and accessories and specialty chemicals. He has worked with many multinational companies such as ICI (UK), BASF (Germany), Atlas Chemicals (USA), Dow Chemical (USA), Nitro Nobel (Sweden), Dyno Industries (Norway). For twenty years Erode Mahadevan was Managing Director of IDL Industries Ltd., a leading producer of civil explosives based in India. He holds a Masters Degree in Physical Chemistry from the University of Mysore, Bangalore, and a PhD from the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe, Germany. Before starting his career in industry, Erode Mahadevan was a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Chemistry at the Columbia University, New York.
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