Wiley
Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Complex-shaped Metal Nanoparticles: Bottom-Up Syntheses and Applications

Tapan K. Sau (Editor), Andrey L. Rogach (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33077-5
582 pages
August 2012
Complex-shaped Metal Nanoparticles: Bottom-Up Syntheses and Applications (3527330771) cover image

The past few years have witnessed the development of non-spherical metal nanoparticles with complex morphologies, which offer tremendous potential in materials science, chemistry, physics and medicine.

Covering all important aspects and techniques of preparation and characterization of metal nanoparticles with controlled morphology and architecture, this book provides a sound overview - from the basics right up to recent developments. Renowned research scientists from all over the world present the existing knowledge in the field, covering theory and modeling, synthesis and properties of these nanomaterials.

By emphasizing the underlying concepts and principles in detail, this book enables researchers to fully recognize the future research scope and the application potential of the complex-shaped metal nanoparticles, inspiring further research in this field.

Reviews

Complex-shaped Metal Nanoparticles: Bottom-Up Syntheses and Applications is an extremely useful reference, whether the reader is interested in synthesis, application or theory of
complex-shaped nanoparticles." From Platninum Metal Reviews

See More

Foreword VII

Preface XVII

List of Contributors XIX

Metal Nanoparticles of Complex Morphologies: A General Introduction 1

References 5

1 Colloidal Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles of Complex Morphologies 7
Tapan K. Sau and Andrey L. Rogach

1.1 Introduction 7

1.2 Classification of Noble Metal Nanoparticles 8

1.3 Synthesis Methodologies 9

1.3.1 Chemical Reduction Method 9

1.3.1.1 Spatially Confined Medium/Template Approach 10

1.3.1.2 Preformed Seed-Mediated Synthesis 15

1.3.1.3 High-Temperature Reduction Method 19

1.3.2 Chemical Transformation Method 19

1.3.2.1 Galvanic Displacement Method 19

1.3.2.2 Etching Method 21

1.3.3 Electrochemical Synthesis 22

1.3.4 Photochemical Method 23

1.3.5 Biosynthesis 24

1.3.6 Postpreparation Separation 25

1.4 Characterization 25

1.5 Thermodynamic–Kinetic Factors and Particle Morphology 29

1.5.1 Nucleation and Growth 29

1.5.1.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleations 29

1.5.1.2 Defects in Seed Crystal 37

1.5.1.3 Growth of Seed Crystal 41

1.5.2 Reaction Parameters 43

1.5.2.1 Reactants and Their Concentrations 43

1.5.2.2 Additives/Impurities 48

1.5.2.3 Solvent, pH, and Temperature 50

1.6 Mechanisms of Morphology Evolution 51

1.6.1 One-Dimensional Nanoparticle Formation 52

1.6.1.1 Nanorod Formation 52

1.6.1.2 Nanobipyramid Formation 57

1.6.2 Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Formation 57

1.6.3 Three-Dimensional Polyhedral Shape Evolution 62

1.6.4 Epitaxial/Core–Shell/Heterodimer/Overgrowth Mechanism 64

1.6.5 Branched Nanoparticle Formation 67

1.6.6 Hollow/Porous Nanoparticle Formation 70

1.7 Conclusions and Outlook 72

References 73

2 Controlling Morphology in Noble Metal Nanoparticles via Templating Approach 91
Chun-Hua Cui and Shu-Hong Yu

2.1 Introduction 91

2.2 Galvanic Replacement Method 92

2.2.1 Synthesis of Quasi-Zero-Dimensional Nanoparticles 93

2.2.2 Synthesis of One-Dimensional Nanostructures 97

2.3 Hard Template-Directed Method 99

2.3.1 Porous Membrane Template-Directed Method 100

2.3.2 Pattern Template-Directed Method 104

2.4 Soft Template-Directed Method 106

2.4.1 Micelle Template-Directed Synthesis 106

2.4.2 Selective Adsorption-Directed Synthesis 109

2.5 Conclusions and Outlook 112

References 113

3 Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles of High Surface Energy and Their Applications in Electrocatalysis 117
Na Tian, Yu-Hua Wen, Zhi-You Zhou, and Shi-Gang Sun

3.1 Introduction 117

3.2 Fundamentals and Background 119

3.2.1 Thermodynamics of Crystallization: Principles and Rules 119

3.2.1.1 Equilibrium Shape of a Crystal 119

3.2.1.2 Nucleation 120

3.2.1.3 Three-Dimensional Growth of a Crystal on Substrate 122

3.2.1.4 Two-Dimensional Nuclei Theory 124

3.2.2 Correlation of the Shape of Crystal and Its Surface Structure 125

3.3 Progress in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles of High Surface Energy and Their Applications 127

3.3.1 Electrochemistry Route 128

3.3.1.1 Pt and Pd Nanoparticles 128

3.3.1.2 Fe Nanoparticles 137

3.3.2 Wet Chemistry Route 137

3.3.2.1 Au Nanoparticles 139

3.3.2.2 Pd and Pd–Au Nanoparticles 141

3.3.2.3 Pt Nanoparticles 144

3.4 Theoretical Simulations of Structural Transformation and Stability of Metal Nanoparticles with High Surface Energy 148

3.4.1 Brief Description of Theoretical Calculation Methods 148

3.4.1.1 First-Principles Methods 148

3.4.1.2 Molecular Dynamics Methods 149

3.4.1.3 Predictions and Limitations of Theoretical Calculations 149

3.4.2 Theoretical Study of Metal Nanoparticles of High Surface Energy 150

3.4.2.1 Pt Nanoparticles 151

3.4.2.2 Pd Nanoparticles 153

3.4.2.3 Au Nanoparticles 155

3.4.2.4 Fe Nanoparticles 157

3.5 Conclusions 160

References 162

4 Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles 167
Wen-Yin Ko and Kuan-Jiuh Lin

4.1 Introduction 167

4.1.1 Zero-Dimensional Nanostructures 167

4.1.2 One-Dimensional Nanostructures 168

4.1.3 Two-Dimensional Nanostructures 169

4.1.4 Complex (3D) Nanostructures 170

4.2 Metallic Copper 172

4.2.1 Significance and Challenges 172

4.2.2 Shape Control of Cu Nanoparticles 172

4.3 Electrodeposition Method for Growth of Cu Nanoparticles of Different Shapes 174

4.3.1 Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Tetrahedral Metallic Cu 174

4.3.1.1 Synthesis 174

4.3.1.2 Growth Mechanism 177

4.3.2 Synthesis of Cu Nanoparticles of Cubic and Multipod Shapes 179

4.4 Conclusions 179

References 181

5 Size- and Shape-Variant Magnetic Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Properties 183
Kristen Stojak, Hariharan Srikanth, Pritish Mukherjee, Manh-Huong Phan, and Nguyen T. K. Thanh

5.1 Introduction 183

5.2 Synthesis of Size- and Shape-Variant Ferrite Nanoparticles 184

5.2.1 Thermal Decomposition 184

5.2.1.1 Surface Functionalization 185

5.2.1.2 Size and Shape Variance 187

5.2.2 Chemical Coprecipitation 189

5.2.3 Solvothermal Technique 191

5.2.4 Microemulsion Technique 192

5.3 Other Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Size Variance, and Shape Variance 194

5.4 Magnetism in Ferrite Nanoparticles 196

5.4.1 Crystal Structure and Spin Configuration 196

5.4.2 Critical Size and Superparamagnetism 197

5.4.3 Size-Dependent Magnetic Properties 198

5.4.3.1 Static Magnetic Properties 198

5.4.3.2 Dynamic Magnetic Properties 203

5.4.4 Shape-Dependent Magnetic Properties 205

5.5 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications 207

5.5.1 Targeted Drug Delivery 207

5.5.2 Hyperthermia 208

5.5.3 MRI Contrast Enhancement 208

5.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 210

References 212

6 Structural Aspects of Anisotropic Metal Nanoparticle Growth: Experiment and Theory 215
Tulio C.R. Rocha, Herbert Winnischofer, and Daniela Zanchet

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Atomic Packing on Metal NPs 217

6.3 Structural Aspects in the Anisotropic Growth: The Silver Halide Model 221

6.4 Experimental Requisites to Produce Anisotropic NPs 226

6.5 Concluding Remarks 234

References 235

7 Colloids, Nanocrystals, and Surface Nanostructures of Uniform Size and Shape: Modeling of Nucleation and Growth in Solution Synthesis 239
Vladimir Privman

7.1 Introduction 239

7.2 Burst Nucleation Model for Nanoparticle Growth 242

7.3 Colloid Synthesis by Fast Growth 247

7.4 Improved Models for Two-Stage Colloid Growth 251

7.5 Particle Shape Selection in Solution Synthesis 254

7.6 Applications for Control of Morphology in Surface Structure Formation 261

7.7 Summary 263

References 264

8 Modeling Nanomorphology in Noble Metal Particles: Thermodynamic Cartography 269
Amanda S. Barnard

8.1 Introduction 269

8.2 Ab Initio Simulation of Small Gold Nanoclusters 271

8.3 Ab Initio Simulation of Gold Nanoparticles 272

8.4 Thermodynamic Cartography 276

8.4.1 Size-Dependent Melting 281

8.4.2 Mapping the Morphology of Nanogold 282

8.5 Gold Nanorods and Dimensional Anisotropy 285

8.5.1 Preferred Shape and Termination Geometry 286

8.5.2 Aspect Ratio and Dependence on Temperature 289

8.5.3 Twinning in Gold Nanorods 291

8.6 Comparison with Platinum and Inclusion of Surface Defects 294

8.7 Conclusions 298

References 300

9 Platinum and Palladium Nanocrystals: Soft Chemistry Approach to Shape Control from Individual Particles to Their Self-Assembled Superlattices 305
Christophe Petit, Caroline Salzemann, and Arnaud Demortiere

9.1 Introduction 305

9.2 Influence of the Chemical Environment on the NC Shape 306

9.2.1 How the Capping Agents Tune the Shape and the Size of Metal NCs: A Comparison of Two-Liquid Synthesis Methods 306

9.2.1.1 Effect of the Capping Agent on the Shape of Platinum NCs 308

9.2.1.2 Effect of the Capping Agent on the Size of Platinum NCs 310

9.2.1.3 Effect of the Capping Agent on the Size and Shape of Palladium NCs Made in Reverse Micelles 312

9.2.2 Role of the Strength of the Capping Agent–Metal Bond 315

9.2.3 Role of the Gas Dissolved in a Solvent 318

9.3 Synthesis of Platinum Nanocubes 321

9.4 Supercrystals Self-Assembled from Nonspherical NCs 323

9.5 Conclusions 333

References 335

10 Ordered and Nonordered Porous Superstructures from Metal Nanoparticles 339
Anne-Kristin Herrmann, Nadja C. Bigall, Lehui Lu, and Alexander Eychmüller

10.1 Introduction 339

10.2 Metallic Porous Superstructures 341

10.2.1 Ordered Porous Metallic Nanostructures 341

10.2.1.1 Preparation 342

10.2.1.2 Applications in Catalysis and as SERS Substrates 345

10.2.2 Nonordered Porous Superstructures on Biotemplates 347

10.2.3 Freestanding Nonordered Porous Superstructures 351

10.3 Summary and Outlook 355

References 355

11 Localized Surface Plasmons of Multifaceted Metal Nanoparticles 361
Cecilia Noguez and Ana L. González

11.1 Introduction 361

11.2 Light Absorption and Scattering by Metal NPs 363

11.2.1 Light Absorption Mechanisms 366

11.2.2 Surface Plasmon Resonances 367

11.2.3 Dielectric Function of Metal NPs 368

11.3 Spectral Representation Formalism 371

11.3.1 General Trends of SPRs of Metal NPs in Vacuum 373

11.3.2 General Trends of SPRs of Metal NPs in a Host Medium 374

11.4 Spherical and Spheroidal NPs 375

11.4.1 Nanospheres 375

11.4.2 Nanospheroids 378

11.4.3 Multishell NPs 379

11.5 Discrete Dipole Approximation 380

11.6 SPRs in Multifaceted Morphologies 383

11.6.1 Cubic Morphology 383

11.6.2 Decahedral Morphology 385

11.6.3 Elongated NPs with Complex Morphologies 388

11.7 Summary 390

References 391

12 Fluorophore–Metal Nanoparticle Interactions and Their Applications in Biosensing 395
Thomas A. Klar and Jochen Feldmann

12.1 Introduction 395

12.2 Fluorescence Decay Rates in the Vicinity of Metal Nanostructures 395

12.2.1 Physical Concept 395

12.2.2 Oligonucleotide Sensing 401

12.2.3 Protein Sensors 404

12.2.3.1 Unspecific Protein Sensors 405

12.2.3.2 Immunoassays 405

12.2.3.3 Aptamer-Based Sensing 407

12.2.4 Sensing Small Molecules (Haptens) 409

12.2.5 Ion Sensing 411

12.2.6 Fluorescence Enhancement Sensors 411

12.3 Shaping of Fluorescence Spectra by Metallic Nanostructures 412

12.4 Shaping of Extinction Spectra by Strong Coupling 417

12.4.1 Physical Concept 417

12.4.2 Biosensor Applications 419

12.5 Specific Issues on the Interaction of Fluorophores with Complex-Shaped Metallic Nanoparticles 419

12.5.1 Spectral Tunability 420

12.5.2 Encoding 421

References 422

13 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Complex-Shaped Metal Nanostructures 429
Frank Jäckel and Jochen Feldmann

13.1 Introduction 429

13.2 Basics 430

13.2.1 Raman Scattering 430

13.2.2 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering 431

13.3 Modeling 435

13.4 SERS Substrate Preparation 437

13.5 Fundamental Studies 439

13.5.1 Morphology Dependence 439

13.5.2 SERS with Single Particles 441

13.5.3 Single-Molecule SERS 443

13.5.4 Enhancement Mechanism 444

13.6 Applications 447

13.7 Conclusions and Outlook 448

References 449

14 Photothermal Effect of Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Related Bioapplications 455
Alexander O. Govorov, Zhiyuan Fan, and Alexander B. Neiman

14.1 Introduction 455

14.2 Theory of the Photothermal Effect for Single Nanoparticles and for Nanoparticle Clusters 458

14.2.1 Plasmonic Model 459

14.2.2 Mie Theory for a Single Spherical Nanoparticle 460

14.2.3 Effective Medium Approaches for the Dielectric Function and for the Thermal Conductivity of a Nanoparticle Cluster 462

14.2.4 Optically Generated Temperature 462

14.2.5 Mie Theory for Nanoparticles and Clusters 463

14.2.5.1 Small Spherical Nanoparticles and Clusters 463

14.2.5.2 Large Clusters 464

14.3 Physical Examples and Applications 467

14.3.1 Melting of the Matrix 467

14.3.2 Heating from a Collection of Nanoparticles: Heat Accumulation Effect 468

14.4 Application to Biological Cells: Control of Voltage Cellular Dynamics with Photothermal Actuation 471

14.5 Summary 474

References 474

15 Metal Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications 477
Jun Hui Soh and Zhiqiang Gao

15.1 Introduction 477

15.2 Biosensing and Diagnostics 478

15.2.1 Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Detection 479

15.2.2 Colorimetric Detection 482

15.2.3 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection 487

15.2.4 Electrochemical and Electrical Detection 491

15.2.5 Magnetic Resonance-Based Detection 495

15.3 Therapeutic Applications 498

15.3.1 Applications in Tissue Engineering 499

15.3.2 Application in Drug Delivery 501

15.3.3 Cancer Therapy 504

15.4 Bioimaging 508

15.5 Conclusions and Outlook 513

References 515

16 Anisotropic Nanoparticles for Efficient Thermoelectric Devices 521
Nguyen T. Mai, Derrick Mott, and Shinya Maenosono

16.1 Introduction 521

16.2 Chemical Synthesis Methods of Complex-Shaped TE NPs 523

16.2.1 Thermal Decomposition Method 523

16.2.2 Hydrothermal Method 523

16.2.3 Solvent-Based Reduction Method 523

16.2.4 Important Factors in the Synthesis Toward Complex-Shaped TE NPs 524

16.3 One-Dimensional TE NPs 525

16.3.1 Pb–(Te, Se) System 525

16.3.2 (Bi, Sb)–(Te, Se) System 528

16.4 Two-Dimensional TE NPs 531

16.4.1 Pb–(Te, Se) System 531

16.4.2 (Bi, Sb)–(Te, Se) System 531

16.5 Other Complex-Shaped TE NPs 535

16.6 Properties of Complex-Shaped TE NPs 538

16.7 Conclusions and Future Outlook 540

References 541

Index 545

See More
Tapan K. Sau is an associate professor at the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India. After his PhD in chemistry, obtained from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur, he had worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of South Carolina-Columbia and Clarkson University, USA, and as an assistant professor at the Panjab University in Chandigarh, India. From 2007 to 2009 he was an Alexander-von-Humboldt Research Fellow at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany. His research interests are in synthesis, spectroscopy and applications of colloidal metal nanocrystals. He has authored over 50 publications including patents and book chapters.

Andrey L. Rogach is chair professor at the Department of Physics and Materials Science of City University of Hong Kong. After his PhD in chemistry, obtained from the Belarusian State University in Minsk, he had worked as a research scientist at the University of Hamburg, Germany (1995-2002), and as a lead staff scientist at the Photonics and Optoelectronics group of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Germany (2002-2009), where he completed his habilitation in experimental physics. His research is focused on synthesis, assembly, optical spectroscopy and applications of colloidal semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, which has been extensively (over 12,000) times cited.
See More

“I would recommend it as an informative resource to anyone from students to experienced researchers.”  (Platinum Metals Review, 1 March 2013)

See More
Buy Both and Save 25%!
+

Complex-shaped Metal Nanoparticles: Bottom-Up Syntheses and Applications (US $210.00)

-and- Microfluidic Devices in Nanotechnology: Applications (US $160.00)

Total List Price: US $370.00
Discounted Price: US $277.50 (Save: US $92.50)

Buy Both
Cannot be combined with any other offers. Learn more.

Related Titles

Back to Top