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Characterization Techniques for Polymer Nanocomposites

Vikas Mittal (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33148-2
378 pages
August 2012
Characterization Techniques for Polymer Nanocomposites (3527331484) cover image
With its focus on the characterization of nanocomposites using such techniques as x-ray diffraction and spectrometry, light and electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy, this book helps to correctly interpret the recorded data. Each chapter introduces a particular characterization method, along with its foundations, and makes the user aware of its benefits, but also of its drawbacks.
As a result, the reader will be able to reliably predict the microstructure of the synthesized polymer nanocomposite and its thermal and mechanical properties, and so assess its suitability for a particular application.
Belongs on the shelf of every product engineer.
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Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

1 Characterization of Nanocomposite Materials: An Overview 1

Vikas Mittal

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Characterization of Morphology and Properties 2

1.3 Examples of Characterization Techniques 5

References 12

2 Thermal Characterization of Fillers and Polymer Nanocomposites 13

Vikas Mittal

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 TGA of Fillers 13

2.3 TGA of Polymer Nanocomposites 23

2.4 DSC of Fillers 25

2.5 DSC of Composites 26

3 Flame-Retardancy Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 33

Joseph H. Koo, Si Chon Lao, and Jason C. Lee

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Types of Flame-Retardant Nanoadditives 33

3.3 Thermal, Flammability, and Smoke Characterization Techniques 42

3.4 Thermal and Flame Retardancy of Polymer Nanocomposites 46

3.5 Flame Retardant Mechanisms of Polymer Nanocomposites 66

3.6 Concluding Remarks and Trends of Polymer Nanocomposites 68

Acknowledgments 69

References 69

4 PVT Characterization of Polymeric Nanocomposites 75

Leszek A. Utracki

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Components of Polymeric Nanocomposites 76

4.3 Pressure–Volume–Temperature (PVT) Measurements 79

4.4 Derivatives, Compressibility, and Thermal Expansion Coeffi cient 83

4.5 Thermodynamic Theories 89

4.6 Thermodynamic Interaction Coefficients 100

4.7 Theoretical Predictions 105

4.8 Summary and Conclusions 106

References 109

5 Following the Nanocomposites Synthesis by Raman Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 115

Sorina Alexandra Garea and Horia Iovu

5.1 Nanocomposites Based on POSS and Polymer Matrix 115

5.2 Raman and XPS Applied in Synthesis of Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Polymers 129

Acknowledgments 138

References 138

6 Tribological Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 143

Markus Englert and Alois K. Schlarb

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Tribological Fundamentals 144

6.3 Wear Experiments 149

6.4 Selection Criteria 152

6.5 Design of Polymer Nanocomposites and Multiscale Composites 153

6.6 Selected Experimental Results 153

References 165

7 Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy for Polymer Nanocomposites 167

Chetan Chanmal and Jyoti Jog

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Theory of Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy 168

7.3 PVDF/Clay Nanocomposites 171

7.4 PVDF/BaTiO3 Nanocomposites 175

7.5 PVDF/Fe3O4 Nanocomposites 177

7.6 Comparative Analysis of PVDF Nanocomposites 181

7.7 Conclusions 182

Acknowledgment 182

Nomenclature 182

References 183

8 AFM Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 185

Ken Nakajima, Dong Wang, and Toshio Nishi

8.1 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 185

8.2 Elasticity Measured by AFM 193

8.3 Example Studies 201

8.4 Conclusion 225

References 225

9 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Solid-State NMR Studies of the Surfactant Interphase in Polymer–Clay Nanocomposites 229

Gunnar Jeschke

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 NMR, EPR, and Spin Labeling Techniques 230

9.3 Characterization of Organically Modified Layered Silicates 237

9.4 Characterization of Nanocomposites 242

9.5 Conclusion 247

Acknowledgments 248

References 248

10 Characterization of Rheological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 251

Mo Song and Jie Jin

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 Fundamental Rheological Theory for Studying Polymer Nanocomposites 252

10.3 Characterization of Rheological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 257

10.4 Conclusions 279

References 280

11 Segmental Dynamics of Polymers in Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites Studied by Spin-Labeling ESR 283

Yohei Miwa, Shulamith Schlick, and Andrew R. Drews

11.1 Introduction 283

11.2 Spin Labeling: Basic Principles 284

11.3 Exfoliated Poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA)/Clay Nanocomposites 286

11.4 Intercalated Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/Clay Nanocomposites 293

11.5 Conclusions 300

Acknowledgments 301

References 301

12 Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposite Colloids by Sedimentation Analysis 303

Vikas Mittal

12.1 Introduction 303

12.2 Materials and Experimental Methods 305

12.3 Results and Discussion 307

12.4 Conclusions 319

Acknowledgments 320

References 320

13 Biodegradability Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 323

Katherine M. Dean, Parveen Sangwan, Cameron Way, and Melissa A.L. Nikolic

13.1 Introduction 323

13.2 Methods of Measuring Biodegradation 323

13.3 Standards for Biodegradation 331

13.4 Biodegradable Nanocomposites 331

13.5 Starch Nanocomposites 336

13.6 PCL Nanocomposites 337

13.7 PHA/PHB Nanocomposites 339

13.8 Nanocomposites of Petrochemical-Based Polymer 342

13.9 Conclusions 343

References 343

Index 347

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Vikas Mittal is an Assistant Professor at the Chemical Engineering Department of The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi. He obtained his PhD in 2006 in Polymer and Materials Engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. Later, he worked as Materials Scientist in the Active and Intelligent Coatings section of SunChemical in London, UK and as Polymer Engineer at BASF Polymer Research in Ludwigshafen, Germany. His research interests include polymer nanocomposites, novel filler surface modifications, thermal stability enhancements, polymer latexes with functionalized surfaces etc. He has authored over 40 scientific publications, book chapters and patents on these subjects.
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