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Catalytic Process Development for Renewable Materials

ISBN: 978-3-527-33169-7
420 pages
May 2013
Catalytic Process Development for Renewable Materials (3527331697) cover image
Green, clean and renewable are the hottest keywords for catalysis and industry. This handbook and ready reference is the first to combine the fields of advanced experimentation and catalytic process development for biobased materials in industry. It describes the entire workflow from idea, approach, research, and process development, right up to commercialization. A large part of the book is devoted to the use of advanced technologies and methodologies like high throughput experimentation, as well as reactor and process design models, with a wide selection of real-life examples included at each stage. The contributions are from authors at leading companies and institutes, providing firsthand
information and knowledge that is hard to find elsewhere.
This work is aimed at decision makers, engineers and chemists in industry, chemists and engineers working with/on renewables, chemists in the field of catalysis, and chemical engineers.
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The Next Feedstock Transition XIII

Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

1 The Industrial Playing Field for the Conversion of Biomass to
Renewable Fuels and Chemicals 1
Leo E. Manzer, Jan Cornelis van der Waal, and Pieter Imhof

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Renewables Arena 2

1.3 Renewable Fuels 9

1.4 Renewable Chemicals 18

1.5 Conclusions 22

References 22

2 Selecting Targets 25

Gene Petersen, Joseph Bozell, and James White

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Target Selection Can Focus on Specifi c Structures or General Technologies 28

2.3 Previous Selection Efforts 29

2.4 Corroboration of the Value of Screening Studies 37

2.5 The Importance of Outcomes and Comparisons of Outcomes 38

2.6 Evaluation Processes Can be Comprised of a Variety of Criteria 40

2.7 Catalysis Aspects 46

2.8 Conclusions 48

References 48

3 The Development of Catalytic Processes from Terpenes to Chemicals 51

Derek McPhee

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Strain Engineering for the Production of Terpenes 52

3.3 Terpene Building Blocks of Commercial Interest 55

3.4 Sesquiterpenes as Chemical Building Blocks: β-Farnesene 56

3.5 Polymers 58

3.6 Lubricants 66

3.7 Conclusions 75

References 76

4 Furan-Based Building Blocks from Carbohydrates 81

Robert-Jan van Putten, Ana Sousa Dias, and Ed de Jong

4.1 Importance of Furans as Building Blocks 81

4.2 Sources of Carbohydrates 82

4.3 Carbohydrate Dehydration 92

4.4 Conclusions and Further Perspectives 110

References 111

5 A Workflow for Process Design – Using Parallel Reactor Equipment Beyond Screening 119

Erik-Jan Ras

5.1 Introduction 119

5.2 The Evolution of Parallel Reactor Equipment 120

5.3 The Evolution of Research Methodology – Conceptual Process Design 121

5.4 Essential Workfl ow Elements 126

5.5 Other Examples of Parallel Reactor Equipment Applied Beyond Screening – Long-Term Catalyst Performance 143

5.6 Concluding Remarks 147

References 147

6 Braskem’s Ethanol to Polyethylene Process Development 149

Paulo Luiz de Andrade Coutinho, Augusto Teruo Morita, Luis F. Cassinelli, Antonio Morschbacker, and Roberto Werneck Do Carmo

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Ethanol and Brazil 150

6.3 Commercial Plants for Ethanol Dehydration 152

6.4 Legislation and Certifi cation 155

6.5 Process Description 156

6.6 Polymerization 162

6.7 Conclusion 162

Acknowledgments 162

References 163

7 Fats and Oils as Raw Material for the Chemical Industry 167

Aalbert (Bart) Zwijnenburg

7.1 Introduction – Setting the Scene, Definitions 167

7.2 Why Fats and Oils Need Catalytic Transformation 168

7.3 Catalytic Process Development – Conceptual 171

7.4 Fatty Alcohols: Then and Now, a Case Study 175

7.5 Conclusion and Outlook: Development Challenges for the Future 178

References 179

8 Production of Aromatic Chemicals from Biobased Feedstock 183

David Dodds and Bob Humphreys

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Chemical Routes to Aromatic Chemicals from Biomass 184

8.3 Biological Routes to Specifi c Aromatic Chemicals 194

8.4 Lignin – The Last Frontier 220

8.5 Considerations for Scale-Up and Commercialization 222

8.6 Conclusion 224

References 224

9 Organosolv Biorefining: Creating Higher Value from Biomass 239

E. Kendall Pye and Michael Rushton

9.1 Introduction 239

9.2 Concepts and Principles of Biorefinery Technologies 241

9.3 Catalytic Processes Employed in Biorefi ning 245

9.4 An Organosolv Biorefinery Process for High-Value Products 247

9.5 Conclusions 260

References 261

10 Biomass-to-Liquids by the Fischer–Tropsch Process 265

Erling Rytter, Esther Ochoa-Fernández, and Adil Fahmi

10.1 Basics of Fischer–Tropsch Chemistry and BTL 265

10.2 Cobalt Fischer–Tropsch Catalysis 272

10.3 Fischer–Tropsch Reactors 279

10.4 Biomass Pretreatment and Gasification 282

10.5 Biomass-to-Liquids Process Concepts 293

10.6 BTL Pilot and Demonstration Plants 301

10.7 XTL Energy and Carbon Efficiencies 303

10.8 BTL Summary and Outlook 304

References 305

11 Catalytic Transformation of Extractives 309

Päivi Mäki-Arvela, Irina L. Simakova, Tapio Salmi, and Dmitry Yu. Murzin

11.1 Introduction 309

11.2 Fine and Special Chemicals from Crude Tall Oil Compounds 313

11.3 Fine and Special Chemicals from Turpentine Compounds 317

11.4 Conclusions 335

11.5 Acknowledgment 336

References 336

12 Environmental Assessment of Novel Catalytic Processes Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Case Study for Furanics 341

Martin K. Patel, Aloysius J.J.E. Eerhart, and Deger Saygin

12.1 Introduction 341

12.2 Energy Savings by Catalytic Processes 343

12.3 LCA Methodology 346

12.4 Case Study: Energy Analysis and GHG Balance of Polyethylene Furandicarboxylate (PEF) as a Potential Replacement for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 348

12.5 Discussion and Conclusions 352

References 352

13 Carbon Dioxide: A Valuable Source of Carbon for Chemicals, Fuels and Materials 355

Michele Aresta and Angela Dibenedetto

13.1 Introduction 355

13.2 The Conditions for Industrial Use of CO2 356

13.3 Carbon Dioxide Conversion 359

13.4 Energy Products from CO2 371

13.5 Production of Inorganic Carbonates 373

13.6 Enhanced Fixation of CO2 into Aquatic Biomass 374

13.7 Conclusion and Future Outlook 378

References 379

Index 387


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Dr. Pieter Imhof is currently VP Strategic Account Management at Avantium Chemicals B.V., after having held several positions in Research and Development, Technical Service, Marketing and Product Development both at Akzo Nobel Catalysts and Albemarle. Within Avantium, Pieter has been responsible for Global Business Development, Sales and Marketing for high throughput services and systems in both Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry. Pieter obtained his M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees in Organometallic and Coordination Chemistry at the University of Amsterdam. He has published and contributed to over 100 scientific and conference papers and patents.

Dr. Jan Cornelis van der Waal is Principal Scientist at Avantium Chemicals B.V. He studied Chemical Engineering at the Delft University of Technology (1987-1993) and received his Ph.D. at the same institute in 1998. After a postdoctoral assignment at the Royal Dutch Shell research and technology centre in Amsterdam for 2 years, he was involved in the foundation of Avantium Chemicals in 2000 and has since then worked for Avantium Technologies. Currently he is Principal Scientist Catalysts covering the area of biorenewable feedstocks conversion, in particular of oxygenates such as sugars, syn gas chemistries such as Fischer-Tropsch, Methanol and Ethanol synthesis, as well as selective oxidations and hydrogenations. He has published over 60 scientific and conference papers and patents.

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“Overall, especially for an edited book, this is a well organized book showing the overall story, rather than giving only pieces of a puzzle . . . It makes for an entertaining read. The book is certainly more suited to researchers in the field or at least with some background information.”  (Green Processing and Synthesis, 1 August 2013)


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