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Handbook of Paper and Board, 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition, 2 Volume Set

Herbert Holik (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33184-0
992 pages
May 2013
Handbook of Paper and Board, 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition, 2 Volume Set (3527331840) cover image

Papermaking is a fascinating art and technology. The second edition of this successful handbook provides a comprehensive view on the technical, economic, ecologic and social background of paper and board. It has been updated, revised and largely extended in depth and width including the further use of paper and board in converting and printing. A wide knowledge basis is a prerequisite in evaluating and optimizing the whole process chain to ensure efficient paper and board production. The same is true in their application and end use.

The 2 Volume Set covers a wide range of topics:

  • Raw materials required for paper and board manufacturing such as fibers, chemical additives and fillers
  • Processes and machinery applied to prepare the stock and to produce the various paper and board grades including automation and trouble shooting
  • Paper converting and printing processes, book preservation
  • The different paper and board grades as well as testing and analysing fiber suspensions, paper and board products, and converted or printed matters
  • Environmental and energy factors as well as safety aspects

The handbook provides professionals in the field, e. g. papermakers as well as converters and printers, laymen, students, politicians and other interested people with the most up-to-date and comprehensive information on the state-of- the-art techniques and aspects involved in paper making, converting and printing.


From the reviews of the previous edition:

"…excellent and easily accessible to the non-engineer and... the general reader." –CHOICE

"…a one-of-a-kind text on paper production-a selection observed for its crisp and sharp efficiency."  –Electric Review

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Volume 1

Preface XXXVII

List of Contributors to the Second Edition XXXIX

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Paper and Board Today 1
Herbert Holik

1.2 Paper and Board Manufacturing – an Overview 3

1.3 Economic Aspects 9
Thomas Moldenhauer and Gert-Heinz Rentrop

1.4 Historical Background and General Aspects 13
Peter F. Tschudin

1.5 A Philosophy of Papermaking: Life Lessons on the Formation of Paper and People 26
Wilhelm Kufferath von Kendenich

References 30

Further Reading for Section 1.3 31

Further Reading for Section 1.5 31

2 Fibrous Materials for Paper and Board Manufacture 33

2.1 Overview 33
Jürgen Blechschmidt and Sabine Heinemann

2.2 Chemical Pulp 34
Sabine Heinemann and Jürgen Blechschmidt

2.3 Mechanical Pulp 47

2.4 Recovered Paper, Recycled Fibers 59
Hans-Joachim Putz

2.5 Wood Pulp Fiber Suspensions 85
Geoffrey G. Duffy

References 104

3 Mineral Fillers in Papermaking 109
Maximilian Laufmann

3.1 History of the Use of Mineral Fillers in Papermaking 109

3.2 Global Mineral Consumption in the Paper and Board Industry 110

3.3 Why Use Mineral Fillers in Paper and Board? 111

3.4 Filler Loading Increase via Surface Application 115

3.5 Choice of Fillers 116

3.6 Characterization of Fillers 117

3.7 Main Mineral Fillers 124

3.8 Specialty Filler Pigments 136

3.9 Preservation of Pigment Slurries 140
Silvia Hubschmid

3.10 Outlook 141
Maximilian Laufmann

Acknowledgment 142

References 142

4 Functional Chemicals 145

4.1 Overview 145
Roland Pelzer

4.2 Starches in Papermaking 146
Johan Schrijver

4.3 Colorants 160
Klaus-Peter Kreutzer

4.4 Optical Brightening Agents (OBA), Fluorescent Whitening Agents (FWAs) 178
Bernhard Hunke and Günter Klug

4.5 Sizing Agents 192
Jochen Hoffmann

4.6 Wet-Strength Resins (WSR) and Dry Strength Resins (DSR) 207
Gunnar Kramer and Dominik Stumm

4.7 Properties of Specialty Papers and Related Chemical Additives 226
Roland Pelzer

References 233

Further Reading for Section 4.2 233

Further Reading for Section 4.5 234

Further Reading for Section 4.6 234

5 Coating Colors – Components, Make Down, and Properties 235
Reinhard Sangl, Werner J. Auhorn, Thoralf Gliese, and Werner Kogler

5.1 Overview 235

5.2 Coating Color Components 238

5.3 Properties of Coating Colors 272

5.4 Coating Color Preparation 278

Further Reading 290

6 Process Chemicals 291

6.1 Overview 291
Roland Pelzer

6.2 Aluminum Compounds 291
Hubert Dörrer

6.3 Retention Aids and Drainage Accelerators 295
Jan-Luiken Hemmes

6.4 Fixatives and Charge Control 300
Antonius Moormann-Schmitz

6.5 Deposit Control and Biocides 309
Ute Höötmann

6.6 Defoamers and Deaerators 316
Christoph Blickenstorfer

6.7 Chelating Agents 322
Gunnar Kramer

6.8 Additives for Repulping 325

6.9 Deinking Additives 327

6.10 Cleaning Agents and Fabric Conditioning 330
Kathrin Otto and Christoph Blickenstorfer

6.11 Internal Water and Effluent Treatment 336
Arne Hörsken, Andreas Opalka, and Stefan Nierhoff

6.12 Interactions of Chemical Additives 344
Roland Pelzer

References 348

Further Reading for Section 6.5 349

7 Unit Operations 351

7.1 Overview 351
Herbert Holik and Harald Heß

7.2 Fiber Materials Feeding 359
Harald Heß and Herbert Holik

7.3 Disintegration 362
Harald Heß, Herbert Holik, and Wolfgang Müller

7.4 Screening 377
Harald Heß and Herbert Holik

7.5 Centrifugal Cleaning 397

7.6 Selective Flotation 411

7.7 Nonselective Flotation (Dissolved Air Flotation DAF) 426

7.8 Fractionation 430

7.9 Dewatering 434

7.10 Washing 442

7.11 Mixing and Storing 446

7.12 Bleaching of Secondary Fibers 451

7.13 Refining 454
Herbert Holik and Oliver Lüdtke

7.14 Dispersion 462
Harald Heß and Herbert Holik

References 470

Further Reading for Section 7.6 472

Further Reading for Section 7.13 472

8 Systems for Fiber Stock Preparation 473
Oliver Lüdtke and Andrea Stetter

8.1 Objectives 473

8.2 Historical Review of Stock Preparation Systems 473

8.3 Systems for Primary Fiber Preparation 476

8.4 Systems for Secondary Fiber Preparation 478

8.5 Systems for Broke Treatment 487

8.6 Peripheral Systems in Secondary Fiber Preparation 488

8.7 Process Engineering and Automation 488

References 489

Further Reading 489

9 The Integrated Recycled Paper Mill (IRPM) 491

9.1 Environmental Aspects and Profitability 491
Lucas Menke

9.2 Subsystems and Peripheral Systems of the Integrated Recycled Paper Mill 493

9.3 Subsystems for Water, Reject, and Sludge (WSR) 499

9.4 Water Circuits 501
Lucas Menke and Andrea Stetter

9.5 Reject Systems 510
Lucas Menke

9.6 Sludge Dewatering Systems 528

9.7 Wastewater 532
Lucas Menke and Udo Hamm

9.8 Reject and Residual Disposal, Waste to Energy, Replacement Fuels for Incineration 539

References 549

10 Paper and Board Machines and Their Components 551

10.1 Overview 551
Herbert Holik and Johann Moser

10.2 Rolls in Paper and Board Machines 560

10.3 Roll Covers and Coatings 575
Yang Shieh, Johan Einarsson, Franz Grohmann, and Norbert Gamsjäger

Volume 2

List of Contributors to the Second Edition XXXVII

11 Fabrics for Paper and Board Production 591
Matthias W. Schmitt

11.1 Forming Fabrics 592

Matthias Höhsl and Arved Westerkamp

11.2 Press Felts 598
Matthias W. Schmitt

11.3 Dryer Fabrics 603
Juergen Abraham and Antony Morton

11.4 Fabrics in Operation 606
Matthias W. Schmitt

11.5 Changing of Fabrics 615
Herbert Holik and Johann Moser

References 617

Further Reading for Section 11.4 617

12 Approach Flow System 619
Christian Bangert, Herbert Holik, and Andrea Stetter

12.1 Definition and Tasks of the Approach Flow System 619

12.2 Metering and Mixing of the Stock Components and Feed to the Headbox 620

12.3 Final Cleaning and Screening 622

12.4 Air in the Papermaking Process and Its Removal 623

12.5 Further Aspects 628

12.6 Approach Flow Design 630

References 634

13 Headbox 635
Herbert Holik, Johann Moser, and Thomas Ruehl

13.1 Overview and Principle Aspects 635

13.2 Historical Review 639

13.3 State-of-the-Art Headboxes 642

13.4 Influence of Operational and Design Parameters on Technological Results 651

References 657

14 Wire Section 659
Herbert Holik, Johann Moser, and Thomas Ruehl

14.1 Overview and Theoretical Aspects 659

14.2 Historical Review 663

14.3 State-of-the-Art Web Forming Designs 666

14.4 Machine Elements 670

14.5 Wires 672

14.6 Operational and Technological Aspects 672

References 678

15 Press Section 679
Herbert Holik, Daniel Gronych, and Joachim Henssler

15.1 Introduction 679

15.2 Theoretical Aspects of Press Dewatering 681

15.3 State-of-the-Art Press Sections 689

15.4 Historical Review 694

15.5 Further Approaches in Pressing 695

15.6 Operational and Technological Aspects 698

15.7 Impact of Wet Pressing on Paper Surface Properties 705

Acknowledgments 710

References 710

16 Dryer Section 713
Herbert Holik and Roland Mayer

16.1 Overview 713

16.2 Drying Principles and Basics 713

16.3 Basics Related to Paper Drying 725

16.4 Dryer Sections 730

References 744

17 Surface Sizing and Coating 745
Reinhard Sangl, Werner Auhorn, Werner Kogler, and Martin Tietz

17.1 Surface Sizing 745

17.2 Coating 747

17.3 Coated Paper and Board Grades 783

References 784

Further Reading 784

18 Calendering 785
Rüdiger Feldmann

18.1 Objective and General Description of the Calendering Process 785

18.2 History of Calendering 786

18.3 The Different Calender Types 789

18.4 The Main Calendering Methods for Various Paper and Board Grades 795

References 800

Further Reading 800

19 Reeling 801
Matthias Wohlfahrt

19.1 Objectives and Basics 801

19.2 History 802

19.3 New Generation Reels 804

19.4 Reel Drum Design 806

19.5 Turnup Systems 808

References 811

20 Paper, Packaging, and Carton Board Machines 813
Herbert Holik

20.1 Graphic Paper Machines 813
Johann Moser and Herbert Holik

20.2 Packaging Paper Machines 820
Herbert Holik and Stevan Lomic

20.3 Carton Board Machines 823

20.4 Tissue Machines 827
Herbert Holik, Rogério Berardi, and Thomas Scherb

20.5 Specialty Paper Machines 833
Peter Mirsberger

21 Finishing 841
Rüdiger Feldmann

21.1 Reel Slitting 841

21.2 Roll Handling 849

22 Control Systems for Paper Machines 859
Rudolf Münch

22.1 Objective and General Terms of PM Control Systems 859

22.2 Quality Control System (QCS) 864

22.3 Information Systems 875

23 Uniformity of Paper Web Properties 879
Herbert Holik and Johann Moser

23.1 Overview 879

23.2 MD Profiles 881

23.3 CD Profiles 887

23.4 Some Aspects of MD and CD Basis Weight Profile Tests in the Laboratory 900

23.5 Symmetry in z-Direction 903

23.6 Formation 907

References 909

24 Paper and Board Converting and Printing 911

24.1 Converting Processes for Paper and Board 911
Renke Wilken

24.2 Testing of Converting Products 937
Irene Pollex

24.3 Printing Technologies 953
Simon Stahl and Edgar Dörsam

24.4 Requirements on Paper 966
Rainer Klein and Martina Miletíc

References 979

Further Reading for Section 24.2 981

Further Reading for Section 24.3 981

25 Health and Safety 983

25.1 Occupational Health and Safety 983
Winfried Harren

25.2 Noise Abatement and Protection 995
Herbert Holik

References 1002

26 Plant Engineering and Energy 1003

26.1 Plant Engineering 1003
Thomas Mack

26.2 Energy 1013
Hermann-Josef Post

27 Environmentally Friendly Paper and Board Production 1021
Günter Müller and Ingrid Demel

27.1 Background 1021

27.2 Environmental Relevance along the Value Chain of Paper and Board Production 1021

27.3 Sustainability 1023

27.4 Resource Utilization in Paper and Board Production 1023

27.4.1 Virgin Pulps 1024

27.5 Evaluation and Communication of Environmental Impacts 1026

27.6 Practical Implementation of Environmental Issues 1031

References 1032

28 Paper and Board Grades and Their Properties 1035
Heinz-Joachim Schaffrath and Otmar Tillmann

28.1 The Material Paper: A Survey 1035

28.2 Types of Paper, Board, and Cardboard 1040

References 1058

Further Reading 1058

29 Testing of Fibers, Suspensions, and Paper and Board Grades 1059
Heinz-Joachim Schaffrath and Otmar Tillmann

29.1 General Aspects 1059

29.2 Testing of Fibrous Material 1061

29.3 Testing of Fiber Suspensions 1064

29.4 Testing of Paper and Board 1070

References 1086

Further Reading 1086

30 Book and Paper Preservation 1087
Manfred Anders

30.1 Introduction 1087

30.2 Mechanisms of Paper Deterioration 1088

30.3.1 Overview 1092

30.4 Current Commercial Processes 1098

30.5 Strengthening Old and Brittle Paper 1103

30.5.1 Overview 1103

30.6 Commercial Prospects 1105

References 1106

31 Paper Associations 1109

Herbert Holik

Index 1113

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After obtaining his diploma in mechanical engineering from the University of Stuttgart, Germany, Herbert Holik spent three years in R&D for cryogenics. He then worked for over 35 years in the paperrelated supplier industry holding responsible positions, mainly in R&D. He has taught as a lecturer and guest lecturer at various national and international universities. Herbert Holik is coauthor of several books and encyclopaedias related to paper science and authored a large number of technical and scientific papers. His numerous patents cover most areas of paper making. He was an active member of national and international working groups on paper technology, machinery safety, testing and standardization as well as education.

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