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Chemical Synthesis and Applications of Graphene and Carbon Materials

Markus Antonietti (Editor), Klaus Mullen (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33208-3
272 pages
March 2017
Chemical Synthesis and Applications of Graphene and Carbon Materials (3527332081) cover image


This ready reference and handbook is unique in its focus on synthesis and the application of graphene and other carbon materials with an emphasis on chemistry aspects. To this extent, it deals with top-down and bottom-up approaches across the different length scales for graphene from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets, as well as carbon materials from quantum dots, nanostructured particles, and fibers, right up to tubes, bulk structures, and much more besides. In so doing, it presents the best synthetic methods: pyrolysis, chemical vapor deposition, templating and surface-mediated synthesis, self-assembly, surface-grafting and modification.
Edited by two excellent, experienced and highly renowned editors, both of whom are directors of Max Planck Institutes.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

1 Block Copolymer Templating as a Path to Porous Nanostructured Carbons with Highly Accessible Nitrogens for Enhanced (Electro)chemical Performance 1
John P. McGann, Mingjiang Zhong, Eun Kyung Kim, Sittichai Natesakhawat, Mietek Jaroniec, Jay F. Whitacre, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, and Tomasz Kowalewski

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Electronic Properties of Graphene Edges 2

1.3 Edge Functionalization of Graphene 3

1.4 Block Copolymer Templating as a Path to High Surface Area N-Doped Carbons with Accessible Nitrogen-Containing Graphitic Edges 5

1.5 Evidence of Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Nitrogen-Rich Copolymer-Templated Mesoporous Carbons 8

1.6 CTNCs as CO2 Sorbents 12

1.7 Conclusions 13

2 Functional Carbon Materials from Ionic Liquid Precursors 21
Jens Peter Paraknowitsch and Arne Thomas

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Ionic Liquids as Carbon Precursors 22

2.3 N-Doped Carbon Materials 23

2.4 From Ionic Liquids to Carbon Materials – Structural Development during Carbonization 25

2.5 N-Doped Carbon Materials from Ionic Liquid Precursors 26

2.6 Processing, Shaping, and Functionalization 30

2.7 Deep Eutectic Solvents – Supramolecular ILs for Carbon Materials 32

2.8 Applications of IL Derived Carbons 34

2.9 Conclusion 36

3 Functionalization of Graphene Oxide by Two-Step Alkylation 43
Yi Huang, Weibo Yan, Yanfei Xu, Lu Huang, and Yongsheng Chen

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Results and Discussion 43

3.3 Conclusion 49

4 Toward Rationally Designed Graphene-Based Materials and Devices 53
Yu Teng Liang and Mark C. Hersam

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Graphene Synthesis 54

4.3 Structure–Property Relationships 55

4.4 Graphene Separation 57

4.5 Graphene-Based Catalysis 59

4.6 Graphene Functionalization and Templating 61

4.7 Conclusion 62

5 Supramolecular Synthesis of Graphenic Mesogenic Materials 69
Fei Guo and Robert Hurt

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 Liquid Crystal Precursors and Phases 71

5.3 Methods for Directing Assembly 74

5.4 Graphenic Mesogenic Materials and their Applications 77

5.5 Comparison of Thermotropic and Lyotropic Assembly Routes 80

5.6 Outlook 81

6 Synthesis and Characterization of Hexahapto-Chromium Complexes of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes 87
Irina Kalinina, Elena Bekyarova, Santanu Sarkar, Mikhail E. Itkis, Sandip Niyogi, Neetu Jha, Qingxiao Wang, Xixiang Zhang, Yas Fadel Al-Hadeethi, and Robert C. Haddon

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 Experimental Section 89

6.3 Results and Discussion 91

6.4 Raman Spectroscopy 102

6.5 Conclusions 110

7 Chemical Synthesis of Carbon Materials with Intriguing Nanostructure and Morphology 115
An-Hui Lu, Guang-Ping Hao, Qiang Sun, Xiang-Qian Zhang, and Wen-Cui Li

7.1 Introduction 115

7.2 Zero-Dimensional Carbon Materials: Carbon Quantum Dots and Carbon Spheres 116

7.3 One-Dimensional (1D) Carbon Materials 129

7.4 Two-Dimensional (2D) Carbon Materials: Membranes and Films 131

7.5 Three-Dimensional (3D) Carbon Materials: Monoliths 135

7.6 Summary and Outlook 147

8 Novel Radiation-Induced Properties of Graphene and Related Materials 159
Prashant Kumar, Barun Das, Basant Chitara, K. S. Subrahmanyam, H.S.S. Ramakrishna Matte, Urmimala Maitra, K. Gopalakrishnan, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Radiation-Induced Reduction of Graphene Oxide 159

8.3 Nanopatterning 163

8.4 Blue Emission from Graphene-Based Materials 167

8.5 Photothermal Effects in Laser-Induced Chemical Transformations 170

8.6 Graphene as an Infrared Photodetector 172

8.7 Reduced Graphene Oxide as an Ultraviolet Detector 178

8.8 Laser-Induced Unzipping of Carbon Nanotubes to Yield Graphene Nanoribbons 178

8.9 Generation of Graphene and Other Inorganic Graphene Analogs by Laser-Induced Exfoliation in Dimethylformamide 180

8.10 Conclusion 184

9 Heterofullerenes: Doped Buckyballs 191
Max von Delius and Andreas Hirsch

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Heterofullerenes (CnXm), Azafullerenes (CnNm) and their Properties 191

9.3 Synthesis and Functionalization of Azafullerenes: An Overview 196

9.4 Recent Developments: Pentaadducts C59N(R)5, Synthetic Efforts Toward C58N2, Azafullerene Peapods, Endohedral Azametallofullerenes, and Application of Azafullerenes in Organic Solar Cells 200

9.5 Conclusions 210

10 Graphene–Inorganic Composites as Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries 217
Bin Wang, Bin Luo, Xianglong Li, and Linjie Zhi

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Graphene/0D Inorganic Composites for LIBs 220

10.3 Graphene/1D Inorganic Composites for LIBs 230

10.4 Graphene/2D Inorganic Composites for LIBs 234

10.5 Summary and Future Outlook 237

References 238

Index 251

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Author Information

Markus Antonietti has been Director of the Colloid Chemistry department at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam-Golm since 1993. He has co-authored about 650 papers in an interdisciplinary fashion, covering polymer science, colloid science, material chemistry, nanoscience, and physical chemistry. His broad work covers energy materials, sustainability issues, and artificial photosynthesis and is well taken by the science market (H-index 126). Besides being devoted to chemistry, he loves to do new edible preparations in the kitchen and is an active member of a Rock'n' Roll band.

Klaus Müllen joined the Max Planck Society in 1989 as one of the directors of the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research. His broad research interests range from the development of new polymer-forming reactions to the chemistry of graphenes, dendrimers and biosynthetic hybrids. His work encompasses the formation of multi-dimensional polymers with complex shape-persistent architectures, nanocomposites, and molecular materials with liquid crystalline properties for electronic and optoelectronic devices. He owns about 60 patents and has published more than 1700 papers.

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