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Heterogeneous Catalysts for Clean Technology: Spectroscopy, Design, and Monitoring

Karen Wilson (Editor), Adam F. Lee (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33213-7
504 pages
December 2013
Heterogeneous Catalysts for Clean Technology: Spectroscopy, Design, and Monitoring (3527332138) cover image
Reactive, but not a reactant. Heterogeneous catalysts play an unseen role in many of today's processes and products. With the increasing emphasis on sustainability in both products and processes, this handbook is the first to combine the hot topics of heterogeneous catalysis and clean technology.

It focuses on the development of heterogeneous catalysts for use in clean chemical synthesis, dealing with how modern spectroscopic techniques can aid the design of catalysts for use in liquid phase reactions, their application in industrially important chemistries - including selective oxidation, hydrogenation, solid acid- and base-catalyzed processes - as well as the role of process intensification and use of renewable resources in improving the sustainability of chemical processes.

With its emphasis on applications, this book is of high interest to those working in the industry.
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INTRODUCTION TO CLEAN TECHNOLOGY AND CATALYSIS
Green Chemistry and Clean Technology
Green Chemistry Metrics
Alternative Solvents
Heterogeneous or Homogeneous
Alternative Energy Reactors for Green Chemistry
Concluding Remarks

MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF ALCOHOL SELECTIVE OXIDATION
Introduction
Metal-Catalyzed Alcohol Selox
Oxide, Sulfide, and Vanadate Catalysts
Solvent Selection
In Situ and Operando X-Ray Studies of Selox Catalysts
Conclusions

REACTION MONITORING IN MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS: APPLICATION OF COUPLED IN SITU SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
Introduction
Method Coupling
Spectroscopic Reactors and Practical Aspects
Selected Examples of Use
Conclusion and Outlook

IN SITU STUDIES ON PHOTOCATALYTIC MATERIALS, SURFACE INTERMEDIATES, AND REACTION MECHANISM
Introduction
In Situ Investigations
Concluding Remarks

ENANTIOSELECTIVE HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Introduction
Strategies for the Creation of Enantioselective Heterogeneous Catalysts
Concluding Remarks -
A Comparison of the Various Approaches to Heterogeneous Enantioselective Catalysts

MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF SOLID ACIDS AND BASE-CATALYZED CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES
Introduction
New Catalytic Systems
Biomass Conversions
Summary

SITE-ISOLATED HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS
Introduction
Assembled Monolayers of Metal Complexes on Single-Crystal Surfaces
Reaction-Induced and Photoinduced Formation of Unsaturated Ru Complexes Supported on SiO2 Surfaces
Manganese Triazacyclononane Catalysts Grafted under Reaction Conditions
Well-Defined Silica-Supported Mo-Imido Alkylidene Complexes for Metathesis
Double Catalytic Activation Using a Bifunctional Catalyst with both Acid and Base on Solid Surfaces
Summary

DESIGNING POROUS INORGANIC ARCHITECTURES
Introduction
Templated Methods for the Preparation of Ordered Porous Materials
Hierarchical Porous Materials
Concluding Remarks

TAILORED NANOPARTICLES FOR CLEAN TECHNOLOGY -
ACHIEVING SIZE AND SHAPE CONTROL
Introduction
Size Effects-Setting the Scene
Size Effects Illustrated by Way of Examples of Selected Industrially Important Reactions
Shape Effects
Conclusion

APPLICATIO OF METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS IN FINE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
Metal-Organic Frameworks as Heterogeneous Catalysts
Applications in Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation
Applications in Oxidation, Carbon-Oxygen, and Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation
Applications in Asymmetric Synthesis
Concluding Remarks

PROCESS INTENSIFICATION FOR CLEAN CATALYTIC TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Effect of Transport Phenomena on Heterogeneous Catalysis
Conclusion

RECENT TRENDS IN OPERANDO AND IN SITU CHARACTERIZATION: TECHNIQUES FOR RATIONAL DESIGN OF CATALYSTS
Introduction
Catalyst Nascence
Synthesis of Silicalite-1 Molecular Sieves
Preparation of Supported Metal Catalysts
Catalyst Life
Elucidating the Reaction Mechanism of Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol
Determination of the Active Sites in Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol
Catalyst Death
Methanol to Hydrocarbons
Propane Dehydrogenation
Summary and Conclusions

APPLICATION OF NMR IN ONLINE MONITORING OF CATALYST PERFORMANCE
Online Monitoring with NMR Spectroscopy
Quantitative NMR Spectroscopy in Technical Samples
Flow and High-Pressure NR Spectroscopy for Reaction Monitoring
Selected Applications of NMR in Online Monitoring of Catalyst Performance
Conclusions

AMBIENT-PRESSURE X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY
Introduction
Technical Aspects
Applications of APXPS
Outlook

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Dr Wilson was educated at the Universities of Cambridge (PhD supervisor: Prof. Richard Lambert) and Liverpool. She moved to York in 1998, undertaking post-doctoral research on new mesoporous solid acids with Prof. James Clark, and was subsequently appointed to a lectureship at York in 1999. Karen was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2007, prior to her appointment as Reader in Physical Chemistry at Cardiff University. Her research interests lie in the design of hierarchical porous solid catalysts for clean chemical synthesis, particularly the development of tuneable solid acids and bases for sustainable bio-diesel synthesis. She has recently been awarded a Royal Society Industry fellowship to work on new catalysts for biofuel production.

Prof Lee carried out undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the University of Cambridge (PhD supervisor: Prof. Richard Lambert). He was appointed to a lectureship at the University of Hull in 1996, before moving to the University of York where he was promoted to Senior Lecturer (2006). In 2009, Adam was awarded an EPSRC Leadership Fellowship and appointed Professor of Physical Chemistry at Cardiff University. His research interests lie in the design of tailored nanocatalysts for green chemistry, and the development of in situ methodologies to provide mechanistic insight into surface processes.
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