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Fuel Cells: Data, Facts, and Figures

Detlef Stolten (Editor), Remzi C. Samsun (Editor), Nancy Garland (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33240-3
408 pages
May 2016
Fuel Cells: Data, Facts, and Figures (3527332405) cover image

Description

This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology.

Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards.

The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.

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Table of Contents

Preface XV

Part I Transportation 1

I-1 Propulsion 1

I-1.1 Benchmarks and Definition of Criteria 1

1 Battery Electric Vehicles 3
Bruno Gnörich and Lutz Eckstein

References 11

2 Passenger Car Drive Cycles 12
Thomas Grube

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Drive Cycles for Passenger Car Type Approval 13

2.3 Drive Cycles from Research Projects 14

2.4 Drive Cycle Characteristics 14

2.5 Graphic Representation of Selected Drive Cycles 16

2.6 Conclusion 21

References 21

3 Hydrogen Fuel Quality 22
James M. Ohi

3.1 Introduction 22

3.2 Hydrogen Fuel 23

3.3 Fuel Quality Effects 25

3.4 Fuel Quality for Fuel Cell Vehicles 25

3.5 Single Cell Tests 26

3.6 Field Data 26

3.7 Fuel Quality Verification 27

3.8 Conclusion 28

References 29

4 Fuel Consumption 30
Amgad Elgowainy and Erika Sutherland

4.1 Introduction 30

4.2 Hydrogen Production 31

4.3 Hydrogen Packaging 31

4.4 Hydrogen Consumption in FCEVs 32

4.5 Conclusion 34

References 34

I-1.2 Demonstration 37

I-1.2.1 Passenger Cars 37

5 Global Development Status of Fuel Cell Vehicles 39
Remzi Can Samsun

5.1 Introduction 39

5.2 Update on Recent Activities of Car Manufacturers 40

5.3 Key Data and Results from Demonstration Programs 41

5.4 Technical Data of Fuel Cell Vehicles 47

5.4.1 Daimler 47

5.4.2 Ford 47

5.4.3 GM/Opel 50

5.4.4 Honda 51

5.4.5 Hyundai/Kia 51

5.4.6 Nissan 52

5.4.7 Toyota 53

5.4.8 Volkswagen 55

5.5 Conclusions 57

References 58

6 Transportation – China – Passenger Cars 61
Yingru Zhao

6.1 Introduction 61

6.2 National R&D Strategy (2011–2015) 62

6.3 Government Policy 63

6.4 Published Technical Standards 63

6.5 Demonstrations 65

6.6 Commercialization – Case of SAIC Motor 67

6.7 Conclusions 67

References 68

7 Results of Country Specific Program – Korea 69
Tae-Hoon Lim

7.1 Introduction 69

7.2 FCV Demonstration Program 70

VI Contents

7.2.1 The 1st Phase of the FCV Demonstration Project 70

7.2.2 The 2nd Phase of the FCV Demonstration Project 70

7.3 Summary 72

8 GM HydroGen4 – A Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle based on the Chevrolet Equinox 75
Ulrich Eberle and Rittmar von Helmolt

8.1 Introduction 75

8.2 Technology 76

8.3 Conclusions 84

Acknowledgments 85

References 86

I-1.2.2 Buses 87

9 Results of Country Specific Programs – USA 89
Leslie Eudy

9.1 Introduction 89

9.2 FCEB Descriptions 90

9.3 SunLine Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Electric Bus 90

9.3.1 Fuel Economy 91

9.3.2 Availability 92

9.4 Zero Emission Bay Area Program 92

9.4.1 Fuel Economy 94

9.4.2 Availability 94

9.5 SunLine American Fuel Cell Bus 95

9.5.1 Fuel Economy 96

9.5.2 Availability 97

9.6 Conclusion 98

References 98

I-1.3 PEM fuel cells 99

10 Polymer Electrolytes 101
John Kopasz and Cortney Mittelsteadt

10.1 Introduction 101

10.2 Membrane Properties 102

10.2.1 Water uptake and Swelling 102

10.2.2 Protonic Conductivity 103

10.2.3 Permeability 104

10.2.4 Membrane Mechanical Properties and Durability 107

10.3 Conclusions 108

References 108

11 MEAs for PEM Fuel Cells 110
Andrew J. Steinbach and Mark K. Debe

11.1 Introduction 110

11.2 MEA Basic Components (PEMs, Catalysts, GDLs and Gaskets) 111

11.3 MEA Performance, Durability, and Cost Targets for Transportation 112

11.4 MEA Robustness and Sensitivity to External Factors 115

11.5 Technology Gaps 117

11.6 Conclusion 118

References 118

12 Gas Diffusion Layer 121
Sehkyu Park

12.1 Introduction 121

12.2 Macroporous Substrate 122

12.3 Microporous Layer 123

12.4 Characterization of GDL 124

12.5 Conclusion 126

References 127

13 Materials for PEMFC Bipolar Plates 128
Heli Wang and John A. Turner

13.1 Introduction 128

13.2 Composite BP Materials 130

13.3 Metallic BP Materials 131

13.3.1 Light Alloys 131

13.3.2 Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates 132

13.3.2.1 Metal-Based Coatings 132

13.3.2.2 Carbon/Polymer-Based Coatings 133

13.3.3 Remarks 133

Acknowledgments 133

References 133

14 Single Cell for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 135
Hyoung-Juhn Kim

14.1 Introduction 135

14.2 Main Components of a Single Cell for a PEMFC 136

14.3 Assembly of a Single Cell 137

14.4 Measurement of a Single Cell Performance 138

14.5 Conclusions 139

References 139

I-1.4 Hydrogen 141

I-1.4.1 On board storage 141

15 Pressurized System 143
Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua

15.1 Introduction 143

15.2 High Pressure Storage System 144

15.3 Cost 147

15.4 Conclusions 148

References 148

16 Metal Hydrides 149
Vitalie Stavila and Lennie Klebanoff

16.1 Metal Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Media 149

16.2 Classes of Metal Hydrides 152

16.2.1 Interstitial Metal Hydrides 152

16.2.2 Magnesium and Magnesium-Based Alloys 153

16.2.3 Complex Metal Hydrides 154

16.2.3.1 Off-Board Reversible Metal Hydrides 157

16.3 How Metal Hydrides Could Be Improved 157

References 160

17 Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage 162
Tobias Brunner, Markus Kampitsch, and Oliver Kircher

17.1 Introduction 162

17.2 Thermodynamic Principles 163

17.3 System Design and Operating Principles 167

17.4 Validation and Safety 169

17.5 Summary 172

References 173

I-1.4.2 On board safety 175

18 On-Board Safety 177
Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua

18.1 Introduction 177

18.2 High Pressure Fuel Container System 179

18.3 Hydrogen Refueling Requirements and Safety 180

18.4 Conclusions 182

References 182

I-2 Auxiliary power units (APU) 183

19 Fuels for APU Applications 185
Remzi Can Samsun

19.1 Introduction 185

19.2 Diesel Fuel 186

19.2.1 Petroleum-Based Diesel Fuels 186

19.2.2 Non-Petroleum-Based Diesel Fuels 187

19.3 Jet Fuel 189

19.3.1 Petroleum-Based Jet Fuels 189

19.3.2 Non-Petroleum-Based Jet Fuels 190

19.4 Other Fuels 190

19.4.1 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 190

19.4.2 Methanol 192

19.5 Conclusion 195

References 195

20 Application Requirements/Targets for Fuel Cell APUs 197
Jacob S. Spendelow and Dimitrios C. Papageorgopoulos

20.1 Introduction 197

20.2 DOE Technical Targets 198

20.2.1 Status and Targets of Fuel Cell APUs 198

20.2.2 Target Justification 198

20.2.2.1 Electrical Efficiency at Rated Power 199

20.2.2.2 Power Density 199

20.2.2.3 Specific Power 199

20.2.2.4 Factory Cost 200

20.2.2.5 Transient Response 200

20.2.2.6 Startup Time 200

20.2.2.7 Degradation with Cycling 200

20.2.2.8 Operating Lifetime 200

20.2.2.9 System Availability 201

References 201

21 Fuel Cells for Marine Applications 202
Keno Leites

21.1 Introduction 202

21.2 Possible Fuel Cell Systems for Ships 204

21.3 Maritime Fuel Cell Projects 205

21.4 Development Goals for Future Systems 206

21.5 Conclusions 206

References 207

22 Reforming Technologies for APUs 208
Ralf Peters

22.1 Introduction 208

22.2 Guideline 208

22.2.1 Chemical Reactions 208

22.2.2 Aspects of System Design 210

22.2.3 Catalysts in Fuel Processing 211

22.2.4 Reactor Development of Fuel Processing 213

22.2.5 Further Data Sets of Interest 219

22.2.6 Other Fuels 219

Appendix 22.A 220

Abbreviation 220

List of Symbols 221

Definitions 221

References 222

23 PEFC Systems for APU Applications 225
Remzi Can Samsun

23.1 Introduction 225

23.2 PEFC Operation with Reformate 226

23.3 Application Concepts 229

23.4 System Design 230

23.5 System Efficiency 232

23.6 System Test 232

23.7 Conclusion 233

References 233

24 High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 235
Werner Lehnert, Lukas Lüke, and Remzi Can Samsun

24.1 Introduction 235

24.2 Operating Behavior of Cells and Stacks 236

24.3 System Level 240

References 246

25 Fuel Cell Systems for APU. SOFC: Cell, Stack, and Systems 248
Niels Christiansen

References 255

Part II Stationary 257

26 Deployment and Capacity Trends for Stationary Fuel Cell Systems in the USA 259
Max Wei, Shuk Han Chan, Ahmad Mayyas, and Tim Lipman

26.1 Fuel-Cell Backup Systems 260

26.2 Fuel-Cell Combined Heat and Power and Electricity 262

References 269

27 Specific Country Reports: Japan 270
Tomio Omata

27.1 Introduction 270

27.2 Start of the Sales of Residential Fuel Cell Systems 271

27.3 Market Growth of the Ene-Farm 272

27.4 Technical Development of the Ene-Farm 272

27.4.1 SOFC-type Ene-Farm and Improvement of Performance 272

27.4.2 The Ene-Farm as an Emergency Electric Supply System 273

27.4.3 Ene-Farms for Nitrogen Rich City Gas 274

27.5 Sales of the Ene-Farm for Condominiums 274

27.6 Conclusions 274

References 275

28 Backup Power Systems 276
Shanna Knights

28.1 Introduction 276

28.2 Application and Power Levels 277

28.3 Advantages 277

28.4 Fuel Choice 278

28.5 Product Parameters 279

28.6 Economics 280

28.7 Conclusion 280

References 280

29 Stationary Fuel Cells – Residential Applications 282
Iain Staffell

29.1 Introduction 282

29.2 Key Characteristics 283

29.2.1 Residential Energy Sector 283

29.2.2 Residential Fuel Cell Systems 283

29.3 Technical Performance 284

29.3.1 Efficiency 284

29.3.2 Degradation 285

29.3.3 Lifetime 286

29.3.4 Emissions 287

29.4 Economic and Market Status 288

29.4.1 Capital Costs 288

29.4.2 Sales Volumes 290

29.5 Conclusions 290

References 290

30 Fuels for Stationary Applications 293
Stephen J. McPhail

30.1 Introduction 293

30.2 Natural Gas 294

30.3 Biogas, Landfill Gas, and Biomethane 296

30.4 (Bio)ethanol 298

30.5 Hydrogen 300

References 302

31 SOFC: Cell, Stack and System Level 304
Anke Hagen

31.1 Introduction 304

31.2 Cell Concepts and Materials 305

31.3 Cell Designs 307

31.4 Stack Concepts 310

31.5 Stationary Systems 310

31.6 Performance and Durability Parameters 313

References 319

Part III Materials handling 321

32 Fuel Cell Forklift Systems 323
Martin Müller

32.1 Introduction 323

32.2 Forklift Classification 324

32.3 Load Profile of Horizontal Order Pickers 324

32.4 Energy Supply for Forklifts 326

32.5 Systems Setup and Hybridization 326

32.6 Cost Comparison of Different Propulsion Systems for Forklifts 328

References 332

33 Fuel Cell Forklift Deployment in the USA 334
Ahmad Mayyas, Max Wei, Shuk Han Chan, and Tim Lipman

33.1 Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment 334

References 340

Part IV Fuel provision 343

34 Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis 345
Antonino S. Aricò, Vincenzo Baglio, Nicola Briguglio, Gaetano Maggio, and Stefania Siracusano

34.1 Introduction 345

34.2 Bibliographic Analysis of PEM Electrolysis versus Water Electrolysis 346

34.3 Electrocatalysts Used in PEM Water Electrolysis 347

34.4 Anode Supports for PEM Water Electrolysis 349

34.5 Membranes for PEM Electrolysis 349

34.6 Stack and System Costs in PEM Electrolysis 351

34.7 PEM Electrolysis Systems in Comparison with Competing Technologies 352

References 354

35 Power-to-Gas 357
Gerda Reiter

35.1 Introduction 357

35.2 Main Components and Process Steps 358

35.2.1 Water Electrolysis 358

35.2.2 CH4 Synthesis 360

35.2.3 CO2 Separation 361

35.3 Transport and Application of H2 and CH4 363

35.4 Current Developments: Pilot Plants 365

35.5 Conclusion 366

References 366

Part V Codes and standards 369

36 Hydrogen Safety and RCS (Regulations, Codes, and Standards) 371
Andrei V. Tchouvelev

36.1 Introduction 371

36.2 Hydrogen Safety 372

36.2.1 Flammability Limits and Ignition Energy 372

36.2.1.1 Unique Hydrogen Flammability Limits 372

36.2.1.2 Hydrogen Ignition Energy 372

36.2.2 Materials Compatibility 374

36.2.2.1 Hydrogen Embrittlement 374

36.2.2.2 Materials Suitability for Hydrogen Service 375

36.3 Hydrogen Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) International Activities 376

36.3.1 ISO/TC 197 Hydrogen Technologies 376

36.3.2 CEN and European Commission 376

36.3.3 HySafe and IEA HIA Hydrogen Safety Activities 377

36.4 Conclusions 377

Acknowledgments 377

References 378

Index 379

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Author Information

Prof. Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells at the Research Center Juelich, Germany. Prof Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. Since 1998 he has been holding the position of Director at the Research Center Juelich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's
research focuses on electrochemical energy engineering including electrochemistry and energy process engineering of Electrolysis, SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. cell and stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten is Chairman of the Implementing Agreement Advanced Fuel Cells, member of the board of the International Association of Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and is on the advisory boards of the German National Organization of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (NOW), and the journal Fuel Cells. He was chairman of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010 (WHEC 2010).

Dr. Renzi Can Samsun is the head of Group Systems Technology for on-board power supply at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at the Juelich Research Center. His research fields are high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems, fuel processing systems for fuel cells and modelling of energy systems.

Nancy Garland is a Technology Development Manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fuel Cell Technologies. She is responsible for managing National Laboratory R&D activities in fuel cells, including membranes, catalysts, MEAs, as well as characterization and analysis. She led a High Temperature Membrane Working Group with ~ 60 participants from academia, industry, and DOE National Laboratories.
Prior to coming to DOE, she was a Research Chemist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory where she carried out experimental studies on chemical kinetics and dynamics. Dr. Garland is a member of the American Chemical Society and the Combustion Institute.
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