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Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications

Michael Kohl (Editor), Michaela Georgine Meir (Editor), Philippe Papillon (Editor), Gernot M. Wallner (Editor), Sandrin Saile (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33246-5
418 pages
November 2012
Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications (3527332464) cover image

Description

Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and
researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, discussing the potential of polymeric materials in solar thermal applications, as well as demands on durability, design and building integration. With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.
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Table of Contents

PART I

PRINCIPLES
Introduction
Solar Irradiance in Technical Applications
Quantifying Useful Solar Irradiation
Solar Thermal Applications
Calculating the Solar Contribution
Conclusions

SOLAR THERMAL MARKET
Introduction
Collector Types
Regional Markets

Market Trends

THERMAL SOLAR ENERGY FOR POLYMER EXPERTS
Solar Thermal Systems and Technical Requirements
Overview of Solar Thermal Applications
Solar Thermal Collectors
Small to Medium Size Storages
Sources of Further Information

CONVENTIONAL COLLECTORS, HEAT STORES, AND COATINGS
Collectors
Material Properties of Insulations
Heat Store
Other Components
Analysis of Typical Combisystems
Definition of Polymeric Based Solar Thermal Systems
Life Cycle Assessment Based on Cumulated Energy Demand, Energy Payback Time, and Overall Energy Savings
Cumulated Energy Demand, Energy Payback Time, and Overall Energy Savings for Conventional and Polymeric Based Domestic Hot Water Systems

THERMAL LOADS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS AND OPTIONS FOR THEIR REDUCTION
Introduction
Results of Monitoring Temperature Loads
Measures for Reduction of the Temperature Loads

STANDARDS, PERFORMANCE TESTS OF SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS
Introduction
Collectors
Solar Thermal Systems
Conclusion

PART II

PLASTICS MARKET

POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Introduction
Material Structure and Morphology of Polymers
Inner Mobility and Thermal Transitions of Polymers
Polymer Additives and Compounds

PROCESSING
Structural Polymeric Materials
Paint Coatings for Polymeric Solar Absorbers and Their Applications

POLYMER DURABILITY FOR SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS
Introduction
Polymeric Glazing
Polymeric Absorbers and Heat Exchangers
Conclusion

PLASTICS PROPERTIES AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Introduction

How to Select the Right Material
Material Databases
Selection Criteria
Real Life Example: Standard Collector in Plastic (1:1 Substitution)
Summary

Part III

STATE OF THE ART: POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS
Solar Collectors
Small to Mid-Sized Polymeric Heat Stores
Polymeric Liners for Seasonal Thermal Energy Stores

STRUCTURAL POLYMERIC MATERIALS -
AGING BEHAVIOR OF SOLAR ABSORBER MATERIALS

THERMOTROPIC LAYERS FOR OVERHEATING PROTECTION OF ALL-POLYMERIC FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS

APPLICATION OF POSS COMPOUNDS FOR MODIFICATION OF THE WETTING PROPERTIES OF TISS PAINT COATINGS

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF COLLECTORS
Introduction
Calculation of Collector Efficiency
Flow Optimization
Optimization of the Fluid Dynamics in Polymeric Collectors
Collector Mechanics
Conclusion

COLLECTORS AND HEAT STORES
Introduction
Solar Absorber Made of High-Performance Plastics
Flate Plate Collector with Overheating Protection
Flat Plate Collectors with a Thermotropic Layer
Solar Storage Tank with Polymeric Sealing Technology with Storage Volumes from 2 to 100 m3

DURABILITY TESTS OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS
Introduction
Twenty Years Outdoor Weathering of Polymeric Materials for use as Collector Glazing
Accelerated Lifetime Testing of a Polymeric Absorber Coating
Evaluation of Temperature Resistance of a Polymer Absorber in a Solar Collector
Determination of Water Vapor Transport through Polymeric Materials at Raised Temperatures

ARCHITECTURALLY APPEALING SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS -
A MARKETING TOOL IN ORDER TO ATTRACT NEW CUSTOMERS AND MARKET SEGMENTS
Introduction
Architectural Integration as a Marketing Tool
Web Database
Examples

OBSTACLES FOR THE APPLICATION OF CURRENT STANDARDS
Introduction
Internal Absorber Pressure Test
High-Temperature Resistance and Exposure Tests
Mechanical Load Test
Impact Resistance Test
Discontinuous Efficiency Curves
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Author Information

Dr.-Ing. Michael Köhl, physicist, has been actively involved in the field of solar energy conversion since 1977. He presently works on service-life analysis of solar collectors and photovoltaic modules in the department Weathering and Reliability at Fraunhofer ISE. He was the coordinator
of the EU projects SUNFACE and SOLABS and leader of Subtask 5 of the IP PERFORMANCE. In 2011, he broadened this range with the EU project SCOOP. Dr. Köhl is the current Operating Agent of the Task 39 "Polymeric Materials for Solar Thermal Applications" of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IE.

Dr. scient. Michaela Meir, physicist, has been working with R&D on solar thermal and energy systems for more than 15 years, with particular focus on the development of solar collectors using polymeric materials. She is presently employed part-time by the University of Oslo and by Aventa AS. She is Chairman of the Norwegian Solar Energy Society board and leader of Subtask A "Information" of IEA SHC Task 39.

Sandrin Saile, M.A. received her M.A. in British and North American Cultural Studies from the University of Freiburg. She joined the Fraunhofer ISE's department "Weathering and Reliability". in 2009 where she is responsible for the management and dissemination of the department's solar thermal activities, in particular the projects SCOOP and SpeedColl. Within IEA SHC Task 39 she is mainly active in Subtask A "Information" and played an active role in establishing the Solar Heating and Cooling Series.

Prof. Dr. mont. Gernot M. Wallner, graduated with a "Diplomingenieur'' degree in Polymer Engineering and Science at the University of Leoben (Austria) in 1994, and he obtained a PhD degree in the same field at the University of Leoben in 2000. In 2008 Prof. Wallner obtained a Venia Docendi in the field of "Functional Polymeric Materials'' with special focus on solar energy applications. Since 2010, Prof. Wallner has been Deputy Head at the Institute of Polymeric Materials and Testing (IPMT) at the Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU, Austria). Prof.Wallner is a member and leading person in several solar related working groups and committees. Since the establishment of IEA SHC Task 39 in 2006, he has been leader of the Subtask C "Materials".

Dr.-Ing. Philippe Papillon has been a senior expert in the field of solar thermal energy at INES (Institut National de l'Energie Solaire - CEA) since December 2005.He has been active in the field of thermal solar energy for more than 20 years, and has experience as coordinator as well as WP leader in European projects and also large national research projects. Beyond his research activities within INES, he is also an expert in European and French standardization committees, and is a member of the European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling board. From 2006-2010 he acted as leader of the IEA SHC Task 39 Subtask B "Collectors".
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Reviews

“With its emphasis on applications, this monograph is relevant for researchers at universities and developers in commercial companies.”  (ETDE Energy Database, 1 January 2013)

 

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