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Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production, 2nd, Revised Edition

ISBN: 978-3-527-33253-3
1040 pages
October 2012
Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production, 2nd, Revised Edition (3527332537) cover image
An outstanding and currently the only comprehensive handbook for the coffee-professional. 40 authors from the leading coffee-growing countries present the most recent technologies applied to coffee husbandry. The book features 900 carefully selected illustrations, 300 of these in full color, which substantiate the written text. The handbook provides basic guidelines and recommendations which are applicable everywhere rather than referring to any specific country. Added to this, the reader will find numerous data tables and an overview of relevant information sources.
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Foreword VII

Preface IX

Introduction XIII

Acknowledgement XV

Contributors XVII

Part I: Growing

1 The Coffee Plant 3
J. N. Wintgens

1.1 Taxonomy 3

1.2 Origins 3

1.3 Areas of Cultivation 3

1.4 Botany 4

1.5 Harvesting Strategies and Crop Management 19

1.6 Photosynthesis 19

1.7 Abnormalities in Beans 20

2 Botany, Genetics and Genomics of Coffee 25
A. Charrier, P. Lashermes and A. B. Eskes

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Botanical Description and Taxonomy 25

2.3 Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny 33

2.4 Coffee genome 36

2.5 Cultivated Coffee Populations 38

2.6 Conservation 51

2.7 Future Outlook 55

2.8 Acknowledgments 56

3 Coffee Selection and Breeding 61
A. B. Eskes and Th. Leroy

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 History of Coffee Selection 62

3.3 Selection Criteria 65

3.4 Breeding Methods and Techniques 68

3.5 Variety Trials 76

3.6 Description of Main Cultivated Varieties 78

3.7 Multiplication of Selected Varieties 82

3.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 83

4 Coffee Propagation 91
J. N. Wintgens and A. Zamarripa C.

4.1 Background 91

4.2 Propagation Methods 92

4.3 The Choice of a Propagation System 92

4.4 Propagation by Seeds 93

4.5 Vegetative Propagation 106

4.6 Conditions for Successful Grafting and Horticultural Cutting 130

4.7 In Vitro Propagation 131

4.8 Transfer of In Vitro Produced Material 133

4.9 The Cost of Propagation Material 134

4.10 The Choice of a Propagation Method 136

4.11 How to Plant Clones 137

4.12 Expression of the Potential of Planting Material 139

5 Biotechnologies Applied to Coffee 141
A. Zamarripa C. and V. P_tiard

5.1 Definition and Biological Bases 141

5.2 Markers for Identification/Genetic Mapping/Selection 142

5.3 Cryopreservation 148

5.4 Haplomethods 150

5.5 Somatic Embryogenesis 152

5.6 Somaclonal Variation 158

5.7 Genetic Engineering 159

5.8 Conclusions 163

6 Environmental Factors Suitable for Coffee Cultivation 168
F. Descroix and J. Snoeck

6.1 Temperature 168

6.2 Water Availability 169

6.3 Sunlight and Shading 171

6.4 Wind 171

6.5 Soil Characteristics 172

6.6 Topography 176

7 Establishing a Coffee Plantation 182
J. N. Wintgens and F. Descroix

7.1 Choice of Site 182

7.2 Planning the Plantation Infrastructure 189

7.3 Land Development 192

7.4 The Interplanting of Coffee 208

7.5 Planting Practices 229

7.6 Mulching as a Post-planting Soil Management Tool 241

7.7 Conclusions and Prospects 248

8 Crop Maintenance 250

8.1 Fertilization 250
J. Snoeck and Ch. Lambot

8.2 Soil Protection 274
Ch. Lambert and P. Bonharmont

8.3 Pruning 288
Ch. Lambert and P. Bonharmont

8.4 Irrigation 312
R. Goodyear

9 Vermicomposting in Coffee Cultivation 328
E. Aranda D., L. Duran O. and E. Escamilla P.

9.1 Introduction 328

9.2 Vermicomposting Studies on Coffee Pulp 329

9.3 The History of Vermicomposting 333

9.4 Vermicompost Qualities 339

9.5 Perspectives 340

10 Organic Coffee 343
L. Sosa M., E. Escamilla P. and S. Díaz C.

10.1 Introduction 343

10.2 Organic Coffee Production 344

10.3 Conclusions 357

11 Frost in Coffee Crops: Frost Characteristics, Damaging Effects on Coffee and Alleviation Options 359
A. Paes de Camargo and M. B. Paes de Camargo

11.1 Introduction 359

11.2 Radiation Frost Formation 359

11.3 Types of Frost 362

11.4 Types of Radiation Frost 363

11.5 Factors Conducive to the Formation of Radiation Frost 364

11.6 Destruction of the Plant Tissues 368

11.7 Heat-stroke and Frost Damage 369

11.8 Protection against Frost 369

11.9 Prediction of Frost Occurrence 372

11.10 Treatment of the Coffee Trees after Frost Damage 373

12 Importance of Organic Matter and Biological Fertility in Coffee Soils 375
D. Snoeck and P. Vaast

12.1 Introduction 375

12.2 The importance of the Soil OM 376

12.3 Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Coffee Soils 379

12.4 Mycorrhizal Symbiosis 382

12.5 Other Microorganisms that have a Beneficial Effect on Coffee Roots 384

12.6 Conclusions 384

13 Sustainable Coffee Production 388
Moeko Saito

13.1 Background 388

13.2 Sustainable Coffee 389

13.3 A Comparison: Sustainable Coffee Growing Practices versus Intensified “Modern” Practices 389

13.4 Importance of Sustainable Coffee 390

13.5 Current Issues which Influence the Development of Sustainable Coffee-growing Practices 391

13.6 Potential Risks 393

13.7 Suggestions and Recommendations 393

14 Shade Management and its Effect on Coffee Growth and Quality 395
Reinhold G. Muschler

14.1 Introduction 395

14.2 Early Shade Management: Traditional Coffee Farms 396

14.3 “Intensification” of Coffee Production: Reduced Shade Levels 397

14.4 The Effects of Shade: How much Shade is Best? 399

14.5 How to Design the Ideal Shade 418

14.6 Conclusions and Research Recommendations 419

Part II: Pests & Diseases

1 Coffee Pests in Africa 425
T. J. Crowe

1.1 Introduction 425

1.2 Grasshoppers and Crickets 426

1.3 Termites 427

1.4 Aphids 428

1.5 Scale Insects and Mealybugs 429

1.6 Sucking Bugs 433

1.7 Thrips 437

1.8 Wood-boring Beetles 438

1.9 Coffee Berry Borer 443

1.10 Leaf-eating Beetles 444

1.11 Fruit Flies 445

1.12 Lepidopterous Leaf Miners 447

1.13 Berry-boring Lepidoptera 450

1.14 Leaf-eating Caterpillars 453

1.15 Ants 457

1.16 Mites 459

1.17 Storage Pests 460

1.18 Vertebrates 461

1.19 Future Trends in Pest Control 461

2 Major Pests of Coffee in the Asia–Pacific Region 463
C. C. Lan and J. N. Wintgens

2.1 Introduction 463

2.2 Integrated Management of Insect Pests 463

2.3 Major Coffee Pests 464

3 Nematodes in Coffee 478
G. Castillo P., J. N. Wintgens and J.W. Kimenju

3.1 The Parasites 478

3.2 Geographical Distribution 479

3.3 Importance and Economic Damage 480

3.4 Symptoms and Damage 481

3.5 Association with Fungi 484

3.6 Loss Estimation 485

3.7 Estimation of Root Infestation 486

3.8 Practices for Nematode Control 489

3.9 Conclusions 492

4 Coffee Diseases 495
R. A. Muller, D. Berry, J. Avelino, and D. Bieysse

4.1 Introduction 495

4.2 Cryptogamic Diseases 504

4.3 Bacterial Diseases 545

4.4 Physiological Diseases 546

5 Viral Diseases in Coffee 550
E. W. Kitajima and C. M. Chagas

5.1 Introduction 550

5.2 Coffee Ringspot Virus 550

6 Resistance to Coffee Leaf Rust and Coffee Berry Disease 557
C. J. Rodrigues Jr and A. B. Eskes

6.1 Introduction 557

6.2 Coffee Leaf Rust 557

6.3 Coffee Berry Disease 564

6.4 International Cooperation 568

7 Spraying Equipment for Coffee 571
H. Pfalzer

7.1 Introduction 571

7.2 Application Equipment 573

7.3 Calibrating the Application Equipment 583

7.4 Preparing for Spraying 584

7.5 Spraying 584

7.6 The Spray Droplets 589

7.7 Operator Safety 590

7.8 Conclusions 595

8 Quarantine for Coffee 597
D. Bieysse

8.1 The Reasons behind Quarantine Measures 597

8.2 General Recommendations for the Transfer of Plant Material 597

8.3 Type of Plant Material 598

8.4 Transfer 598

Part III: Harvesting & Processing

1 Yield Estimation and Harvest Period 601
Ch. Cilas and F. Descroix

1.1 Introduction 601

1.2 Different Approaches to Harvest Estimates 601

1.3 Presentation of the Method 602

1.4 Application of the Method in Burundi 604

1.5 Conclusion 606

2 Harvesting and Green Coffee Processing 610
Carlos H. J. Brando

2.1 General Principles of Coffee Processing 610

2.2 Harvesting 611

2.3 Dry, Semi-dry and Wet Processing 623

2.4 Drying 662

2.5 Cleaning 683

2.6 Destoning 685

2.7 Hulling and Polishing 687

2.8 Size Grading 696

2.9 Gravity Separation 699

2.10 Color Sorting 704

2.11 Blending and Bulking 709

2.12 Weighing, Bagging and Bulk Container Loading 710

2.13 The Impacts of Processing on Coffee Quality and the Environment 714

2.14 The Organization of Coffee-processing Activities 715

2.15 The Shape of Things to Come 718

2.16 Acknowledgments 722

3 Ecological Processing of Coffee and Use of Byproducts 724
R. Cleves S.

3.1 Introduction 724

3.2 Coffee Components 724

3.3 Dry Processing versus Wet Processing of Coffee 726

3.4 Ecological Coffee-processing Methods 727

3.5 Treatment of Residual Water 733

3.6 Treatment Systems for Residual Water 733

3.7 Options for the Treatment of Residual Water 735

3.8 Integral use of the Byproducts of Coffee 735

3.9 Key Words 735

Part IV: Storage, Shipment, Quality

1 Green Coffee Storage 741
J. Rojas

1.1 Introduction 741

1.2 Bean Physiology and Environmental Influences 742

1.3 Main Storage Problems 747

1.4 Damage Assessment 749

1.5 Pest Control 750

1.6 Quality Impact 751

1.7 Green Coffee Storage 752

1.8 Conclusions 757

2 Shipment of Green Coffee 759
E. Blank

2.1 Introduction 759

2.2 Particularities 759

2.3 Bagging 759

2.4 Conventional Shipping Practices 760

2.5 Containers 760

2.6 Bulk Shipment 762

3 Green Coffee Defects 766
J. N. Wintgens

3.1 Introduction 766

3.2 Terminology 767

3.3 Green Coffee Bean Defects on Arabica 768

3.4 Reference Beans 791

3.5 Microphotographs of Coffee Beans 792

3.6 Microorganisms which Attack Coffee Beans 795

4 Factors Influencing the Quality of Green Coffee 797
J. N. Wintgens

4.1 The Interactions between Market Situation and Quality 797

4.2 Influence of the Genotype 797

4.3 Influence of Environmental Factors 801

4.4 Influence of Cultivation Practices 803

4.5 Influence of Post-harvest Treatment 807

4.6 Storage 811

4.7 Summary of Factors affecting the Quality of Green Coffee 813

4.8 Conclusions 816

5 Coffee Bean Quality Assessment 818
J. N. Wintgens

5.1 Introduction 818

5.2 Green Coffee Grading 818

5.3 Determination of Defective Beans 819

5.4 Green Bean Color 821

5.5 Cup Tasting 821

5.6 Analytical Techniques 822

5.7 Profiles of Some Coffees 823

5.8 Storage deterioration 827

5.9 Conclusions 827

Part V: Economics

1 Economic Aspects of Coffee Production 831
B. Rodriguez P. and M. Vasquez M.

1.1 Introduction 831

1.2 Economic Concepts 831

1.3 Production Systems 832

1.4 Set-up and Development Costs 834

1.5 Annual Production Costs 835

1.6 Economic Indicators 836

1.7 Sensitivity Analysis 837

1.8 Recommendations 837

2 Technology Transfer 843
F. Martinez, J. Rojas, and G. Castillo F.

2.1 Introduction 843

2.2 A Brief History of the Development of Coffee Growing 845

2.3 Existing Schemes for Transmitting New Technologies and Developments 847

2.4 Main Aspects of Technology Transfer to Farmers 851

2.5 Conclusions 854

Part VI: Data & Information

1 Units and Conversion Tables 859
J. N. Wintgens and H. Waldburger

1.1 Introduction 859

1.2 Metric Units of Measures 862

1.3 UK and US Units of Measures 865

1.4 Units of Measures from around the World 867

1.5 Conversions 887

2 Information Sources 904
C. Fardeau

2.1 List of Coffee Machinery Suppliers 904

2.2 Shade, Forest and Cover Plant Seed Sources 906

2.3 Coffee Books, Manuals and Reports 918

2.4 Coffee Periodicals 921

2.5 Coffee Associations, Organizations and Teaching Centers 922

2.6 Coffee Events 922

2.7 Important Coffee Research Organizations 923

3 Data on Coffee 925
J. N. Wintgens

3.1 Environment for Growing Coffee 925

3.2 Characteristics of Coffee by Variety 926

3.3 Common Characteristics of the Coffee Plant 927

3.4 Labor Requirements for Coffee Operations 928

3.5 Coffee Post-harvest Treatment 929

3.6 Pulping and Drying 929

3.7 Consumption of Water for Coffee Preparation 930

3.8 Outturn of Coffee 930

3.9 Storage 932

3.10 Composition of the Coffee Fruit 933

3.11 Weight of Coffee Beans (Average Weight (g) of 1000 Cured Flat Beans) 934

3.12 Coffee Extraction Rate 934

3.13 Caffeine Content in Different Brews 935

3.14 Coffee by Quality Group 935

3.15 Basic criteria for Coffee Quality Evaluation 935

3.16 Comment 936

4 Acronyms and Terms used in Coffee Production 937
S. Bonnet-Evans

4.1 Terms used in Coffee Production 937

4.2 Terms related to Green and Roasted coffee 952

4.3 Terms related to Coffee Liquor 956

4.4 Acronyms 959

4.5 Abbreviations 964

Index 965

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Jean-Nicolas Wintgens, a Belgian-born agronomist, has worked troughout the coffee belt of Africa, South and Central America, and Asia. Before his retirement, he held the post of world-wide advisor for coffee and cocoa production and supply at Nestle, based in Vevey (Switzerland). He is currently a frequent traveler between Mexico and Switzerland, doing consultancy work, mostly on coffee.

He received two awards:
- PANAMANIAN award
Condecoracion de la "Orden de Manuel Amador Guerrero" con el grado de gran Comendador - 31.Mayo 1979. Decorated in appreciation of special services to the country in the field of agriculture.

- French award: L'ETOILE DU BIEN ET DU MÉRITE Mars 2009. Pour actions humanitaires rendues en Afrique (Zaïre) au cours de la rébellion 1964-65. Rare distinction honorifique, symbole de la reconnaissance pour les actions civiques et sociales, le dévouement bénévole, se veut d'être un témoignage de gratitude pour les actions exemplaires.
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