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Self-Healing Polymers: From Principles to Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-33439-1
446 pages
August 2013
Self-Healing Polymers: From Principles to Applications (3527334394) cover image

This self-contained reference, written by a team of renowned international authors adopt a didactical approach to systematically cover all important aspects of designing self-healing polymers from concepts to applications - transferring lessons learnt from nature to materials science. 

It is the first to discuss the chemical and physical concepts for self-healing polymers, including aspects of biomimetic processes of healing in nature and tissue regeneration. 

Chapters cover the design of self-healing polymers and explain the dynamics in these systems.

Different self-healing concepts such as encapsulated systems and supramolecular systems are also included, with analysis and friction detection in self-healing polymers and on applications rounding off the whole.

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List of Contributors XIII

Introduction 1
Wolfgang Binder

Part One Design of Self-Healing Materials 5

1 Principles of Self-Healing Polymers 7
Diana Döhler, Philipp Michael, and Wolfgang Binder

1.1 Introductory Remarks 7

1.2 General Concept for the Design and Classifi cation of Self-Healing Materials 8

1.3 Physical Principles of Self-Healing 11

1.4 Chemical Principles of Self-Healing 15

1.5 Multiple versus One-Time Self-Healing 49

1.6 Resume and Outlook 53

Acknowledgments 53

References 53

2 Self-Healing in Plants as Bio-Inspiration for Self-Repairing Polymers 61
Thomas Speck, Rolf Mülhaupt, and Olga Speck

2.1 Self-Sealing and Self-Healing in Plants: A Short Overview 62

2.2 Selected Self-Sealing and Self-Healing Processes in Plants as Role Models for Bio-Inspired Materials with Self-Repairing Properties 63

2.3 Bio-Inspired Approaches for the Development of Self-Repairing Materials and Structures 75

2.4 Bio-Inspired Self-Healing Materials: Outlook 85

Acknowledgments 85

References 86

3 Modeling Self-Healing Processes in Polymers: From Nanogels to Nanoparticle-Filled Microcapsules 91
German V. Kolmakov, Isaac G. Salib, and Anna C. Balazs

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 Designing Self-Healing Dual Cross-Linked Nanogel Networks 92

3.3 Designing “Artifi cial Leukocytes” That Help Heal Damaged Surfaces via the Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles to Cracks 101

3.4 Conclusions 110

References 111

Part Two Polymer Dynamics 113

4 Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Chains 115
Ana Rita Brás, Wim Pyckhout-Hintzen, Andreas Wischnewski, and Dieter Richter

4.1 Foreword 115

4.2 Techniques 116

4.3 Structure 117

4.4 Dynamics 120

4.5 Application to Self-Healing 130

4.6 Conclusions and Outlook 133

References 135

5 Physical Chemistry of Cross-Linking Processes in Self-Healing Materials 139
Joerg Kressler and Hans-Werner Kammer

5.1 Introduction 139

5.2 Thermodynamics of Gelation 141

5.3 Viscoelastic Properties of the Sol–Gel Transition 143

5.4 Phase Separation and Gelation 147

5.5 Conclusions 150

References 150

6 Thermally Remendable Polymers 153
Tom Engel and Guido Kickelbick

6.1 Principles of Thermal Healing 153

6.2 Inorganic–Organic Systems 164

6.3 Efficiency, Assessment of Healing Performance 165

6.4 Conclusions 168

Acknowledgments 169

References 169

7 Photochemically Remendable Polymers 173
Jun Ling, Ming Qiu Zhang, and Min Zhi Rong

7.1 Background 173

7.2 Molecular Design 178

7.3 Reversible Photo-Crosslinking Behaviors 182

7.4 Evaluation of Photo-Remendability 185

7.5 Concluding Remarks 188

Acknowledgments 189

References 189

8 Mechanophores for Self-Healing Applications 193
Charles E. Diesendruck and Jeffrey S. Moore

8.1 Introduction 193

8.2 Mechanochemical Damage 194

8.3 Activation of Mechanophores 198

8.4 Mechanochemical Self-Healing Strategies 202

8.5 Conclusions and Outlook 210

References 211

9 Chemistry of Crosslinking Processes for Self-Healing Polymers 215
Roberto F.A. Teixeira, Xander K.D. Hillewaere, Stijn Billiet, and Filip E. Du Prez

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing Materials 215

9.3 Intrinsic Self-Healing Materials 229

9.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Outlook 237

References 238

10 Preparation of Nanocapsules and Core–Shell Nanofi bers for Extrinsic Self-Healing Materials 247
Daniel Crespy and Yi Zhao

10.1 Selected Preparation Methods for the Encapsulation of Self-Healing Agents 247

10.2 Mechanically Induced Self-Healing 251

10.3 Stimuli-Responsive Self-Healing Materials 258

10.4 Novel Approaches and Perspectives 264

Abbreviations 265

References 266

Part Three Supramolecular Systems 273

11 Self-Healing Polymers via Supramolecular, Hydrogen-Bonded Networks 275
Florian Herbst and Wolfgang H. Binder

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 Dynamics of Hydrogen Bonds in Solution 279

11.3 Supramolecular Gels 280

11.4 Self-Healing Bulk Materials 284

11.5 Conclusions 297

Acknowledgment 297

References 298

12 Metal-Complex-Based Self-Healing Polymers 301
Stefan Bode, Benedict Sandmann, Martin D. Hager, and Ulrich S. Schubert

12.1 Stimuli-Responsive Metallopolymers 305

12.2 Self-Healing Metallopolymers 307

12.3 Summary and Outlook 310

Acknowledgments 311

References 311

13 Self-Healing Ionomers 315
Nico Hohlbein, Max von Tapavicza, Anke Nellesen, and Annette M. Schmidt

13.1 Introduction 315

13.2 Basic Principles of Ionomers 315

13.3 Ionomers in Self-Healing Systems 322

13.4 Actual Developments and Future Trends in Ionomeric and Related Self-Healing Systems 327

References 331

Part Four Analysis and Friction Detection in Self-Healing Polymers: Macroscopic, Microscopic and Nanoscopic Techniques 335

14 Methods to Monitor and Quantify (Self-) Healing in Polymers and Polymer Systems 337
Ranjita K. Bose, Ugo Lafont, Jesús M. Vega, Santiago J. Garcia, and Sybrand van der Zwaag

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 Visualization Techniques 338

14.3 Healing of Mechanical Properties 343

14.4 Healing of Functional Integrity 347

14.5 Summary 356

References 356

15 Self-Healing Epoxies and Their Composites 361
Henghua Jin, Kevin R. Hart, Anthony M. Coppola, Ryan C. Gergely, Jeffrey S. Moore, Nancy R. Sottos, and Scott R. White

15.1 Introduction 361

15.2 Capsule-Based Healing System 362

15.3 Vascular-Based Healing Systems 368

15.4 Intrinsic Healing Systems 371

15.5 Conclusions 375

References 376

16 Self-Healing Coatings 381
Dmitry G. Shchukin, Dimitriya Borisova, and Helmuth Möhwald

16.1 Introduction into Self-Healing Coatings 381

16.2 Concept of Micro- and Nanocontainer-Based Self-Healing Coatings 382

16.3 Types of Nanocontainers 386

16.4 Characterization of Nanocontainer-Based Self-Healing Coatings 389

16.5 Conclusions and Current Trends 395

References 396

17 Application of Self-Healing Materials in Aerospace Engineering 401
Liberata Guadagno, Marialuigia Raimondo, Carlo Naddeo, and Pasquale Longo

17.1 General Considerations 401

17.2 Conclusions 410

References 411

Index 413

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Wolfgang H. Binder is currently Full Professor for Macromolecular Chemistry at the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (see www.macrochem.uni-halle.de). He received his PhD in Organic Chemistry in 1995 at the University of Vienna. In his post doc research at Emory University, USA, he specialized on colloidal chemistry/macro-molecular chemistry. In 1997 he became an Assistant Professor at the Technical University of Vienna and in 2004 Associate Professor. His research is focused on synthesis and self-assembly of tailored polymers and analytical polymer science, with applications in material science, nanotechnology and medicine; Wolfgang H. Binder has published more than 120 scientific articles.
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