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Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

ISBN: 978-3-527-33491-9
1208 pages
February 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance (3527334912) cover image

Description

In this ready reference, a global team of experts comprehensively cover molecular and cell biology-based approaches to the impact of increasing global temperatures on crop productivity.
The work is divided into four parts. Following an introduction to the general challenges for agriculture around the globe due to climate change, part two discusses how the resulting increase of abiotic stress factors can be dealt with. The third part then outlines the different strategies and approaches to address the challenge of climate change, and the whole is rounded off by a number of specific examples of improvements to crop productivity.
With its forward-looking focus on solutions, this book is an indispensable help for the agro-industry, policy makers and academia.
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Table of Contents

Preface XXIX

List of Contributors XXXIII

Part One Climate Change 1

1 Climate Change: Challenges for Future Crop Adjustments 3
Jerry L. Hatfield

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Climate Change 4

1.3 Crop Responses to Climate Change 7

1.4 Water Responses 11

1.5 Major Challenges 17

1.6 Grand Challenge 19

References 19

2 Developing Robust Crop Plants for Sustaining Growth and Yield Under Adverse Climatic Changes 27
Vijaya Shukla and Autar K. Mattoo

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Elevated Temperature and Plant Response 29

2.3 Elevated CO2 Levels and Plant Response 30

2.4 Genetic Engineering Intervention to Build Crop Plants for Combating Harsh Environments 30

2.5 Other Protein Respondents 39

2.6 Conclusions 43

References 44

3 Climate Change and Abiotic Stress Management in India 57
R.B. Singh

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Impact of Climate Change and Associated Abiotic Stresses on Agriculture 59

3.3 CSA: Technologies and Strategies 63

3.4 National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture 67

3.5 Policy and Institutions 72

3.6 Partnership 75

References 77

Part Two Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Climate Change 79

4 Plant Environmental Stress Responses for Survival and Biomass Enhancement 81
Yuriko Osakabe, Keishi Osakabe, and Kazuo Shinozaki

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Stomatal Responses in the Control of Plant Productivity 82

4.3 Signaling and Transcriptional Control in Water Stress Tolerance 87

4.4 Protection Mechanisms of Photosynthesis During Water Stress 92

4.5 Metabolic Adjustment During Water Stress 94

4.6 Future Perspective 96

References 97

5 Heat Stress and Roots 109
Scott A. Heckathorn, Anju Giri, Sasmita Mishra, and Deepesh Bista

5.1 Roots, Heat Stress, and Global Warming: An Overview of the Problem 109

5.2 Effects of Heat Stress on Root Growth and Root versus Shoot Mass and Function 111

5.3 Interactions Between Heat Stress and Other Global Environmental-Change Factors on Roots 126

5.4 Heat Stress and Root–Soil Interactions 128

5.5 Summary: Synthesizing What We Know and Predict into a

Conceptual Model of Heat Effects on Roots and Plant–Soil Links 129

References 131

6 Role of Nitrosative Signaling in Response to Changing Climates 137
Panagiota Filippou, Chrystalla Antoniou, and Vasileios Fotopoulos

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Salinity 138

6.3 Drought 142

6.4 Heavy Metals 146

6.5 Heat Stress 148

6.6 Chilling/Freezing/Low Temperature 150

6.7 Anoxia/Hypoxia 151

6.8 Conclusions 153

References 153

7 Current Concepts about Salinity and Salinity Tolerance in Plants 163
Aským Hediye Sekmen, Melike Bor, Filiz Ozdemir, and Ismail Turkan

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 What is Salt Stress? 164

7.3 Effects: Primary and Secondary 172

7.4 Conclusion 178

References 178

8 Salinity Tolerance of Avicennia officinalis L. (Acanthaceae) from Gujarat Coasts of India 189
Ashish Dahyabhai Patel, Kishor Lalcheta, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, and Narendra Tuteja

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Materials and Methods 191

8.3 Results 195

8.4 Discussion 200

References 203

9 Drought Stress Responses in Plants, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Defense 209
Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, and Masayuki Fujita

9.1 Introduction 210

9.2 Plant Response to Drought Stress 211

9.3 Drought and Oxidative Stress 229

9.4 Antioxidant Defense System in Plants Under Drought Stress 232

9.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 236

References 237

10 Plant Adaptation to Abiotic and Genotoxic Stress: Relevance to Climate Change and Evolution 251
Brahma B. Panda, V. Mohan M. Achary, Srikrishna Mahanty, and Kamal K. Panda

10.1 Introduction 251

10.2 Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress 252

10.3 ROS Induce Genotoxic Stress 256

10.4 Adaptive Responses to Oxidative Stress 257

10.5 Transgenic Adaptation to Oxidative Stress 260

10.6 Adaptive Response to Genotoxic Stress 260

10.7 Role of MAPK and Calcium Signaling in Genotoxic Adaptation 267

10.8 Role of DNA Damage Response in Genotoxic Adaptation 269

10.9 Epigenetics of Genotoxic Stress Tolerance 272

10.10 Transgenerational Inheritance and Adaptive Evolution Driven by the Environment 274

10.11 Concluding Remarks 278

References 278

11 UV-B Perception in Plant Roots 295
Ken Yokawa and Franti9sek Balu9ska

11.1 Introduction 295

11.2 Effect of UV-B on Plants 296

11.3 Land Plant Evolution was Shaped via Ancient Ozone Depletion 301

References 302

12 Improving the Plant Root System Architecture to Combat Abiotic Stresses Incurred as a Result of Global Climate Changes 305
Ananda K. Sarkar, Karthikeyan Mayandi, Vibhav Gautam, Suvakanta Barik, and Shabari Sarkar Das

12.1 Introduction 305

12.2 RSA and its Basic Determinants 306

12.3 Breeding Approaches to Improve RSA and Abiotic Stress Tolerance 308

12.4 Genomic Approaches to Identify Regulators of RSA Associated with Abiotic Stress Tolerance 311

12.5 Transgenic Approaches to Improve RSA for Abiotic Stress Tolerance 313

12.6 Use of Polyamines and Osmotic Regulators in Stress-Induced Modulation of RSA 314

12.7 Hormonal Regulation of Root Architecture and Abiotic Stress Response 315

12.8 Small RNA-Mediated Regulation of RSA and Abiotic Stress Response 317

12.9 Application of Phenomics in Understanding Stress-Associated RSA 319

12.10 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 320

References 321

13 Activation of the Jasmonate Biosynthesis Pathway in Roots in Drought Stress 325
Palmiro Poltronieri, Marco Taurino, Stefania De Domenico, Stefania Bonsegna, and Angelo Santino

13.1 Background and Introduction 325

13.2 Plant Growth Factors: Key Role in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Signaling 326

13.3 Jasmonate Biosynthesis Pathway 328

13.4 Roots as the Primary Organ Sensing the Soil Environment 330

13.5 Symbiotic Microorganisms Affect Root Growth and Plant Performance 331

13.6 Symbiotic Organisms Alleviate and Improve Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Host Plants 332

13.7 Role of Jasmonates in Roots 333

13.8 Jasmonic Acid Signal Transduction in Roots and Jasmonic Acid Involvement in Abiotic Stress Response 333

13.9 Jasmonate in Root Response to Abiotic Stresses: Model Legumes and Chickpea Tolerant Varieties Showing Differential Transcript Expression During Salt and Drought Stress 334

13.10 Role of Transcription Factors and MicroRNAs in the Regulation of Jasmonic Acid Signaling 336

13.11 Conclusion 338

References 338

Part Three Approaches for Climate Change Mitigation 343

14 Can Carbon in Bioenergy Crops Mitigate Global Climate Change? 345
Abdullah A. Jaradat

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 The Many Faces of Carbon 348

14.3 Are Bioenergy Crops Carbon-Neutral? 352

14.4 Recalcitrant Carbon in Bioenergy Crops 354

14.5 Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Bioenergy Crops 355

14.6 Carbon in Bioenergy Crops 361

14.7 Genetic Improvement of Bioenergy Crops 369

14.8 Carbon Management in Bioenergy Crops 374

14.9 Carbon Quality in Bioenergy Crops 383

14.10 Life Cycle Assessment 385

14.11 Ecosystem Services of Carbon in Bioenergy Crops 387

14.12 Eco-Physiology and Carbon Sequestration 389

14.13 Climate Ethics and Carbon in Bioenergy Crops 391

14.14 Synthesis of Research Needs and Priorities 398

14.15 Conclusions 403

References 405

15 Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies of Plant Under Drought and High-Temperature Stress 421
Pasala Ratna Kumar, Susheel Kumar Raina, Satish Kumar, Kiran P. Bhagat, Yogeshwar Singh, and Santanu Kumar Bal

15.1 Background and Introduction 421

15.2 Plant Molecular Adaptation and Strategies Under Drought Stress 422

15.3 Plant Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Heat Stress Tolerance 427

15.4 Conclusions 433

References 433

16 Emerging Strategies to Face Challenges Imposed by Climate Change and Abiotic Stresses in Wheat 437
Bharti Garg, Shreelekha Misra, and Narendra Tuteja

16.1 Introduction 437

16.2 Physiological and Molecular Adaptive Strategies in Wheat 438

16.3 Drought Tolerance 440

16.4 Salinity Tolerance 444

16.5 Heat Tolerance 445

16.6 Cold Tolerance 447

16.7 Functional and Comparative Genomics Approaches for Wheat Improvement 449

16.8 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 450

References 452

17 Protein Structure–Function Paradigm in Plant Stress Tolerance 459
Harshesh Bhatt, Anil Kumar, and Neel Sarovar Bhavesh

17.1 Introduction 459

17.2 Plant Signaling Machinery 460

17.3 Proteins Involved in Metabolic Regulation 465

17.4 Stabilization of Proteins and RNAs 469

17.5 Antifreeze Proteins 472

17.6 Disordered Stress Proteins 473

17.7 Summary 473

References 474

18 Abiotic Stress-Responsive Small RNA-Mediated Plant Improvement Under a Changing Climate 481
Basel Khraiwesh and Enas Qudeimat

18.1 Introduction 481

18.2 Classes of Small RNAs 483

18.3 Artificial miRNAs 494

18.4 Stress–miRNA Networks for Adapting to Climate Change 494

18.5 Application of Small RNA-Mediated Suppression Approaches for Plant Improvement Under a Changing Climate 497

18.6 Conclusions and Outlook 499

Note 500

References 500

19 Impact of Climate Change on MicroRNA Expression in Plants 507
Vallabhi Ghorecha, N.S.R. Krishnayya, and Ramanjulu Sunkar

19.1 Introduction 507

19.2 Small Non-Coding RNAs in Plants 508

19.3 Biogenesis and Function of miRNAs in Plants 509

19.4 Heat Stress 511

19.5 Drought 513

19.6 UV-B Radiation 514

19.7 Ozone 515

19.8 Conclusions and Future Directions 515

References 517

20 Role of Abscisic Acid Signaling in Drought Tolerance and Preharvest Sprouting Under Climate Change 521
Yasunari Fujita, Kazuo Nakashima, Takuya Yoshida, Miki Fujita, Kazuo Shinozaki, and Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

20.1 Introduction 521

20.2 Major ABA Signaling Components in Response to Cellular Dehydration 522

20.3 ABA-Mediated Gene Expression in Seed Dormancy 532

20.4 Role of ABA in Plant Adaptation to Land and Environmental Changes 536

20.5 Potential Application of ABA Signaling Components to Improve Crop Productivity Under Climate Change 537

20.6 Future Perspectives 538

References 541

21 Regulatory Role of Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants 555
Dumbala Srinivas Reddy, Pooja Bhatnagar Mathur, and K.K.Sharma

21.1 Introduction 555

21.2 bZIP Proteins 557

21.3 MYB-Like Proteins 557

21.4 MYC-Like bHLH Proteins 558

21.5 HD-ZIP Proteins 561

21.6 AP2/EREBP Domain Proteins 562

21.7 DREB Subfamily 562

21.8 CBF/DREB Genes from Arabidopsis 564

21.9 CBF/DREB Regulation in Arabidopsis 565

21.10 DREB1A-Targeted Genes 571

21.11 Overexpression of DREB Genes in Plant Species 572

21.12 Conclusion 577

References 577

22 Transcription Factors: Modulating Plant Adaption in the Scenario of Changing Climate 589
Swati Puranik and Manoj Prasad

22.1 Catastrophes of the Changing Climate 589

22.2 Molecular Reprogramming Events Mitigate Environmental Constraints 590

22.3 Classification of Transcription Factors 592

22.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 597

References 597

23 Role of Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants 605
Neelam R. Yadav, Jyoti Taunk, Asha Rani, Bharti Aneja, and Ram C. Yadav

23.1 Introduction 606

23.2 AP2/ERF Regulon 607

23.3 CBF/DREB Regulon 609

23.4 NAC Regulon 611

23.5 ZF-HD Regulon 614

23.6 MYB/MYC Regulon 615

23.7 AREB/ABF Regulon 621

23.8 Transcription Factor WRKY 624

23.9 Conclusions 626

References 627

24 Coping with Drought and Salinity Stresses: Role of Transcription Factors in Crop Improvement 641
Karina F. Ribichich, Agustín L. Arce, and Raquel Lía Chan

24.1 Transcription Factors: A Historical Perspective 641

24.2 Plant Transcription Factor Families Implicated in Drought and Salinity 644

24.3 Crop Domestication: Examples of the Major Role of Transcription Factors 654

24.4 Drought and Salinity: From Perception to Gene Expression 657

24.5 Transcription Factor Gene Discovery in Stress Responses 663

24.6 The Long and Winding Road to Crop Improvement 665

References 672

25 Role of Naþ/Hþ Antiporters in Naþ Homeostasis in Halophytic Plants 685
Pradeep K. Agarwal, Narendra Singh Yadav, and Bhavanath Jha

25.1 Introduction 685

25.2 Tissue-Specific Adaptation of Halophytes 687

25.3 Ion Transporters 690

25.4 Conclusion and Perspectives 697

References 698

26 Role of Plant Metabolites in Abiotic Stress Tolerance Under Changing Climatic Conditions with Special Reference to Secondary Compounds 705
Akula Ramakrishna and G.A. Ravishankar

26.1 Introduction: Plant Secondary Metabolites 705

26.2 Climate Change 706

26.3 Role of Secondary Metabolites Under Changing Climatic Conditions 706

26.4 Role of Signaling Molecules During Abiotic Stress 711

26.5 Role of Secondary Metabolites in Drought, Salt, Temperature, Cold, and Chilling Stress 713

26.6 Conclusion 716

References 716

27 Metabolome Analyses for Understanding Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants to Evolve Management Strategies 727
Usha Chakraborty, Bhumika Pradhan, and Rohini Lama

27.1 Introduction 728

27.2 Metabolite Changes During Abiotic Stresses 729

27.3 Stress Hormones 736

27.4 Antioxidants 739

27.5 Stress Proteins and Protein Kinases 740

27.6 Stress-Responsive Gene Expression 741

27.7 Role of MicroRNAs in Abiotic Stress 742

27.8 Conclusion 743

References 744

28 Metabolomic Approaches for Improving Crops Under Adverse Conditions 755
Prabodh Kumar Trivedi, Nehal Akhtar, Parul Gupta, and Pravendra Nath

28.1 Introduction 755

28.2 Different Approaches to Study Metabolomics 756

28.3 Plant Metabolome Alterations During Adverse Conditions 757

28.4 Genetic Engineering for Metabolite Modulation for Stress Tolerance 770

References 774

29 Improvement of Cereal Crops through Androgenesis and Transgenic Approaches for Abiotic Stress Tolerance to Mitigate the Challenges of Climate Change in Sustainable Agriculture 785
S.M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, and Narendra Tuteja

29.1 Background 786

29.2 Androgenesis for Crop Improvement 787

29.3 Concluding Remarks 804

References 805

30 Bioprospection of Weed Species for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants Under a Climate Change Scenario: Finding the Gold Buried within Weed Species 815
Meenal Rathore, Raghwendra Singh, and Bhumesh Kumar

30.1 Introduction 815

30.2 Climate Change and Agriculture 816

30.3 Weeds as a Source of Genetic Materials for Abiotic Stress Tolerance 820

30.4 Conclusion 830

References 830

Part Four Crop Improvement Under Climate Change 837

31 Climate Change and Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea 839
Pooran M. Gaur, Aravind K. Jukanti, Srinivasan Samineni, Sushil K. Chaturvedi, Partha S. Basu, Anita Babbar, Veera Jayalakshmi, Harsh Nayyar, Viola Devasirvatham, Nalini Mallikarjuna, Laxmanan Krishnamurthy, and C.L. Laxmipathi Gowda

31.1 Introduction 840

31.2 Effect of Heat Stress on Chickpea 842

31.3 Screening Techniques for Heat Tolerance 844

31.4 Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Heat Tolerance 846

31.5 Genetic Variability for Heat Tolerance 847

31.6 Breeding Strategies for Heat Tolerance 848

References 850

32 Micropropagation of Aloe vera for Improvement and Enhanced Productivity 857
Narpat S. Shekhawat, Mangal S. Rathore, Smita Shekhawat, Sumitra K. Choudhary, Mahendra Phulwaria, Harish, Manoj K. Rai, J.B. Vibha, Nitika S. Rathore, A.K. Patel, and Vinod Kataria

32.1 Introduction 858

32.2 Aloe as a Plant Resource of Dry Habitats 860

32.3 Aloe Biology 863

32.4 Genetic Resources and Biodiversity of Aloe 864

32.5 Biotechnology for Characterization, Conservation, Improvement, and Productivity Enhancement of Aloe 865

32.6 Cloning and Mass Propagation of Aloe Through Tissue Culture 866

32.7 Cloning of A. vera (Ghee-Kanwar/Gwar-Patha) 868

32.8 Conclusions 873

References 874

33 Climate Change and Organic Carbon Storage in Bangladesh Forests 881
Mohammed Alamgir and Stephen M. Turton

33.1 Introduction 882

33.2 Forests in Bangladesh: A General Overview 883

33.3 Climate Change Scenarios in Bangladesh 887

33.4 Trends of Organic Carbon Storage in Different Forest Types 889

33.5 Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Trees of Different Forest Types 892

33.6 Likely Impacts of Climate Change on Organic Carbon Storage in Forests 894

33.7 Question of Sustainability of Organic Carbon Storage 896

33.8 Conclusion 899

References 899

34 Divergent Strategies to Cope with Climate Change in Himalayan Plants 903
Sanjay Kumar

34.1 Why Himalaya? 903

34.2 Climate Change is Occurring in Himalaya 907

34.3 Plant Response to Climate Change Parameters in Himalayan Flora 908

34.4 Impact on Secondary Metabolism Under the Climate Change Scenario 919

34.5 Path Forward 924

References 926

35 In Vitro Culture of Plants from Arid Environments 933
Harchand R. Dagla, Shari Nair, Deepak K. Vyas, and Juleri M. Upendra

35.1 Introduction 933

35.2 Materials and Methods: Establishment of In Vitro Cultures 936

35.3 Results and Discussion 936

References 938

36 Salicylic Acid: A Novel Plant Growth Regulator – Role in Physiological Processes and Abiotic Stresses Under Changing Environments 939
Pushp Sharma

36.1 Introduction 940

36.2 Metabolic and Biosynthetic Pathways 940

36.3 Signaling and Transport 941

36.4 Salicylic Acid-Regulated Physiological Processes 942

36.5 Growth and Productivity 945

36.6 Flowering 950

36.7 Photosynthesis and Plant–Water Relations 952

36.8 Respiration: Salicylic Acid Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase Pathway 956

36.9 Nitrogen Fixation 957

36.10 Salicylic Acid Regulates Antioxidant Systems 959
36.11 Senescence 960

36.12 Salicylic Acid and Stress Mitigation 963

36.13 Conclusion and Future Strategies 971

References 972

37 Phosphorus Starvation Response in Plants and Opportunities for Crop Improvement 991
Bipin K. Pandey, Poonam Mehra, and Jitender Giri

37.1 Introduction 991

37.2 Phosphate Acquisition from Soil Solution 992

37.3 Sensing of Pi Status in Plants 993

37.4 Local and Systemic Response in Pi Deficiency 995

37.5 Phytohormones Mediate both Local and Systemic Response in Pi Deficiency 1001

37.6 Strategies for Improving Pi-Acquisition Efficiency and Pi-Use Efficiency in Crop Plants 1003

37.7 Conclusions and Future Prospects 1007

References 1008

38 Bacterial Endophytes and their Significance in the Sustainable Production of Food in Non-Legumes 1013
Aparna Raturi, Prasad Gyaneshwar, Sunil K. Singh, Nisha Tak, and Hukam S. Gehlot

38.1 Introduction 1014

38.2 Soil, Microbes, and Plants (Rhizosphere/Rhizodeposition) 1015

38.3 Bacterial Endophytes 1016

38.4 Nitrogen Fixation by Free-Living versus Endophytic Bacteria 1019

38.5 Diazotrophic Bacterial Endophytes 1020

38.6 Non-Legumes (Cereals and Grasses) and Diazotrophic Bacterial Endophytes 1022

38.7 Bacterial Endophytes and Stress Tolerance 1025

38.8 Natural Products from Endophytic Bacteria 1025

38.9 Antagonistic and Synergistic Interactions 1027

38.10 Role in Phytoremediation 1028

38.11 Genomics of Bacterial Endophytes 1029

38.12 Metagenomics of Rhizospheric Microbes to Study Molecular and Functional Diversity 1029

38.13 Concluding Remarks 1031

References 1032

39 Endophytic Fungi for Stress Tolerance 1041
Nutan Kaushik and Vikram Kumar

39.1 What are Endophytes? 1041

39.2 Endophytic Fungi and Stress Tolerance 1042

39.3 Stress Tolerance Mechanisms 1046

39.4 Conclusion 1049

References 1050

40 Polyamines and their Role in Plant Osmotic Stress Tolerance 1053
Kamala Gupta, Abhijit Dey, and Bhaskar Gupta

40.1 Introduction 1053

40.2 Polyamine Metabolism in Plants 1055

40.3 Polyamines and Osmotic Stress Response 1056

40.4 Conclusion 1065

References 1065

Index 1073

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Author Information

An elected fellow of numerous academies, Narendra Tuteja is currently a senior scientist at ICGEB, New Delhi, India. He has made significant contributions to crop improvement under adverse conditions, reporting the first helicase from plant and human cells and demonstrating new roles of Ku autoantigen, nucleolin and eIF4A as DNA helicases. Furthermore, he discovered novel functions of helicases, G-proteins, CBL-CIPK and LecRLK in plant stress tolerance, and PLC and MAP-kinase as effectors for G proteins. Narendra Tuteja also reported several high salinity stress tolerant genes from plants and fungi and developed salt/drought tolerant plants.

Currently assistant professor at MD University, Rohtak, India, Sarvajeet Singh Gill has made significant contributions to abiotic stress tolerance. Together with Narendra Tuteja he worked on plant helicases and discovered a novel function of plant MCM6 in salinity stress tolerance that will help improve crop production at sub-optimal conditions. A recipient of the Junior Scientist of the Year Award 2008 from the National Environmental Science Academy, Sarvajeet Gill has edited several books and has a number of research papers, review articles, and book chapters to his name.
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Reviews

Climate Change and Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance should prove to be an invaluable reference for academic plant biologists as well as agriculturalists and government agencies. (The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2016)

 

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