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Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquids, 2nd Edition

Frank Endres (Editor), Andrew Abbott (Editor), Douglas R. MacFarlane (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33602-9
486 pages
June 2017
Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquids, 2nd Edition (3527336028) cover image


Edited by distinguished experts in this expanding field and with specialist contributions, this overview is the first of its kind to focus on electrodeposition from ionic liquids.
This second edition has been completely revised and updated with approximately 20% new content and has been expanded by five chapters to cover the following topics:
-Bulk and Interface Theory
-Nanoscale Imaging including AFM, In situ STM and UHV-STM
-Impedance Spectroscopy
-Process Scale-up including Brighteners
-Speciation and Redox Properties.
The result is essential reading for electrochemists, materials scientists, chemists in industry, physical chemists, chemical engineers, inorganic and organic chemists.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

Abbreviations xxi

1 Why Use Ionic Liquids for Electrodeposition? 1
Andrew P. Abbott, Frank Endres, and Douglas R. Macfarlane

1.1 Nonaqueous Solutions 2

1.2 Ionic Fluids 3

1.3 What Is an Ionic Liquid? 4

1.4 Technological Potential of Ionic Liquids 6

1.5 Conclusions 11

References 12

2 Synthesis of Ionic Liquids 17
Tom Beyersdorff, Thomas J. S. Schubert, UrsWelz-Biermann,Will Pitner, Andrew P. Abbott, Katy J. McKenzie, and Karl S. Ryder

2.1 Nanostructured Metals and Alloys Deposited from Ionic Liquids 17
Thomas J. S. Schubert

References 24

2.2 Air- andWater-Stable Ionic Liquids 26
Thomas J. S. Schubert

References 35

2.3 Eutectic-Based Ionic Liquids 38
Andrew P. Abbott

References 50

3 Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Applications 55
Hiroyuki Ohno

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Thermal Properties 55

3.3 Viscosity 62

3.4 Density 64

3.5 Refractive Index 65

3.6 Polarity 67

3.7 Solubility of Metal Salts 73

3.8 Electrochemical Properties 76

3.9 Conclusion and Future Prospects 86

Acknowledgments 86

References 86

4 Electrodeposition of Metals 95

4.1 Electrodeposition in AlCl3-Based Ionic Liquids 95
Thomas Schubert

References 103

4.2 Electrodeposition of Refractory Metals from Ionic Liquids 104
Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Natalia Borisenko, and Frank Endres

References 115

4.3 Deposition of Metals from Nonchloroaluminate Eutectic Mixtures 119
Andrew P. Abbott and Karl S. Ryder

References 131

4.4 Troublesome Aspects 132
Andrew P. Abbott and Frank Endres

References 137

4.5 Complexation and Redox Behavior ofMetal Ions in Ionic Liquids 137

References 151

5 Electrodeposition of Alloys 157
I-Wen Sun and Po-Yu Chen

5.1 Introduction 157

5.2 Electrodeposition of Al-Containing Alloys from Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids 160

5.3 Electrodeposition of Zn-Containing Alloys from Chlorozincate Ionic Liquids 167

5.4 Fabrication of a Porous Metal Surface by Electrochemical Alloying and Dealloying 170

5.5 Nb–Sn 171

5.6 Air- andWater-Stable Ionic Liquids 171

5.7 Deep Eutectic Solvents 178

5.8 Summary 182

References 183

6 Electrodeposition of Semiconductors from Ionic Liquids 187
Natalia Borisenko, Abhishek Lahiri, and Frank Endres

6.1 Introduction 187

6.2 Group IV Semiconductors 188

6.3 II–VI Compound Semiconductors 196

6.4 III–V Compound Semiconductors 198

6.5 Other Compound Semiconductors 201

6.6 Conclusions 202

References 204

7 Conducting Polymers 211
JenniferM. Pringle

7.1 Introduction 211

7.2 Electropolymerization – General Experimental Procedures 214

7.3 Synthesis of Conducting Polymers in Chloroaluminate ILs 219

7.4 Synthesis of Conducting Polymers in Air- andWater-Stable ILs 221

7.5 Characterization 235

7.6 Conclusions and Outlook 244

References 245

8 Nanostructured Materials 253

8.1 Nanostructured Metals and Alloys Deposited from Ionic Liquids 253
Rolf Hempelmann and Harald Natter

Acknowledgments 273

References 274

8.2 Electrodeposition of Ordered Macroporous Materials from Ionic Liquids 278
Yao Li and Jiupeng Zhao

References 288

8.3 Electrodeposition of Nanowires from Ionic Liquids 289
I-Wen Sun and Po-Yu Chen

Acknowledgment 302

References 303

8.4 Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanowire Electrodes for Lithium Batteries 304
Sherif Zein El Abedin

Acknowledgments 317

References 317

9 Ionic Liquid–Solid Interfaces 321
Hua Li, Timo Carstens, Aaron Elbourne, Natalia Borisenko, René Gustus, Frank Endres, and Rob Atkin

9.1 Introduction 321

9.2 IL–Au(111) Interface 322

9.3 IL–HOPG Interface 327

9.4 Influence of Solutes on the IL–Electrode Interfacial Structure 332

9.5 Thin Films of Ionic Liquids in Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) 335

9.6 Outlook 339

References 339

10 Plasma Electrochemistry with Ionic Liquids 345
Jürgen Janek, Marcus Rohnke, Manuel Pölleth, and Sebastian A.Meiss

10.1 Introduction 345

10.2 Concepts and Principles 346

10.3 Early Studies 351

10.4 The Stability of Ionic Liquids in Plasma Experiments 355

10.5 Plasma Electrochemical Metal Deposition in Ionic Liquids 359

10.6 Conclusions and Outlook 367

Acknowledgments 368

References 368

11 Impedance Spectroscopy on Electrode | Ionic Liquid Interfaces 373
Jens Wallauer, Marco Balabajew, and Bernhard Roling

11.1 Introduction 373

11.2 Measurement: Basics and Pitfalls 378

11.3 Analysis of Experimental Data 381

11.4 Application: IL Interfaces at Metal Electrodes 387

References 395

12 Technical Aspects 401

12.1 Metal Dissolution Processes 401
Andrew P. Abbott,Wrya Karim, and Karl S. Ryder

References 408

12.2 Reference Electrodes for Use in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids 408
Douglas R. MacFarlane

References 422

12.3 Process Scale-Up 424
Andrew P. Abbott

References 436

12.4 Toward Regeneration and Reuse of Ionic Liquids in Electroplating 438
Daniel Watercamp and Jorg Thöming

Acknowledgments 453

References 453

12.5 Impurities 457
Andrew P. Abbott, Frank Endres and Douglas MacFarlane

A.1 Protocol for the Deposition of Zinc from a Type III Ionic Liquid 467

A.1.1 Preparation of Ionic Liquids 467

A.2 Electroplating Experiment 467

A.2.1 Method 467

A.2.2 Safety Precautions 468

References 468

13 Plating Protocols 469
Frank Endres, Sherif Zein El Abedin, Douglas R.MacFarlane, Karl S. Ryder, and Andrew P. Abbott

13.1 Electrodeposition of Al from [C2mim]Cl/AlCl3 469

13.2 Electrodeposition of Al from 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazoliumchloride–AlCl3–Toluene 472

13.3 Electrodeposition of Al from [C2mim] NTf2/AlCl3 473

13.4 Electrodeposition of Al from [C4mpyr]NTf2/AlCl3 476

13.5 Electrodeposition of Li from [C4mpyr]NTf2/LiNTf2 477

13.6 Electrodeposition of Ta from [C4mpyr]NTf2 479

13.7 Electrodeposition of Zinc Coatings from a Choline Chloride: Ethylene-Glycol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent 480

13.8 Electrodeposition of Nickel Coatings from a Choline Chloride: Ethylene-Glycol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent 481

References 482

14 Future Directions and Challenges 483
Frank Endres, Andrew P. Abbott, and Douglas MacFarlane

14.1 Impurities 483

14.2 Counter Electrodes/Compartments 485

14.3 Ionic Liquids for Reactive (Nano)materials 486

14.4 Nanomaterials/Nanoparticles 486

14.5 Cation/Anion Effects 487

14.6 Polymers for Batteries and Solar Cells 487

14.7 Variable-Temperature Studies 488

14.8 Intrinsic Process Safety 488

14.9 Economics (Price, Recycling) 489

14.10 Fundamental Knowledge Gaps 490

Index 491

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Author Information

Frank Endres studied chemistry and physics at Saarland University, Germany, gaining his doctorate in 1996. He obtained his lecturing qualification at Karlsruhe University in 2002, since when he has been a full professor at Clausthal University of Technology.

Andrew Abbott gained his PhD in electrochemistry from Southampton University in 1989. Following post-doctoral studies at the universities of Connecticut and Liverpool, he became a lecturer at the University of Leicester in 1993, and Professor of Physical Chemistry there in 2005. Since 1999, Professor Abbott has been Research Director of Scionix Ltd.

Professor Doug MacFarlane leads the Monash Ionic Liquids Group at Monash University. He is currently the holder of an Australian Research Council Laureate Fellowship. He is also the Program Leader of the Energy Program in the Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science. His group focuses on a range of aspects of ionic liquids and their application in the energy sciences and sustainable chemistry. Professor MacFarlane was a BSc(Hons) graduate of Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand and then undertook his graduate work in the Angell group at Purdue University, Indiana, graduating in 1983. After postdoctoral fellowships in France and New Zealand he took up an academic position at Monash. He has been a Professor of Chemistry at Monash since 1995 and was Head of School 2003-2006.
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New to This Edition

New to this edition: All the old chapters are updated and revised. Compared to the 1st edition there is approximately 35% new content. The five completely new topics include:
-Bulk and Interface Theory
-Nanoscale Imaging including AFM, In situ STM and UHV-STM
-Impedance Spectroscopy
-Process Scale-up including Brighteners
-Speciation and Redox Properties
See More

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