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Chemistry Education: Best Practices, Opportunities and Trends

ISBN: 978-3-527-33605-0
792 pages
May 2015
Chemistry Education: Best Practices, Opportunities and Trends (3527336052) cover image

Description

Winner of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title 2017 Award

This comprehensive collection of top-level contributions provides a thorough review of the vibrant field of chemistry education. Highly-experienced chemistry professors and education experts cover the latest developments in chemistry learning and teaching, as well as the pivotal role of chemistry for shaping a more sustainable future.

Adopting a practice-oriented approach, the current challenges and opportunities posed by chemistry education are critically discussed, highlighting the pitfalls that can occur in teaching chemistry and how to circumvent them. The main topics discussed include best practices, project-based education, blended learning and the role of technology, including e-learning, and science visualization.

Hands-on recommendations on how to optimally implement innovative strategies of teaching chemistry at university and high-school levels make this book an essential resource for anybody interested in either teaching or learning chemistry more effectively, from experience chemistry professors to secondary school teachers, from educators with no formal training in didactics to frustrated chemistry students.


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Table of Contents

Foreword XXI

Preface XXV

List of Contributors XXXIII

Part I: Chemistry Education: A Global Endeavour 1

1 Chemistry Education and Human Activity 3
Peter Mahaffy

1.1 Overview 3

1.2 Chemistry Education and Human Activity 3

1.3 A Visual Metaphor: Tetrahedral Chemistry Education 4

1.4 Three Emphases on Human Activity in Chemistry Education 5

Acknowledgments 23

References 24

2 Chemistry Education That Makes Connections: Our Responsibilities 27
Cathy Middlecamp

2.1 What This Chapter Is About 27

2.2 Story #1: Does This Plane Have Wings? 28

2.3 Story #2: Coaching Students to “See” the Invisible 30

2.4 Story #3: Designing Super-Learning Environments for Our Students 34

2.5 Story #4: Connections to Public Health (Matthew Fisher) 37

2.6 Story #5: Green Chemistry Connections (Richard Sheardy) 39

2.7 Story #6: Connections to Cardboard (Garon Smith) 41

2.8 Story #7:Wisdom from the Bike Trail 44

2.9 Conclusion: The Responsibility to “Connect the Dots” 46

References 48

3 The Connection between the Local Chemistry Curriculum and Chemistry Terms in the Global News: The Glocalization Perspective 51
Mei-Hung Chiu and Chin-Cheng Chou

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Understanding Scientific Literacy 52

3.3 Introduction of Teaching Keywords-Based Recommendation System 55

3.4 Method 56

3.5 Results 57

3.6 Concluding Remarks and Discussion 65

3.7 Implications for Chemistry Education 68

Acknowledgment 70

References 70

4 Changing Perspectives on the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum 73
Martin J. Goedhart

4.1 The Traditional Undergraduate Curriculum 73

4.2 A Call for Innovation 74

4.3 Implementation of New Teaching Methods 78

4.4 A Competency-Based Undergraduate Curriculum 83

4.5 Conclusions and Outlook 92

References 93

5 Empowering Chemistry Teachers’ Learning: Practices and New Challenges 99
Jan H. van Driel and Onno de Jong

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Chemistry Teachers’ Professional Knowledge Base 102

5.3 Empowering Chemistry Teachers to Teach Challenging Issues 107

5.4 New Challenges and Opportunities to Empower Chemistry Teachers’ Learning 113

5.5 Final Conclusions and Future Trends 116

References 118

6 Lifelong Learning: Approaches to Increasing the Understanding of Chemistry by Everybody 123
John K. Gilbert and Ana Sofia Afonso

6.1 The Permanent Significance of Chemistry 123

6.2 Providing Opportunities for the Lifelong Learning of Chemistry 123

6.3 The Content and Presentation of Ideas for Lifelong Chemical Education 129

6.4 Pedagogy to Support Lifelong Learning 131

6.5 Criteria for the Selection of Media for Lifelong Chemical Education 133

6.6 Science Museums and Science Centers 133

6.7 Print Media: Newspapers and Magazines 134

6.8 Print Media: Popular Books 135

6.9 Printed Media: Cartoons, Comics, and Graphic Novels 136

6.10 Radio and Television 140

6.11 Digital Environments 141

6.12 Citizen Science 143

6.13 An Overview: Bringing About Better Opportunities for Lifelong Chemical Education 144

References 146

Part II: Best Practices and Innovative Strategies 149

7 Using Chemistry Education Research to Inform Teaching Strategies and Design of Instructional Materials 151
Renée Cole

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Research into Student Learning 153

7.3 Connecting Research to Practice 154

7.4 Research-Based Teaching Practice 165

7.5 Implementation 171

7.6 Continuing the Cycle 172

References 174

8 Research on Problem Solving in Chemistry 181
George M. Bodner

8.1 Why Do Research on Problem Solving? 181

8.2 Results of Early Research on Problem Solving in General Chemistry 184

8.3 What About Organic Chemistry 186

8.4 The “Problem-Solving Mindset” 192

8.5 An Anarchistic Model of Problem Solving 193

8.6 Conclusion 199

References 200

9 Do Real Work, Not Homework 203
Brian P Coppola

9.1 Thinking About Real Work 203

9.2 Attributes of Real Work 209

9.3 Learning from Real Work 239

9.4 Conclusions 245

Acknowledgments 247

References 247

10 Context-Based Teaching and Learning on School and University Level 259
Ilka Parchmann, Karolina Broman, Maike Busker, and Julian Rudnik

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Theoretical and Empirical Background for Context-Based Learning 260

10.3 Context-Based Learning in School: A Long Tradition with Still Long Ways to Go 261

10.4 Further Insights Needed: An On-Going Empirical Study on the Design and Effects of Learning from Context-Based Tasks 263

10.5 Context-Based Learning on University Level: Goals and Approaches 269

10.6 Conclusions and Outlook 275

References 276

11 Active Learning Pedagogies for the Future of Global Chemistry Education 279
Judith C. Poë

11.1 Problem-Based Learning 280

11.2 Service-Learning 290

11.3 Active Learning Pedagogies 296

11.4 Conclusions and Outlook 297

References 297

12 Inquiry-Based Student-Centered Instruction 301
Ram S. Lamba

12.1 Introduction 301

12.2 Inquiry-Based Instruction 303

12.3 The Learning Cycle and the Inquiry-Based Model for Teaching and Learning 304

12.4 Information Processing Model 308

12.5 Possible Solution 308

12.6 Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry: Practical Problems and Applications Manual 310

12.7 Assessment of the Guided-Inquiry-Based Laboratories 314

12.8 Conclusions 316

References 317

13 Flipping the Chemistry Classroom with Peer Instruction 319
Julie Schell and Eric Mazur

13.1 Introduction 319

13.2 What Is the Flipped Classroom? 320

13.3 How to Flip the Chemistry Classroom 325

13.4 Flipping Your Classroom with Peer Instruction 329

13.5 Responding to Criticisms of the Flipped Classroom 339

13.6 Conclusion: The Future of Education 341

Acknowledgments 341

References 341

14 Innovative Community-Engaged Learning Projects: From Chemical Reactions to Community Interactions 345
Claire McDonnell

14.1 The Vocabulary of Community-Engaged Learning Projects 345

14.2 CBL and CBR in Chemistry 349

14.3 Benefits Associated with the Adoption of Community-Engaged Learning 353

14.4 Barriers and Potential Issues When Implementing Community-Engaged Learning 360

14.5 Current and Future Trends 364

14.6 Conclusion 366

References 367

15 The Role of Conceptual Integration in Understanding and Learning Chemistry 375
Keith S. Taber

15.1 Concepts, Coherence, and Conceptual Integration 375

15.2 Conceptual Integration and Coherence in Science 381

15.3 Conceptual Integration in Learning 385

15.4 Conclusions and Implications 390

References 392

16 Learners Ideas, Misconceptions, and Challenge 395
Hans-Dieter Barke

16.1 Preconcepts and School-Made Misconceptions 395

16.2 Preconcepts of Children and Challenge 396

16.3 School-Made Misconceptions and Challenge 396

16.4 Best Practice to Challenge Misconceptions 415

16.5 Conclusion 419

References 419

17 The Role of Language in the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry 421
Peter E. Childs, Silvija Markic, and Marie C. Ryan

17.1 Introduction 421

17.2 The History and Development of Chemical Language 423

17.3 The Role of Language in Science Education 428

17.4 Problems with Language in the Teaching and Learning of Chemistry 430

17.5 Language Issues in Dealing with Diversity 437

17.6 Summary and Conclusions 441

References 442

Further Reading 445

18 Using the Cognitive Conflict Strategy with Classroom Chemistry Demonstrations 447
Robert (Bob) Bucat

18.1 Introduction 447

18.2 What Is the Cognitive Conflict Teaching Strategy? 448

18.3 Some Examples of Situations with Potential to Induce Cognitive Conflict 449

18.4 Origins of the Cognitive Conflict Teaching Strategy 451

18.5 Some Issues Arising from A Priori Consideration 453

18.6 A Particular Research Study 455

18.7 The Logic Processes of Cognitive Conflict Recognition and Resolution 459

18.8 Selected Messages from the Research Literature 461

18.9 A Personal Anecdote 465

18.10 Conclusion 466

References 467

19 Chemistry Education for Gifted Learners 469
Manabu Sumida and Atsushi Ohashi

19.1 The Gap between Students’ Images of Chemistry and Research Trends in Chemistry 469

19.2 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry from 1901 to 2012: The Distribution and Movement of Intelligence 470

19.3 Identification of Gifted Students in Chemistry 472

19.4 Curriculum Development and Implementation of Chemistry Education for the Gifted 477

19.5 Conclusions 484

References 486

20 Experimental Experience Through Project-Based Learning 489
Jens Josephsen and Søren Hvidt

20.1 Teaching Experimental Experience 489

20.2 Instruction Styles 492

20.3 Developments in Teaching 494

20.4 New Insight and Implementation 498

20.5 The Chemistry Point of View Revisited 511

20.6 Project-Based Learning 512

References 514

21 The Development of High-Order Learning Skills in High School Chemistry Laboratory: “Skills for Life” 517
Avi Hofstein

21.1 Introduction: The Chemistry Laboratory in High School Setting 517

21.2 The Development of High-Order Learning Skills in the Chemistry Laboratory 519

21.3 From Theory to Practice: How Are Chemistry Laboratories Used? 522

21.4 Emerging High-Order Learning Skills in the Chemistry Laboratory 523

21.5 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations 532

References 535

22 Chemistry Education Through Microscale Experiments 539
Beverly Bell, John D. Bradley, and Erica Steenberg

22.1 Experimentation at the Heart of Chemistry and Chemistry Education 539

22.2 Aims of Practical Work 540

22.3 Achieving the Aims 540

22.4 Microscale Chemistry Practical Work – “The Trend from Macro Is Now Established” 541

22.5 Case Study I: Does Scale Matter? Study of a First-Year University Laboratory Class 542

22.6 Case Study II: Can Microscale Experimentation Be Used Successfully by All? 543

22.7 Case Study III: Can Quantitative Practical Skills Be Learned with Microscale Equipment? 544

22.8 Case Study IV: Can Microscale Experimentation Help Learning the Scientific Approach? 554

22.9 Case Study V: Can Microscale Experimentation Help to Achieve the Aims of Practical Work for All? 555

22.10 Conclusions 559

References 559

Part III: The Role of New Technologies 563

23 Twenty-First Century Skills: Using theWeb in Chemistry Education 565
Jan Apotheker and Ingeborg Veldman

23.1 Introduction 565

23.2 How Can These New Developments Be Used in Education? 567

23.3 MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) 572

23.4 Learning Platforms 574

23.5 Online Texts versus Hard Copy Texts 575

23.6 Learning Platforms/Virtual Learning Environment 577

23.7 The Use of Augmented Reality in (In)Formal Learning 579

23.8 The Development of Mighty/Machtig 580

23.9 The Evolution of MIGHT-y 580

23.10 Game Play 581

23.11 Added Reality and Level of Immersion 582

23.12 Other Developments 586

23.13 Molecular City in the Classroom 587

23.14 Conclusion 593

References 593

24 Design of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry Courses 595
Jerry P. Suits

24.1 Introduction 595

24.2 Advances in Visualization Technology 598

24.3 Dynamic Visualizations and Student’s Mental Model 603

24.4 Simple or Realistic Molecular Animations? 607

24.5 Continuous or Segmented Animations? 608

24.6 Individual Differences and Visualizations 609

24.7 Simulations: Interactive, Dynamic Visualizations 611

24.8 Conclusions and Implications 615

Acknowledgments 616

References 616

25 Chemistry Apps on Smartphones and Tablets 621
Ling Huang

25.1 Introduction 621

25.2 Operating Systems and Hardware 625

25.3 Chemistry Apps in Teaching and Learning 626

25.4 Challenges and Opportunities in Chemistry Apps for Chemistry Education 646

25.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 647

References 649

26 E-Learning and Blended Learning in Chemistry Education 651
Michael K. Seery and Christine O’Connor

26.1 Introduction 651

26.2 Building a Blended Learning Curriculum 652

26.3 Cognitive Load Theory in Instructional Design 654

26.4 Examples from Practice 655

26.5 Conclusion: Integrating Technology Enhanced Learning into the Curriculum 665

References 666

27 Wiki Technologies and Communities: New Approaches to Assessing Individual and Collaborative Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory 671
Gwendolyn Lawrie and Lisbeth Grøndahl

27.1 Introduction 671

27.2 Shifting Assessment Practices in Chemistry Laboratory Learning 672

27.3 Theoretical and Learning Design Perspectives Related to Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments 675

27.4 Wiki Learning Environments as an Assessment Platform for Students’ Communication of Their Inquiry Laboratory Outcomes 678

27.5 Practical Examples of the Application of Wikis to Enhance Laboratory Learning Outcomes 681

27.6 Emerging Uses of Wikis in Lab Learning Based on Web 2.0 Analytics And Their Potential to Enhance Lab Learning 684

27.7 Conclusion 688

References 689

28 New Tools and Challenges for Chemical Education: Mobile Learning, Augmented Reality, and Distributed Cognition in the Dawn of the Social and Semantic Web 693
Harry E. Pence, Antony J.Williams, and Robert E. Belford

28.1 Introduction 693

28.2 The Semantic Web and the Social Semantic Web 694

28.3 Mobile Devices in Chemical Education 702

28.4 Smartphone Applications for Chemistry 706

28.5 Teaching Chemistry in a Virtual and Augmented Space 708

28.6 The Role of the Social Web 717

28.7 Distributed Cognition, Cognitive Artifacts, and the Second Digital Divide 721

28.8 The Future of Chemical Education 726

References 729

Index 735

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Author Information

Javier García-Martínez is Faculty member and Director of the Molecular Nanotechnology Lab at the University of Alicante, Spain, where he teaches at undergraduate and graduate levels, and created several courses on materials chemistry and nanotechnology. Javier has published extensively on chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology and is inventor of more than twenty fi ve patents. He is Co-founder of Rive Technology, a VC-funded MIT spin-off commercializing hierarchical zeolites for energy applications and a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, member of the Global Young Academy, the World Economic Forum, and of the Bureau of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry. His latest books are "Nanotechnology for the Energy Challenge" (Wiley, 2014) and "The Chemical Element" (Wiley, 2011).

Elena Serrano-Torregrosa is a Research Fellow at the Molecular Nanotechnology Lab of the Inorganic Chemistry Department at the University of Alicante (Spain), where she has been teaching since 2009 and has created several courses on nanotechnology. She received her PhD in 2006 at the University of Basque Country, Spain (Iñaki Mondragón). After a post-doctoral activity at the National Institute of Applied Sciences, INSA in France (Jean-Pierre Pascault), Elena joined the Molecular Nanotechnology Lab at the University of Alicante in 2009. Her current research interests are in the area of new synthetic pathways to prepare photoactive hybrid titania-based materials, in which she is working for three years. Her last book is "The Chemical Element" (Wiley, 2011).
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Reviews

“I have been ready for the revolution since about grade six. If you are too, then get a copy of Chemistry education and share it with your colleagues.”  (Chemistry in Australia, 1 October 2015)

"The book is an indispensable resource for high school through graduate school chemistry educators and chemistry education students." (Choice, May 2016)  

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