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Atmospheric Aerosols: Life Cycles and Effects on Air Quality and Climate

Claudio Tomasi (Editor), Sandro Fuzzi (Editor), Alexander Kokhanovsky (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33645-6
704 pages
March 2017
Atmospheric Aerosols: Life Cycles and Effects on Air Quality and Climate (3527336451) cover image

Description

The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XV

Preface XIX

Foreword XXI

Acknowledgments XXIII

1 Primary and Secondary Sources of Atmospheric Aerosol 1
Claudio Tomasi and Angelo Lupi

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 A General Classification of Aerosol Sources 6

1.3 Primary Aerosols of Natural Origin 7

1.4 Secondary Aerosols of Natural Origin 31

1.5 Primary Anthropogenic Aerosols 48

1.6 Secondary Anthropogenic Aerosols 59

1.7 Concluding Remarks on the Global Annual Emission Fluxes of Natural and Anthropogenic Aerosol Mass 70

Abbreviations 75

List of Symbols 75

References 76

2 Aerosol Nucleation in the Terrestrial Atmosphere 87
Karine Sellegri and Julien Boulon

2.1 Introduction 87

2.2 Theoretical Basis of Nucleation and Growth of New Particles in the Atmosphere 88

2.3 Observation and Detection Tools 97

2.4 Precursor Candidates for Nucleation and Early Growth from Observations 104

2.5 Parameterizations and Chamber Experiments 105

2.6 Importance of Nucleation for the Production of Aerosols and CCN at the Global Scale 107

2.7 Conclusions 108

Abbreviations 109

List of Symbols 110

References 110

3 Coagulation, Condensation, Dry and Wet Deposition, and Cloud Droplet Formation in the Atmospheric Aerosol Life Cycle 115
Claudio Tomasi and Angelo Lupi

3.1 Introduction 115

3.2 Physical Growth Processes 120

3.3 Aerosol Removal Processes 139

3.4 Formation of Cloud Particles 161

3.5 Concluding Remarks 170

Abbreviations 175

List of Symbols 175

References 180

4 Chemical Composition of Aerosols of Different Origin 183
Stefania Gilardoni and Sandro Fuzzi

4.1 Introduction 183

4.2 Global Distribution and Climatology of the Main Aerosol Chemical Constituents 184

4.3 Size Distributions of Aerosol Chemical Compounds 196

4.4 Issues Related to Aerosol Chemical Composition 205

Abbreviations 216

List of Symbols 217

References 218

5 Aerosol Optics 223
Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

5.1 Introduction 223

5.2 Absorption 224

5.3 Scattering 229

5.4 Polarization 234

5.5 Extinction 237

5.6 Radiative Transfer 239

5.7 Image Transfer 242

Abbreviations 244

List of Symbols 244

References 245

6 Aerosol Models 247
Claudio Tomasi, Mauro Mazzola, Christian Lanconelli, and Angelo Lupi

6.1 Introduction 247

6.2 Modeling of the Optical and Microphysical Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosol 249

6.3 General Remarks on the Aerosol Particle Number, Surface, and Volume Size-Distribution Functions 306

6.4 Size-Distribution Characteristics of Various Aerosol Types 317

6.5 Concluding Remarks 332

Abbreviations 333

List of Symbols 334

References 337

7 Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosol 341
Alexander A. Kokhanovsky, Claudio Tomasi, Boyan H. Petkov, Christian Lanconelli, Maurizio Busetto, Mauro Mazzola, Angelo Lupi, and Kwon H. Lee

7.1 Introduction 341

7.2 Ground-Based Aerosol Remote Sensing Measurements 342

7.3 Airborne Remote Sensing Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties 380

7.4 Satellite-Borne Aerosol Remote Sensing Measurements 403

Abbreviations 422

List of Symbols 423

References 427

8 Aerosol and Climate Change: Direct and Indirect Aerosol Effects on Climate 437
Claudio Tomasi, Christian Lanconelli, Mauro Mazzola, and Angelo Lupi 8.1 Introduction 437

8.2 The Instantaneous DARF Effects at the ToA and BoA Levels and in the Atmosphere 439

8.3 The Diurnally Average DARF Induced by Various Aerosol Types over Ocean and Land Surfaces 476

8.4 Variations of DARF Efficiency as a Function of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo 525

8.5 Concluding Remarks on the DARF Effects over the Global Scale 529

8.6 On the Indirect Aerosol Effects Acting in the Earth’s Climate System 531

Abbreviations 537

List of Symbols 538

References 541

9 Aerosol and Air Quality 553
Sandro Fuzzi, Stefania Gilardoni, Alexander A. Kokhanovsky,Walter Di Nicolantonio, Sonoyo Mukai, Itaru Sano, Makiko Nakata, Claudio Tomasi, and Christian Lanconelli

9.1 Introduction 553

9.2 Aerosol Load as Derived from Satellite-Based Measurements 560

9.3 Characterization of Mass Concentration and Optical Properties of Desert Dust in Different Areas of the Earth 577

Abbreviations 589

List of Symbols 590

References 591

10 Impact of the Airborne Particulate Matter on the Human Health 597
Marina Camatini, Maurizio Gualtieri, and Giulio Sancini

10.1 Introduction 597

10.2 Epidemiological Evidences 600

10.3 Toxicological Evidences 609

10.4 Mechanism of Effects 630

10.5 Conclusions 637

Abbreviations 638

List of Symbols 639

References 639

11 Aerosol Impact on Cultural Heritage: Deterioration Processes and Strategies for Preventive Conservation 645
Alessandra Bonazza, Paola De Nuntiis, Paolo Mandrioli, and Cristina Sabbioni

11.1 Introduction 645

11.2 Monitoring for Cultural Heritage Conservation 645

11.3 Damage and Black Crusts Formation on Building Materials 652

11.4 Bioaerosol Effects on Cultural Heritage 659

11.5 Guidelines for the Preventive Conservation of Cultural Heritage in Urban Areas 664

Abbreviations 665

List of Symbols 665

References 666

Index 671

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Author Information

Claudio Tomasi graduated at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna, Italy. He worked as researcher at the National Council of Research CNR and became director of research in 1991. After his retirement, he still continues his research activity as Associate Researcher at the Institute for Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, ISAC-CNR.
He was P. I. from 2005 to 2009 of the national project QUITSAT supported by the Italian Space Agency to evaluate the air quality parameters on the Po Valley area from polar and geostationary satellite-borne observations integrated with ground-based remote sensing and in situ sampling measurements and with Chemical-Transport-Meteorological model simulations of the PM and gaseous concentrations at the surface. Since 2007, he is leader of the international research project POLAR-AOD, dedicated to study the radiative parameters of polar aerosols and their direct radiative forcing effects.

Sandro Fuzzi is Professor of Global Change at the University of Bologna and holds a doctoral degree in Physical Chemistry from the University of Bologna, Italy. He is at present Research Director at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Research Council, CNR. His main research interests are the physical and chemical processes involving atmospheric aerosols and clouds and their effects on atmospheric composition change, climate, ecosystems and human health. Is has been a member of several international Committees and Panels including the Science Panel of the European Commission on Atmospheric Composition Change and the Chairmanship of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project of the International Global Geosphere-Biosphere program. He has coordinated several national and international programs in the field of atmospheric composition change.

Alexander A. Kokhanovsky graduated from the Physical Department of the Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus. Alexander Kokhanovsky is a member the SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT algorithm development team at the Institute of Environmental Physics at the University of Bremen. His research interests are directed towards modeling light propagation and scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. He has published more than 160 papers in the field of environmental optics, radiative transfer, and light scattering.
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