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Marine Algae Extracts: Processes, Products, and Applications, 2 Volume Set

Se-Kwon Kim (Editor), Katarzyna Chojnacka (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33708-8
784 pages
April 2015
Marine Algae Extracts: Processes, Products, and Applications, 2 Volume Set (3527337083) cover image


Designed as the primary reference for the biotechnological use of macroalgae, this comprehensive handbook covers the entire value chain from the cultivation of algal biomass to harvesting and processing it, to product extraction and formulation.

In addition to covering a wide range of product classes, from polysaccharides to terpenes and from enyzmes to biofuels, it systematically discusses current and future applications of algae-derived products in pharmacology, medicine, cosmetics, food and agriculture.

In doing so, it brings together the expertise of marine researchers, biotechnologists and process engineers for a one-stop resource on the biotechnology of marine macroalgae.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XVII

Preface XXVII

Acknowledgments XXIX

1 Introduction of Marine Algae Extracts 1
Katarzyna Chojnacka and Se-Kwon Kim

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Algal Biomass as a Useful Resource 2

1.3 Biologically Active Compounds Extracted from Algae 4

1.4 The Application of Products Derived from Algal Biomass 5

1.5 Extraction Technology 9

1.6 Conclusions 10

References 11

Part I: Cultivation and Identification of Marine Algae 15

2 Identification and Ecology of Macroalgae Species Existing in Poland 17
Beata Messyasz, Marta Pikosz, Grzegorz Schroeder, Boguslawa £eska, and Joanna Fabrowska

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Collection of Macroalgal Thalli and Culture Conditions 20

2.3 Macroalgae Forming a Large Biomass in Inland Waters of Poland 21

2.4 Ecology Aspects of Freshwater Macroscopic Algae 31

2.5 Summary 33

Acknowledgments 34

References 34

3 Identification of Microalgae Producers of Commercially Important Compounds 41
Rosalia Contreras, J. Paniagua-Michel, and Jorge Olmos

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Microalgae for Human Consumption 41

3.3 Microalgae for Aquaculture and Animal Farms 45

3.4 Microalgae for Biofuels 46

3.5 Molecular Identification of Microalgae 47

3.6 Conclusion 54

References 55

4 Cultivation and Identification of Microalgae (Diatom) 59
Sekar Ashokkumar, Kuppusamy Manimaran, and Keun Kim

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Materials and Methods 61

4.3 Algal Culture Conditions 66

4.4 Conclusion 73

References 73

Part II: Production and Processing of Marine Algae 79

5 Analysis of Green Algae Extracts 81
Grzegorz Schroeder, Boguslawa £eska, Joanna Fabrowska, Beata Messyasz, and Marta Pikosz

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 The Algae Biomass as a Raw Material of Natural Chemical Compounds 82

5.3 Methods of Extraction of Biochemical from Algae Biomass 85

5.4 Analytical Procedures 87

5.5 Conclusion 92

Acknowledgments 93

References 93

6 Algae Extract ProductionMethods and Process Optimization 101
Edward Roj, Agnieszka Dobrzyñska-Inger, Agnieszka Dêbczak, Dorota Kostrzewa, and Katarzyna Stêpnik

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 Production Methods 102

6.3 Analytical Methods Used for Extract Production Process Control 108

6.4 Process Optimization 111

6.5 Summary 117

Acknowledgments 118

References 118

7 Production of Seaweed Extracts by Biological and Chemical Methods 121
Izabela Michalak and Katarzyna Chojnacka

7.1 Introduction 121

7.2 Production of Algal Extracts with Different Methods 122

7.3 Pretreatment of Algal Biomass and Extraction Procedure 123

7.4 Algal Extracts Obtained by Enzymatic Hydrolysis 126

7.5 Algal Extracts Obtained by Chemical Hydrolysis 127

7.6 Comparison of Extraction Methods of Biologically Active Compounds from Seaweeds 130

7.7 Evaluation of the Activities of Algal Extracts Obtained by the Extraction with Organic Solvent 131

7.8 The Application of Water Extracts from Seaweeds 133

7.9 Examples of Commercial Products Obtained by Extraction form Seaweeds 138

7.10 Conclusions 139

Acknowledgments 139

References 139

8 Upstream Processing in the Technology of Algal Extracts: Biomass Harvesting and Preparation for Extraction Process 145
Radoslaw Wilk and Katarzyna Chojnacka

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Marine Vegetation from Baltic Sea as Source Material 149

8.3 The Technology of Raw Marine Biomass Preparation for Supercritical Fluid Extraction 152

8.4 Conclusions 157

Acknowledgments 157

References 157

9 Downstream Processing in the Technology of Algal Extracts – From the Component to the Final Formulations 161
Radoslaw Wilk and Katarzyna Chojnacka

9.1 Introduction 161

9.2 Final Formulation 163

9.3 Definition of an Emulsion 169

9.4 The Method to Produce an Emulsion Based on Algae Extract 170

9.5 Stability of Algae Extract Emulsion 175

9.6 Conclusion 177

References 177

10 Algae Biomass as a Raw Material for Production of Algal Extracts 179
Agnieszka Saeid and Katarzyna Chojnacka

10.1 Introduction 179

10.2 Cell Wall 179

10.3 Methods of Obtaining the Biomass of Algae 181

10.4 Conclusions 186

References 187

11 Algal Extracts as Plant Growth Biostimulants 189
Katarzyna Chojnacka, IzabelaMichalak, Agnieszka Dmytryk, Mateusz Gramza, Adam Slowiñski, and Henryk Gorecki

11.1 Introduction 189

11.2 The Development of Fertilizers Industry 190

11.3 Plant Biostimulants 194

11.4 Potential Benefits Arising from the Use of Plant Growth Biostimulants 195

11.5 The Market of Biostimulants 196

11.6 Seaweed Biomass as a Source for the Production of Algae Based Fertilizers 197

11.7 Algae as the Resource for Biostimulants Production 199

11.8 Methods of Production of Commercial Biostimulants from Algae 201

11.9 Characteristics of Biostimulants Derived from Algae 202

11.10 Current Market of Algal Plant Growth Stimulants 204

11.11 Perspectives 205

11.12 Regulations 206

11.13 Conclusions 207

Acknowledgments 208

References 208

12 Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharides on the Growth of Marine Microalgae 213
Mikinori Ueno and Tatsuya Oda

12.1 Introduction 213

12.2 Preparation of Alginate Oligosaccharides 215

12.3 Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharides on the Growth of Nannochloropsis oculata 217

12.4 Species-Specific Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharides on the Growth of Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis and Skeletonema sp. 218

12.5 Effects of Alginate Oligosaccharides on Harmful Microalgae 220

12.6 Conclusion 222

References 222

Part III: Marine Algal Products 227

13 Omegas: Pharmaceutical High Value Products and One of the Most Functional Bioactive Compounds 229
Viviana P. Rubio, J. Paniagua-Michel, and Jorge Olmos

13.1 Introduction 229

13.2 Most Functional Omegas 231

13.3 Biosynthesis and Functions 232

13.4 Omegas and Diet 234

13.5 Omegas; Sickness; and Health 235

13.6 Omegas: Commercial Applications 236

13.7 Microalgae as a Source for Omega Production 237

13.8 Perspectives 241

References 241

14 An Overview of Global Distribution of the Diterpenes Synthesized by the Red Algae Laurencia Complex (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) 245
Luciana R. de Carvalho, Julyana N. Farias, Pablo Riul, and Mutue T. Fujii

14.1 Introduction 245

14.2 Biosynthesis of Diterpenes 246

14.3 Diversity and Geographic Distribution of the Diterpenes in Laurencia Complex 256

14.4 Conclusions 261

Acknowledgments 262

References 262

15 Anticancer Compounds from Marine Algae 267
Yong-Xin Li, Yong Li, and Se-Kwon Kim

15.1 Introduction 267

15.2 Terpenoids from Marine Algae 268

15.3 Sterols from Marine Algae 270

15.4 Polysaccharides from Marine Algae 273

15.5 Summary 274

Acknowledgments 274

References 274

16 A Comparative Analysis of Carrageenans Produced by Underutilized versus Industrially Utilized Macroalgae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) 277
Leonel Pereira, Filipa Meireles, Helena T. Abreu, and Paulo J.A. Ribeiro-Claro

16.1 Introduction 277

16.2 Chondrus crispus IMTA Cultivated 286

16.3 Geographic Localization, Date of Harvest, Yields, and Phycocolloid Type Produced by Red Algae 287

16.4 Analysis of Carrageenan by Vibrational Spectroscopy 287

16.5 Conclusion 288

Acknowledgments 290

List of Abbreviations and Symbols 290

References 291

17 Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles Using Marine Algae: A Review 295
Panchanathan Manivasagan and Se-Kwon Kim

17.1 Introduction 295

17.2 Types of Nanoparticles 296

17.3 Characterization of Nanoparticles 297

17.4 Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles by Marine Algae 298

17.5 Applications of Nanoparticles 301

17.6 Conclusions 302

Acknowledgments 302

References 302

18 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction to Prepare Bioactive Peptides from Microalgae 305
H.H. Chaminda Lakmal, Kalpa W. Samarakoon, and You-Jin Jeon

18.1 Introduction 305

18.2 Enzyme-Assisted Extraction and Isolation of Bioactive Peptides 306

18.3 Bioactivity of Peptides Derived from Marine Microalgae 309

18.4 Molecular Modeling 312

18.5 Future Trends and Prospective 315

References 315

19 An Overview of Phycocolloids: The Principal Commercial Seaweed Extracts 319
Ratih Pangestuti and Se-Kwon Kim

19.1 Introduction 319

19.2 General Properties of Phycocolloids 320

19.3 Agar 320

19.4 Alginates 322

19.5 Carrageenan 325

19.6 Conclusions 329

References 329

20 Analytical Approaches for the Detailed Characterization of Microalgal Lipid Extracts for the Production of Biodiesel 331
Damien L. Callahan, Gregory J.O. Martin, David R.A. Hill, Ian L.D. Olmstead, and Daniel A. Dias

20.1 Introduction 331

20.2 Protocols 336

20.3 Solid-Phase Extraction of Lipids (SPE) 337

20.4 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) 339

20.5 Derivatization 340

20.6 Liquid Chromatography/Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry 341

20.7 Combined Approaches 344

20.8 Final Remarks 344

Acknowledgments 344

References 345

Contents to Volume 2

List of Contributors XV

Preface XXV

Acknowledgments XXVII

Part IV: Biological Applications of Marine Algae 347

21 Algal Extracts in Dentistry 349
Marcin Mikulewicz and Katarzyna Chojnacka

22 Marine Algae for Protecting Your Brain: Neuroprotective Potentials of Marine Algae 359
Pradeep Dewapriya and Se-Kwon Kim

23 Antiviral Activities of Marine Algal Extracts 371
Fatih Karadeniz, Mustafa Z. Karagozlu, and Se-Kwon Kim

24 Antihyperglycemic of Sargassum sp. Extract 381
Muhamad Firdaus, Rahmi Nurdiani, and Asep A. Prihanto

25 Immunological Activity of MarineMicroalgae Extracts 395
Mariangela Caroprese, Maria G. Ciliberti, and Marzia Albenzio

26 Algal Polysaccharides and Their Biological Applications 413
Sirisha L. Vavilala and Jacinta S. D’Souza

27 Biological Phlorotannins of Eisenia bicyclis 453
Sang-Hoon Lee and Se-Kwon Kim

Part V: Biomedical Applications of Marine Algae 465

28 Algal Extracts as a Carrier of Micronutrients – Utilitarian Properties of New Formulations 467
£ukasz Tuhy, Katarzyna Chojnacka, IzabelaMichalak, and AnnaWitek-Krowiak

29 Marine Algae Based Biomaterials for Osteoblast Differentiation and Tissue Regeneration 489
Pathum Chandika and Won-Kyo Jung

30 Marine Algae Derived Polysaccharides for Bone Tissue Regeneration 509
Jayachandran Venkatesan and Se-Kwon Kim

31 Wound Dressings from Algal Polymers 523
Monica Bhatnagar and Ashish Bhatnagar

32 Marine Algae and Chronic Diseases 557
Kalimuthu Senthilkumar and Se-Kwon Kim

33 Algae Wastes Biomass – a New Class of Low-Cost Material with Potential Applications in Environmental Engineering 575
Laura Bulgariu and Dumitru Bulgariu

Part VI: Food and Industrial Applications of Marine Algae 603

34 Algae Extract as a Potential Feed Additive 605
Mariusz Korczyñski, Zuzanna Witkowska, Sebastian Opaliñski, Marita Œwiniarska, and Zbigniew Dobrzañski

35 Application of Marine Algae Derived Nutraceuticals in the Food Industry 627
Isuru Wijesekara and Se-Kwon Kim

36 Microalgal Carotenoids: Bioactive Roles, Health Foods, and Pharmaceuticals 639
J. Paniagua-Michel, Jorge Olmos Soto, and Eduardo Morales Guerrero

37 Biologically Active Organic Compounds, Especially Plant Promoters, in Algae Extracts and Their Potential Application in Plant Cultivation 659
Boguslawa Gorka, Jacek Lipok, and Piotr P.Wieczorek

38 Biomass and Extracts of Algae as Material for Cosmetics 681
Joanna Fabrowska, Bogus³awa £e²ska, Grzegorz Schroeder, Beata Messyasz, and Marta Pikosz

Index 707

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Author Information

Se-Kwon Kim is professor at the Department of Chemistry and Director of the Marine Bioprocess Research Center at Pukyong National University in Busan (South Korea). He received his academic degrees from Pukyong National University and conducted his postdoctoral studies University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (USA). Later, he became a visiting scientist at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada. Dr. Kim served as president of the Korean Society of Marine Biotechnology and is a board member of the International Society of Marine Biotechnology and the International Society of Nutraceuticals and Functional Food. His main research interests are investigation and development of bioactive substances from seafood processing wastes and other marine sources. To date, he has authored around 450 research papers, has edited more than 20 books and holds 76 patents.
Katarzyna Chojnacka is a full professor of chemical technology at Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland), where she also obtained her academic degrees. Her research is focused on biosorption and bioaccumulation and their technological application. She has published over 200 articles and written one book.
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