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Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

ISBN: 978-3-527-33764-4
576 pages
November 2015
Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas (3527337644) cover image

Description

Based on the results of two bioenergy research initiatives in Germany, this reference examines the sustainable management of wood biomass in rural areas. The large number of participating organizations and research institutes ensures a balanced and unbiased view on the potentials and risks is presented, taking into account economic, ecological, and social aspects.
Most of the results reported are available here for the first time in English and have been collated in central Europe, but are equally applicable to other temperate regions. They highlight best practices for enhancing dendromass potential and productivity, while discussing the implications on rural economies and ecosystems.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XXIII

Preface XXXIII

Part I Introduction 1

1 Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas: Research Findings from the AgroForNet and BEST Projects of the German ‘Sustainable Land Management’ Funding Programme 3
David Butler Manning, Albrecht Bemmann, Christian Ammer, Michael Bredemeier and Norbert Lamersdorf

1.1 The ‘Sustainable Land Management’ Funding Programme 3

1.2 Module B: ‘Innovative System Solutions for Sustainable Land Management’ 5

1.3 Dendromass Production and Rural Development in the Context of Sustainable Land Management 6

1.4 Added Value of this Joint Book Publication 7

References 8

2 Linking the Producers and Consumers ofWoodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas: An Introduction to AgroForNet 9
David Butler Manning and Albrecht Bemmann

2.1 Background and Motivation 9

2.2 Aims and Structure of the Project 10

2.3 Research Results Contributed to this Book 11

References 13

3 Strengthening Bioenergy Regions: An Introduction to BEST 15
Christian Ammer,Michael Bredemeier and Norbert Lamersdorf

3.1 Background and Motivation 15

3.2 Aims and Structure of the Project 16

3.3 Research Results Contributed to this Book 17

References 20

Part II Environmental Constraints, Landscape Functions and EcosystemServices 21

4 The Bioenergy Allocation and Scenario Tool (BEAST) to Assess Options for the Siting of Short Rotation Coppice in Agricultural Landscapes: Tool Development and Case Study Results from the Göttingen District 23
Gerald Busch and Jan C. Thiele

4.1 Introduction 23

4.2 Study Area and Methods 24

4.3 Results 35

4.4 Discussion and Conclusions 40

References 41

5 The Influence of More Widespread Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice on the Water Balance: From the Site to the Regional Scale 45
Andreas Wahren, Falk Richter, Stefan Julich, Martin Jansen and Karl-Heinz Feger

5.1 Introduction 45

5.2 Evidence from Field Measurements and Results of the Plot-Level Modelling 47

5.3 Regional-Scale Modelling 50

5.4 Conclusions 57

References 59

6 Short Rotation Coppice as Habitat for Vascular Plants 63
Charlotte Seifert, Christoph Leuschner and Heike Culmsee

6.1 Introduction 63

6.2 Methods 64

6.3 Results and Discussion 67

6.4 Conclusions 75

References 76

7 Synergies and Conflicts between an Increasingly Widespread Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice and Nature Conservation at the Landscape Level 79
Eckehard-Gunter Wilhelm, Franziska Nych, Peter A. Schmidt and Susanne Winter

7.1 Introduction 79

7.2 Methods 80

7.3 Results 82

7.4 Discussion and Conclusions 90

References 92

8 Nature Conservation Requirements of Short Rotation Coppice Management 97
Imke Hennemann-Kreikenbohm, Leena Jennemann, Wolfgang Peters and Eckehard-Gunter Wilhelm

8.1 Siting of Short Rotation Coppice 97

8.2 Measures for the Enhancement of the Nature Conservation Value of Short Rotation Coppice 98

8.3 Conclusions 102

References 102

9 The Effects of Short Rotation Coppice on the Visual Landscape 105
Thiemen Boll, Christina von Haaren and Michael Rode

9.1 Introduction 105

9.2 Research Design and Methods 106

9.3 Results 111

9.4 Discussion 115

9.5 Conclusions 118

References 118

Part III Evaluating, Managing and Enhancing the Supply of Dendromass 121

10 Site Conditions, Initial Growth and Nutrient and Litter Cycling of Newly Installed Short Rotation Coppice and Agroforestry Systems 123
Linda Hartmann and Norbert Lamersdorf

10.1 Short Rotation Coppice and Agroforestry Systems as Resource-Efficient Cropping Systems 123

10.2 Study Region and Research Site Description 125

10.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of the Soils 127

10.4 Planting Success, Initial Biomass and Litter Production and Nutrient Release 128

10.5 Nitrogen Budget and N Use Efficiency 132

10.6 Discussion and Conclusions 134

References 135

11 Potential Offered by a Willow–Grassland Alley Cropping System as a Biogenic Source of Energy 139
Miriam Ehret, Rüdiger Graß and Michael Wachendorf

11.1 Introduction 139

11.2 Materials and Methods 140

11.3 Results 142

11.4 Discussion and Conclusions 144

References 145

12 The Effects of Irrigation on the Growth of Poplars and Willows Cultivated in Short Rotation 147
Konrad Lorenz and Jürgen Müller

12.1 Introduction 147

12.2 Materials and Methods 147

12.3 Results 151

12.4 Discussion 157

12.5 Conclusions 158

References 158

13 A Spatially Explicit Approach to the Identification of Sites Suitable for Woody Biomass Systems Based on Site Factors and Field Geometry: A Case Study for the Göttingen District 161
Gerald Busch and Christoph Meixner

13.1 Introduction 161

13.2 Methods 161

13.3 Results 166

13.4 Discussion and Conclusions 170

References 171

14 Site-Based Yield Estimation and Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 173
Heinz Röhle, Hendrik Horn, Manuela Müller and Katja Skibbe

14.1 Site-Based Yield Estimation and Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 173

14.2 Growth Characteristics of Short Rotation Coppice 173

14.3 Site-Based Yield Estimation for Poplar Short Rotation Coppice 176

14.4 Biomass Calculation in Short Rotation Coppice 179

14.5 Conclusions 184

References 185

15 Photosynthetic Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Two Poplar Varieties Commonly Grown in Short Rotation Coppice Plantations and Implications for Fertiliser Management 187
Dejuan Euring and Andrea Polle

15.1 Introduction 187

15.2 Materials and Methods 189

15.3 Results and Discussion 191

15.4 Conclusions 194

References 194

16 Biotic Risk Factors in Short Rotation Coppice in Germany: Current Situation, New Findings and Future Perspectives 199
Richard Georgi and Michael Müller

16.1 Introduction 199

16.2 Current Situation in Short Rotation Coppice 199

16.3 New Findings 204

16.4 Future Perspectives 213

References 214

17 An Expert System to Forecast Population Developments of Insects Harmful to Short Rotation Coppice Plantations 217
Martin Schubert and Uta Berger

17.1 Introduction 217

17.2 Development of ASPIK 218

17.3 Model Evaluation 223

17.4 Front-End 225

17.5 Outlook and Further Applications of ASPIK 228

References 230

18 Supporting the Use of Woody Energy Crops through Efficient Stand Assessment via Terrestrial Laser Scanning 233
Dominik Seidel and Christian Ammer

18.1 Introduction 233

18.2 TLS Measurements in a Short Rotation Coppice 235

18.3 Data Processing and dbh Calculation 236

18.4 Correcting for the Shadowing Effect 238

18.5 Accuracy of Results 238

18.6 Conclusions 239

References 240

19 Measuring Dendromass Quantities in the Open Landscape at Test Locations in Eastern Germany Using Publicly Available Geographic Data 243
Christoph Schönbach and Andreas W. Bitter

19.1 Introduction 243

19.2 Materials and Methods 244

19.3 Results and Discussion 251

19.4 Conclusions 254

References 255

20 An Analysis of the Potential to Cultivate Short Rotation Coppice on Deutsche Bahn AG Property in Central Germany Using a GIS-Based Approach 257
Robert Barkowski and David Butler Manning

20.1 Introduction 257

20.2 Site Conditions Required for Short Rotation Coppice 258

20.3 Materials and Methods 259

20.4 Results 261

20.5 Discussion and Conclusions 265

References 267

21 Compensation of Nutrient Losses Resulting from the Intensified Use of Woody Biomass Using Bark-Ash Pellets 269
Christine Knust, Karoline Schua, Axel Göttlein, Rasmus Ettl, Thomas Wolferstetter and Karl-Heinz Feger

21.1 Background and Aims of the Study 269

21.2 RIA Pellet Production and Properties 271

21.3 Impact of RIA Pellets on Soil Chemical Properties and Tree Nutritional Status 272

21.4 Economic Aspects of RIA Pellet Production 283

21.5 Conclusions 284

References 285

Part IV Socio-Economic and Legal Aspects of Dendromass for Bioenergy 287

22 Supply Chain-Based Business Models for Woodfuel 289
Klaus Zimmermann and Jörg Schweinle

22.1 Introduction 289

22.2 Generic Cooperation-Oriented Business Model Types 292

22.3 Practical Implications of Generic Business Model Transaction Types 295

22.4 Bioenergy-Specific Challenges to Supply Chain-Based Business Models 297

22.5 Discussion and Conclusions 299

References 300

23 Socio-Economic Sustainability Criteria for Bioenergy Villages Incorporating Short Rotation Coppice in their Energy Supply 303
Florian P. Neubert, Jürgen Pretzsch and Gero Becker

23.1 Introduction 303

23.2 Materials and Methods 305

23.3 Results 307

23.4 Success Criteria for Bioenergy Villages 312

23.5 Conclusions 314

References 315

24 The Economic Assessment of Short Rotation Coppice Plantations and their Profitability Relative to Annual Crops in Sachsen, Germany 317
Mathias Kröber, Jürgen Heinrich and Peter Wagner

24.1 Introduction 317

24.2 Methodological Basis of the Income Calculation 318

24.3 Assessment of the Profitability of Short Rotation Coppice 321

24.4 Supplying a Biomass Power Plant withWood from Short Rotation Coppice as an Option to Reduce Price Fluctuation and Sales Risks 328

References 329

25 Decision Criteria and Implementation Strategies for Short Rotation Coppice in Germany from the Perspective of Stakeholders 331
Thiemen Boll, Florian P. Neubert, Klaus Zimmermann and Annedore Bergfeld

25.1 Introduction 331

25.2 Methods 331

25.3 Results 332

25.4 Discussion 340

25.5 Conclusions 343

References 344

26 The Agricultural and Energy Policy Framework for Short Rotation Coppice in the EU and Its Implementation in the Member States 347
David Butler Manning

26.1 Introduction 347

26.2 EU Legislation Relevant to Short Rotation Coppice 349

26.3 Short Rotation Coppice in National Laws of EU Member States 352

26.4 Policy Implications for the Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice in Europe 358

26.5 Conclusions 360

References 361

Laws and Regulations 364

27 The Legal Framework for Short Rotation Coppice in Germany in the Context of the ‘Greening’ of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy 367
Kathleen Michalk

27.1 Introduction 367

27.2 Crop Diversification 368

27.3 Maintenance of Permanent Grassland 368

27.4 Land Use Benefitting the Environment 369

27.5 Summary and Outlook 371

References 372

Laws and Regulations 372

European Law 372

National Laws and Regulations 373

28 Opportunities Provided by Formal and Informal Planning to Promote the Cultivation of Dendromass for Energy and the Establishment of Wood-Based Supply Chains in Germany 375
Annedore Bergfeld and Kathleen Michalk

28.1 Introduction 375

28.2 Spatial Planning Instruments 376

28.3 Approaches to Governance in the Local Context 385

28.4 Conclusions 387

References 387

Laws and Regulations 389

29 Sustainability Certification of Short Rotation Coppice in Germany 391
Heiko Hagemann, Uwe Kies and Andreas Schulte

29.1 Introduction 391

29.2 Workflow and Methods 395

29.3 Certification Procedure 398

29.4 Discussion and Conclusions 400

References 401

Part V Applications 403

30 Strategies for the Development of Woodfuel-Based Service Systems and Supply Chains to Promote Rural Development 405
Marco Schneider, Denie Gerold, Dirk Landgraf, Susann Skalda and Christoph Schurr

30.1 Introduction 405

30.2 Woodfuel-Based Supply Chains 405

30.3 Service Systems 411

30.4 Conclusions 416

References 417

31 Advisory Services and Public Awareness of Woody Biomass Production: A Regional Example of How to Provide Information and Guide Implementation 419
Inga Mölder, Michael Kralemann and Doreen Fragel

31.1 Introduction 419

31.2 Institutional Advisory Services for Woody Biomass in the German Federal State Niedersachsen 420

31.3 Production and Use of Woody Biomass and the Demand for Information by Different Parties 422

31.4 Recommendations for Future Projects 430

References 431

Further Reading 431

32 A Decision Support System to Link Stakeholder Perception with Regional Renewable Energy Goals for Woody Biomass 433
Jan C. Thiele and Gerald Busch

32.1 Introduction 433

32.2 Decision Support Tool Concept 434

32.3 Implementation 441

32.4 Discussion and Conclusions 442

References 443

33 Drying and Preparation of Wood Chips from Short Rotation Coppice 447
Joachim Brummack, Matthias Umbach, KayWeichelt and Anja Seifert

33.1 The Necessity for Wood Chip Preparation 447

33.2 Introduction to the Self-Powered Drying Technology 449

33.3 Field Trials of the Self-Powered Drying Technology 451

33.4 Conclusions 466

References 467

34 The Bark toWood Ratio of the Poplar Variety Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra Grown in Short Rotation Coppice and the Calorific Properties of the Resultant Woodfuel 469
Johannes Lindenberg, David Butler Manning and Hartmut Schmidt

34.1 Introduction 469

34.2 Materials and Methods 470

34.3 Results 471

34.4 Discussion 476

34.5 Conclusions 479

References 480

35 Converting Wood from Short Rotation Coppice and Low-Value Beech Wood into Thermoplastic Composites 483
Kim C. Krause, Marcus Müller, Holger Militz and Andreas Krause

35.1 Introduction 483

35.2 Test Materials and Processing ofWood-Plastic Composites 484

35.3 Results and Discussion 487

35.4 Conclusions 493

References 494

36 Particleboards from Newly Exploited Wood Sources as a Starting Point for Cascade Utilisation 497
Franziska Friese, Markus Euring and Alireza Kharazipour

36.1 Introduction 497

36.2 Materials and Methods 499

36.3 Results and Discussion 500

36.4 Conclusions 504

References 504

Part VI Conclusion 507

37 The Implementation of Scientific Research Findings in Policy Making: Challenges and Contradictions Highlighted by the Example of Short Rotation Coppice 509
Albrecht Bemmann and Jörg Schweinle

37.1 Introduction 509

37.2 Scientific Findings and Political Action 509

37.3 Land Use in Germany 511

37.4 German Agricultural and Forest Policy Framework 512

37.5 Cultivation of Short Rotation Coppice on Agricultural Land in Germany 513

37.6 Reasons for the Lack of Consideration of Scientific Research Findings in Agricultural Policy 519

37.7 Conclusions 521

References 521

Part VII Appendices 527

Appendix 529

Index 531

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Author Information

Albrecht Bemmann heads the department of Forestry and Forest Products of Eastern Europe at Dresden Technical University in Tharandt (Germany). He obtained his academic degrees in forestry at Dresden and St. Petersburg (Russia).

David Butler-Manning studied forestry at Dublin (Ireland) and Freiburg (Germany). He is currently the project coordinator for AgroForNet, a federal research initiative for the sustainable use of dendromass to generate bioenergy.

Christian Ammer is the head of the section Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones at Göttingen University (Germany). His main interests are in the fields of regeneration ecology, the relationship between competition and growth in mixed stands, and the effects of resource availability and ontogeny on biomass partitioning of trees.

Michael Bredemeier studied forestry at the universities of Munich, Göttingen (Germany), and Corvallis (USA). In his current position he is professor, research scientist and coordinator at the Forest Ecosystems Research Centre of Göttingen University.

Norbert Lamersdorf is the deputy head of the department of Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems at Göttingen University (Germany). During the past 25 years, he has taken part in a wide range of international research projects on forest ecosystems, including EU-NITREX, EXMAN, BACPOLES, NOVALIS and RATING-SRC.
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