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Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Innovations beyond Bioethanol

ISBN: 978-3-527-33813-9
232 pages
September 2016
Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Innovations beyond Bioethanol (3527338136) cover image

Description

Written by experts in combustion technology, this is a unique and refreshing perspective on the current biofuel discussion, presenting the latest research in this important field.
The emphasis throughout this reference is on applications, industrial perspectives and economics, focusing on new classes of biofuels such as butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others. Clearly structured, each chapter presents a new class of biofuel and discusses such topics as production pathways, fuel properties and its impact on engines.
The result is a fascinating, user-oriented overview of new classes of biofuels beyond bioethanol.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XI

Preface XIII

Acknowledgments XV

1 Fuels and Combustion 1
Bengt Johansson

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Options 1

1.3 Spark Ignition 2

1.3.1 Uncontrolled SI Combustion, Knock 3

1.3.2 Autoignition of SI Engine Fuel 4

1.3.3 Physical Properties of SI Engine Fuel 7

1.4 Compression Ignition 7

1.4.1 Autoignition of CI Engine Fuel 8

1.4.2 Physical Properties of CI Engine Fuel 9

1.5 Highly Diluted Autoignition, HCCI 9

1.5.1 Autoignition of HCCI Engine Fuel 11

1.5.2 Physical Properties of HCCI Engine Fuel 12

1.5.3 HCCI Fuel Rating 14

1.6 Other Combustion Concepts 14

1.6.1 Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition, SACI 14

1.6.1.1 Chemical Properties 16

1.6.1.2 Physical Properties 16

1.6.2 Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC 16

1.6.2.1 Chemical Properties 17

1.6.2.2 Physical Properties 18

1.6.3 Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition, RCCI 18

1.6.3.1 Chemical Properties 18

1.6.3.2 Physical Properties 19

1.6.4 Dual-Fuel Combustion 19

1.6.4.1 Chemical Properties 21

1.6.4.2 Physical Properties 21

1.6.5 Prechamber SI Combustion 21

1.6.5.1 Chemical Properties 23

1.6.5.2 Physical Properties 23

1.6.6 Diesel Pilot Combustion 23

1.6.6.1 Chemical Properties 23

1.6.6.2 Physical Properties 23

1.7 Summary of Combustion Processes 25

References 25

2 Fuel Class Higher Alcohols 29
S. Mani Sarathy

2.1 Introduction and Fuel Properties 29

2.1.1 Physical–Chemical Fuel Properties 30

2.1.2 Fundamental Combustion Properties 32

2.2 Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines 34

2.2.1 n-Butanol 38

2.2.2 iso-Butanol 40

2.2.3 n-Pentanol 40

2.3 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 41

2.3.1 n-Butanol 41

2.3.2 iso-Butanol 47

2.3.3 n-Pentanol 48

2.3.4 n-Octanol 50

2.4 Production Pathways 50

2.4.1 n-Butanol 51

2.4.2 n-Octanol 52

2.5 Outlook 54

2.6 Conclusions 54

References 55

3 Fuel Class Valerates 59
Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle, Fabien Halter, Fabrice Foucher, Francesco Contino, Guillaume Dayma, and Philippe Dagaut

3.1 Introduction and Fuel Properties 59

3.1.1 Origins of Valerate Molecules 59

3.1.2 Valerates as Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines 60

3.1.3 Kinetic Properties of Valerate Fuels 62

3.2 Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines 64

3.2.1 Global Performance of SI Engine Fueled with Valerate Blend and Pure Valerates 65

3.2.2 Specific Consumptions and Nonregulated Pollutant Emissions for Pure Valerates 68

3.3 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 73

3.4 Production Pathways 77

3.5 Outlook 80

3.6 Conclusions 81

Acknowledgments 82

Abbreviations 82

References 82

4 Butyl Ethers and Levulinates 87
Florian Kremer and Stefan Pischinger

4.1 Introduction and Fuel Properties 87

4.2 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 89

4.2.1 DNBE 89

4.2.2 Levulinates 92

4.3 Production Pathways 98

4.3.1 DNBE 98

4.3.2 Levulinates 100

4.4 Outlook 101

4.5 Conclusions 102

References 103

5 A Comprehensive Review of 2,5-Dimethylfuran as a Biofuel Candidate 105
Hongming Xu and Chongming Wang

5.1 Introduction to DMF 105

5.2 Production Pathways 107

5.3 Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines 112

5.3.1 Direct Combustion Comparison 112

5.3.2 Advanced Injection Strategies 117

5.3.3 Gaseous Emissions 118

5.3.4 PM and Soot Emissions 119

5.4 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 122

5.5 Outlook 124

5.6 Conclusions 126

Abbreviation and Notation 126

References 127

6 Furanoids 131
Florian Kremer, Benedikt Heuser, and Stefan Pischinger

6.1 Introduction and Fuel Properties 131

6.2 Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines 132

6.2.1 2-MF 132

6.2.2 2-MTHF 141

6.3 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 145

6.3.1 2-MTHF 145

6.4 Production Pathways 150

6.4.1 2-MF 150

6.4.2 2-MTHF 151

6.5 Outlook 154

6.6 Conclusions 155

References 155

7 Benzenoids 159
Michael Boot

7.1 Introduction 159

7.2 Overview of Neat Fuel properties 160

7.3 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 160

7.3.1 Anisole versus Higher Cetane Number Oxygenates 160

7.3.2 Anisole, Benzyl Alcohol, and 2-Phenyl Ethanol 162

7.3.3 2-Phenylethanol versus Cyclohexane Ethanol 165

7.3.4 Anisole versus Ethanol 167

7.3.5 Acetophenone, Benzyl Alcohol, and 2-Phenyl Ethanol 167

7.3.6 Anisole in Combination with Di-n-Butyl Ether 167

7.4 Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines 168

7.4.1 Methyl Aryl Ethers 168

7.4.2 Acetophenone, Benzyl Alcohol, and 2-Phenyl Ethanol 171

7.4.3 Miscellaneous 172

7.5 Production Pathways 174

7.5.1 Hydrothermal Processing 175

7.5.2 Solvolysis 178

7.5.3 Catalytic Solvolysis 179

7.6 Outlook and Conclusions 183

7.6.1 Most Attractive Benzenoid Biofuel Candidates 183

7.6.2 Economic Viability of Lignin-Based Benzenoid Biofuels 186

References 186

8 Biomass Pyrolysis Oils 189
Robert L.McCormick, RobertM. Baldwin, Stephen Arbogast, Don Bellman, Dave Paynter, and Jim Wykowski

8.1 Introduction and Fuel Properties 189

8.2 Performance Spark-Ignition Engines 192

8.3 Performance in Compression-Ignition Engines 192

8.4 Production Pathways from Pyrolysis Oil 194

8.4.1 Upgrading Biomass Pyrolysis Oil 194

8.4.2 Integrating Pyrolysis Oil into Standard Refineries 194

8.4.3 Economic Challenges and Potential for Cost Savings 197

8.4.4 Incentives for Relaxing the Bio-oil Refining Oxygen Constraint: A Base Case 198

8.4.5 Performance of PUBO Blends in the Major Refinery Conversion/Upgrading Processes 200

8.4.5.1 Hydrocracking 200

8.4.5.2 Catalytic Cracking 201

8.5 Outlook 202

8.6 Conclusions 203

References 203

Index 209

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Author Information

Michael Boot is part-time assistant professor in the combustion technology group of Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. He earned his MSc. and PhD. degree in mechanical engineering from the same University in 2005 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, he co-founded a University spin-off, Progression-Industry BV, to commercialize various fuel- and waste energy recovery technologies, he developed during his PhD. period.
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