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Nanomaterials for 2D and 3D Printing

ISBN: 978-3-527-33819-1
370 pages
June 2017
Nanomaterials for 2D and 3D Printing (3527338195) cover image

Description

The first book to paint a complete picture of the challenges of processing functional nanomaterials for printed electronics devices, and additive manufacturing fabrication processes.
Following an introduction to printed electronics, the book focuses on various functional nanomaterials available, including conducting, semi-conducting, dielectric, polymeric, ceramic and tailored nanomaterials. Subsequent sections cover the preparation and characterization of such materials along with their formulation and preparation as inkjet inks, as well as a selection of applications. These include printed interconnects, passive and active modules, as well as such high-tech devices as solar cells, transparent electrodes, displays, touch screens, sensors, RFID tags and 3D objects. The book concludes with a look at the future for printed nanomaterials.
For all those working in the field of printed electronics, from entrants to specialized researchers, in a number of disciplines ranging from chemistry and materials science to engineering and manufacturing, in both academia and industry.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

1 Printing Technologies for Nanomaterials 1
Robert Abbel and Erwin R. Meinders

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Ink Formulation Strategies 4

1.3 Printing Technologies 6

1.3.1 Inkjet Printing 7

1.3.2 Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 11

1.3.3 Contact Printing Technologies 13

1.3.4 Photopolymerization 17

1.3.5 Powder Bed Technology 19

1.4 Summary and Conclusions 20

References 20

2 Inkjet Printing of Functional Materials and Post-Processing 27
Ingo Reinhold

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Industrial Inkjet 28

2.3 Postprocessing of Metal-Based Inks for Conductive Applications 30

2.3.1 Mechanisms in Solid-State Sintering 32

2.3.2 Influence of Drying and Wet Sintering 34

2.3.3 Thermal Sintering 35

2.3.4 Chemical Sintering 35

2.3.5 Plasma Sintering 36

2.3.6 Sintering Using Electromagnetic Fields 37

2.4 Conclusion 42

References 43

3 Electroless Plating and Printing Technologies 51
Yosi Shacham-Diamand, Yelena Sverdlov, Stav Friedberg, and Avi Yaverboim

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Electroless Plating – Overview 54

3.2.1 Electroless Plating – Brief Overview 55

3.3 Seed Layer Printing 57

3.4 Electroless Plating on Printed Parts 57

3.4.1 Methods and Approaches 59

3.4.2 Electroless Metal Integration: Examples 60

3.5 Summary and Conclusions 63

References 64

4 Reactive Inkjet Printing as a Tool for in situ Synthesis of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles 69
Ghassan Jabbour, Mutalifu Abulikamu, Hyung W. Choi, and Hanna Haverinen

4.1 Introduction to Reactive Inkjet Printing 69

4.2 RIJ of Self-Assembled Au NPs 70

4.3 Parameters Influencing the Growth of Au NPs 74

4.4 Simplifying the Approach (Single Cartridge) Using Single Cartridge Step 77

4.5 Further Progress toward Reduction of Fabrication Time (1 min) 77

4.6 Conclusion 79

References 79

5 3D Printing via Multiphoton Polymerization 83
Maria Farsari

5.1 Multiphoton Polymerization 84

5.2 The Diffraction Limit 85

5.3 Experimental Setup 86

5.4 Materials for MPP 88

5.4.1 Introduction 88

5.4.2 Photoinitiators 88

5.4.3 Organic Photopolymers 89

5.4.4 SU-8 90

5.4.5 Hybrid Materials 90

5.4.6 Applications 91

5.5 Conclusions 96

References 96

6 High Speed Sintering: The Next Generation of Manufacturing 107
Adam Ellis

6.1 The Need for the Next Generation of Additive Manufacturing 107

6.2 High Speed Sintering 109

6.3 Machine Setup & Parameter Control 109

6.4 Materials & Properties 112

6.5 HSS for High-Volume Manufacturing 113

6.6 Case Study: From Elite to High Street 115

6.7 Opening the Supply Chain 115

6.8 The Future of HSS and the Benefits of Inkjet 116

References 116

7 Metallic Nanoinks for Inkjet Printing of Conductive 2D and 3D Structures 119
Alexander Kamyshny and Shlomo Magdassi

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 Metallic Nanoinks: Requirements and Challenges 120

7.3 Synthesis and Stabilization of Metal NPs for Conductive Nanoinks 121

7.3.1 Synthesis 121

7.3.2 Stabilization 122

7.4 Formulation of Conductive Metallic Nanoinks 125

7.5 Formation of 2D Conductive Structures: Printing and Sintering 127

7.6 3D Printing of Conductive Patterns: Formation and Sintering 134

7.7 Applications of Metallic Inkjet Nanoinks in Printed Electronics 135

7.7.1 RFID Tags 136

7.7.2 Thin-Film Transistors 136

7.7.3 Electroluminescent Devices and Light-Emitting Diodes 136

7.7.4 Transparent Conductive Electrodes 137

7.7.5 Organic Solar Cells 138

7.8 Outlook 139

References 140

8 Graphene- and 2D Material-Based Thin-Film Printing 161
Jiantong Li, Max C. Lemme, and Mikael Östling

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Printing Procedures 162

8.2.1 Ink Formulations 162

8.2.2 Jetting and Patterns 166

8.2.3 Drying 166

8.2.4 Posttreatments 171

8.3 Performance and Applications 172

8.3.1 Transparent Conductors 173

8.3.2 Micro-Supercapacitors 173

8.3.3 Photodetectors 174

8.3.4 Solar Cells 176

8.4 Discussion and Outlook 177

Acknowledgments 178

References 178

9 Inkjet Printing of Photonic Crystals 183
Minxuan Kuang and Yanlin Song

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Inkjet Printing of Photonic Crystals 184

9.2.1 Process of Inkjet Printing 184

9.2.2 Inkjet Printing of Fine Controlled PC Dots and Lines 186

9.3 Application of Printing of Photonic Crystals 196

9.3.1 Photonic Crystal Patterns 196

9.3.2 Printing Patterned Microcolloidal Crystals with Controllable 3D Morphology 199

9.3.3 Inkjet-Printed PCs Applied in Vapor Sensors 201

9.3.4 Inkjet-Printed PCs Applied in Chemical Detection 201

9.4 Outlook 203

References 204

10 Printable Semiconducting/Dielectric Materials for Printed Electronics 213
Sunho Jeong and Jooho Moon

10.1 Introduction 213

10.2 Printable Materials for Semiconductors 213

10.3 Printable Materials for Dielectrics 219

10.4 Conclusions 223

References 224

11 Low Melting Point Metal or Its Nanocomponents as Functional 3D Printing Inks 229
Lei Wang and Jing Liu

11.1 Introduction of Metal 3D Printing 229

11.2 Low Melting Point Metal Ink 230

11.2.1 Liquid Metal Printing Ink 230

11.2.2 Nanoliquid Metal 232

11.3 Liquid-Phase 3D Printing 234

11.3.1 Fabrication Scheme 234

11.3.2 Forming Principle of Metal Objects in Cooling Liquid 235

11.3.3 Liquid-Phase Printing of Metal Structures 236

11.3.4 Factors Affecting the Printing Quality 237

11.3.5 Comparison Between Liquid-Phase Cooling and Gas-Phase Cooling 238

11.3.6 Vision of the Future Liquid-Phase Printing 240

Acknowledgment 241

References 241

12 Inkjet Printing of Conducting Polymer Nanomaterials 245
Edward Song and Jin-Woo Choi

12.1 Introduction 245

12.2 Inkjet Printing of Polyaniline Nanomaterials 246

12.2.1 Introduction 246

12.2.2 Chemical Structure, Electrochemical Properties, and Conductivity of Polyaniline 246

12.2.3 Inkjet-Printed Polyaniline Nanomaterials 249

12.2.4 Applications of Inkjet-Printed Polyaniline Nanomaterials 250

12.3 Polypyrrole 251

12.3.1 Properties and Synthesis of Polypyrrole (Ppy) Nanomaterials 251

12.3.2 Inkjet Printing and Applications of Ppy Nanomaterials 254

12.4 Polythiophene (Pth) and Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) 258

12.4.1 Properties and Synthesis of Pth and PEDOT Nanomaterials 258

12.4.2 Inkjet Printing and Applications of Pth Nanomaterials 258

12.5 Conclusions and Future Outlook 258

References 260

13 Application of Printed Silver Nanowires Based on Laser-Induced Forward Transfer 265
Teppei Araki, Rajesh Mandamparambil, Jinting Jiu, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, and Katsuaki Suganuma

13.1 Introduction 265

13.2 Ag NW Transparent Electrodes 266

13.2.1 Background 266

13.2.2 Transparent Electrodes Formed from Ultra-Long Ag NWs 267

13.3 Printed Ag NW Electrodes 269

13.3.1 Fabrication and Properties of Stretchable Electrodes 269

13.3.2 Ag NWs Printing by LIFT 269

13.4 Summary 271

References 271

14 Inkjet Printing of Functional Polymers into Carbon Fiber Composites 275
Patrick J. Smith, Elliot J. Fleet, and Yi Zhang

14.1 Inkjet Printing 275

14.2 Carbon Fiber Composites 276

14.3 Mechanical Tests 276

14.4 Printing and Sample Preparation 277

14.5 Carbon Fiber Composites that Contain Inkjet-Printed Patterns Composed of PMMA Microdroplets 278

14.6 Carbon Fiber Composites that Contain Inkjet-Printed Patterns Composed of PMMA and PEG Microdroplets 283

14.7 Morphology of the Printed PMMA and PEG Droplets 284

14.8 Printed Polymers for Intrinsic Repair of Composites 286

14.9 Conclusions 288

Acknowledgments 289

References 289

15 Inkjet-Printable Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites for Sensor Fabrication 293
Niamh T. Brannelly and Anthony J. Killard

15.1 Introduction 293

15.2 Metallic Inks 294

15.2.1 Gold 294

15.2.2 Silver 296

15.2.3 Copper, Nickel, and Alumina 296

15.2.4 Metal Oxides 297

15.3 Conductive Polymers 298

15.3.1 Polyaniline 299

15.3.2 Polypyrrole 300

15.3.3 Prussian Blue 301

15.3.4 PEDOT 302

15.4 Carbon Nanomaterials 302

15.4.1 Graphene Oxide 302

15.4.2 Carbon Nanotubes 304

15.5 Future Outlooks and Conclusions 308

References 308

16 Electrochromics for Printed Displays and Smart Windows 317
Pooi See Lee, Guofa Cai, Alice L.-S. Eh, and Peter Darmawan

16.1 Overview on Electrochromics 317

16.1.1 Electrochromics for Green Buildings 318

16.1.2 Electrochromics for Displays 320

16.2 Screen Printing 324

16.3 Inkjet Printing 326

16.4 Flexographic Printing 329

16.5 Roll-to-Roll Printing 329

16.6 Other Printing Methods 329

16.7 Conclusions and Perspectives 330

References 332

Index 341

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Author Information

Shlomo Magdassi is a professor of applied chemistry at the Casali Center for Applied Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry and the Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
His research focuses on formation, formulation and applications of micro and nanoparticles. These particles are used in delivery systems such as in cosmetics and pharmaceutics, and in inks, such as glass inks, conductive inks, 3D and 4D printing.
Prof. Magdassi has authored more than 200 publications, 25 book chapters and he is the scientific editor of 4 books. In addition to his scientific publications, he also has over 60 inventions on applications of colloids in industrial products, which led to some industrial activities such as worldwide sales and establishing new companies.

Alexander Kamyshny is a senior researcher of applied chemistry at the Casali Center for Applied Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
His research focuses on colloid science, in particular on formation, stabilization and application of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles and their utilization for conductive ink formulations and conductive coatings.
Dr. Kamyshny has authored 80 publications, 9 book chapters and 11 patents. He is a member of editorial board of Scientific Reports and of various international scientific societies. In addition to the fundamental research, he performed a number of industrial R&D projects.

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