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Handbook of Industrial Inkjet Printing: A Full System Approach

Werner Zapka (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33832-0
984 pages
January 2018
Handbook of Industrial Inkjet Printing: A Full System Approach (3527338322) cover image

Description

Unique in its integration of individual topics to achieve a full-system approach, this book addresses all the aspects essential for industrial inkjet printing.
After an introduction listing the industrial printing techniques available, the text goes on to discuss individual topics, such as ink, printheads and substrates, followed by metrology techniques that are required for reliable systems. Three iteration cycles are then described, including the adaptation of the ink to the printhead, the optimization of the ink to the substrate and the integration of machine manufacturing, monitoring, and data handling, among others. Finally, the book summarizes a number of case studies and success stories from selected areas, including graphics, printed electronics, and 3D printing as well a list of ink suppliers, printhead manufacturers and integrators. Practical hints are included throughout for a direct hands-on experience.
Invaluable for industrial users and academics, whether ink developers or mechanical engineers, and working in areas ranging from metrology to intellectual property.
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxix

Volume 1

Part One Pros and Cons of Inkjet Technology    1

1 Pros and Cons of Inkjet Technology in Industrial Inkjet Printing 3
Werner Zapka

2 Comparing Inkjet with Other Printing Processes and Mainly Screen Printing 7
Gunter Huebner

2.1 Comparing Inkjet with Screen   Printing 11

2.2 Screen Printing Principles and Capabilities 13

2.3 Variants of Screen Printing Techniques 14

2.4 Controlling Layer Thickness 16

2.5 Achievable Resolution 17

2.6 Application Examples 18

2.7 Conclusion and Further Sources of Information 20

References   21

Part Two Inks    23

3 A System Approach to Develop New Platforms of Industrial Inkjet Inks 25
Mark Bale

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Ink Technologies for Industrial   Inkjet 26

3.3  Ink Characterization Methods 31

3.4  Printhead Evaluation 38

3.5  Print  Process Factors 44

3.6  Case Study: Hybrid Aqueous–UV 48

References   57

4 Photoinitiators 59
Kurt Dietliker and Jürgen Baro

4.1 Historical Background 59

4.2 Photoinitiators 60

References   111

5 UV Radiation Sources and UV Radiation    Measurement 117
Jürgen Baro and Kurt Dietliker

5.1 UV Radiation and Energy 117

5.2 UV Radiation Sources 118

5.3 UV Radiation Measurement 123

References   128

6 UV-Curable Inkjet Inks and Their Applications in Industrial Inkjet Printing, Including Low-Migration Inks for Food Packaging 129
Marc Graindourze

6.1 UV Inks for Industrial  Applications 129

6.2 UV Curing Process and UV Inkjet Ink   Types 130

6.3 UV Inkjet Ink  Requirements 132

6.4 UV Inkjet Ink Compounds and Ink Formulations 134

6.5 UV Inkjet Ink Production 138

6.6 Application of UV Inks in Industrial Print   Systems 139

6.7 Low-Migration Inkjet  Inks for Migration-Sensitive  Applications 142

References   148

7 Ceramic Inkjet Inks 151
Miguel Ángel Jovaní Boix

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 Ceramic Ink Characteristics

7.3 Ink Properties 154

7.4 Shelf Life and Storage 156

7.5 Printing 157

7.6 Safety Considerations    160

8  Aqueous Inks and Their Application Areas in Industrial Inkjet Printing and Desktop Printing 163
Philip Double and John Stoffel

8.1  Introduction 163

8.2  Dye-Based Inks 167

8.3  Inks with Pigments as Colorants 172

8.4 Other Aqueous Inks 176

8.5 Summary and Outlook 176

References   176

9 Dye Sublimation Inkjet Inks and Applications 179
Ming Xu

9.1 Overview 179

9.2 Introduction 179

9.3 Major Advantages of Sublimation Imaging 181

9.4 Sublimation Colorants in Digital Imaging 182

9.5 Ink, Transfer Media, and Substrate 184

9.6 Color  Considerations 187

9.7 Major Engineering Aspects 188

9.8 Major  Development  Opportunities 191

9.9 Summary 193

References   193  

10 A Full-System Approach to Formulation of Metal Nanoparticle Inks for Industrial Inkjet Printing 195
Carsten Schauer and Alexander Rösch

10.1   Introduction Inks 195

10.2   Development and Manufacturing of Functional Particles and Inks 195

10.3   Characterization of Fluid Systems and Printed    Patterns 200

10.4   Reliability Characterization 212

10.5   Summary 213

References   213

11 Metal Nanoparticle Conductive Inks for Industrial Inkjet Printing Applications 215
Hiroshi Saito and Haruyuki Nakajo

11.1   Introduction 215

11.2   Results and Discussion 216

11.3   Conclusions 222

References   222

12 Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) and Quantum Dot (QD) Inks and Application 225
Alexander Lange and Armin Wedel

12.1   OLED Basics 225

12.2   Inkjet Printing of OLED Devices 225

12.3   QD Basics 233

12.3.1  Inkjet Printing of QLED Devices 235

12.3.2  Inkjet Printing of QDs on Paper 235

References 236

Part Three Inkjet Printhead Technology  239

13 Concepts and Strategies to Adapt Inkjet Printing to Industrial Application Requirements 241
Tim Rosario

13.1   Introduction 241

13.2   Legacy Products 241

13.3   Establishing New Technologies 241

13.4   Q-Class Delivers New Technologies to   Market 243

13.5   RediJet: An Innovative New Technology 244

13.6   StarFireTM  SG1024/C: A Direct Response 245

13.7   StarFire SG1024/A: Built on Success 246

13.8   Samba: Embracing Printhead Technologies 246

13.9   Key Samba Technologies 247

13.10 Looking Forward 248

13.11 Printhead Offerings (Tables  13.1–13.3) 249

14 Konica Minolta's Inkjet Printhead Technology 253
John Corrall

14.1   Early History 253

14.2   Strengths 267

14.3   Markets and Geography 278

14.4   Future Direction 280

15 Xaar's Inkjet Printing Technology and Applications 285
Jürgen Brünahl, Angus Condie, Mark Crankshaw, Tony Cruz-Uribe, and Werner Zapka

15.1   Xaar Company Introduction 285

15.2   Bulk Technology 285

15.3   Three-Cycle Acoustic Firing 289

15.4   Hybrid Side Shooter Architecture: Xaar 1001 Family 295

15.5   Edge-Mounted Side Shooter Architecture: Xaar 501 Family 296

15.6   Ink Recirculation (TF) Technology 297

15.7   Print Bar System 300

15.8   MEMS Drop Ejectors with Thin Film Piezoelectric Actuators 301

15.9   New Inkjet Applications and   Development 306

15.10   Summary 309

References   310

16 Hewlett Packard’s Inkjet Printhead Technology 313
Steven J. Simske

16.1   Fundamentals  of  Inkjet Printing 313

16.2   Evolution of the Number of Nozzles 319

16.3   Current/Future Improvements: Page-Wide Printing 320

16.4   Inkjetting for Other Processes 321

16.5   A Possible Future of Inkjet in Custom and Surface Manufacturing 322

16.6   Case Study: HP Page-Wide Array 326

References 331

17 Memjet's Inkjet Printhead Technology and Associated Printer Components 335
Mike Puyot

17.1   A History of  Innovation 335

17.2   The Memjet Printing System 335

17.3   The  Technical History of Memjet 336

17.4   The Memjet Printhead 336

17.5   Manufacturing the Memjet Printhead 338

17.6   Designed for Success 339

17.7   Balancing Cost versus  Performance 341

17.8   Memjet Inks 342

17.9   A Holistic Approach to Printing Systems 342

17.10 Memjet in the Marketplace 343

17.11 Future Innovations for Ink and Printheads 346

17.12 Continuing to Set the Standard 348

References 348

18 KODAK's Stream Inkjet Technology 351
Michael Piatt, Douglas Bugner, James Chwalek, and James Katerberg

18.1   Introduction 351

18.2   Principle of Operation 351

18.3   MEMS Technology-Based Printheads 354

18.4   Scalable Technology 354

18.5   Image Quality 355

18.6   Ink Technology 357

18.7   Substrates 358

18.8   The Future of Stream   Technology 359

References 359

Part Four Substrates 361

19 Paper and Paper-Based Substrates for Industrial Inkjet Printing 363
Wolfgang A. Schmidt

19.1   Definition of Paper 363

19.2   Properties of Paper 364

19.3   Coated Paper, Coating Types, and Surface Properties 368

References   370

20 Polymeric Nonabsorbing Substrates for Industrial Inkjet Printing Applications 373
Rita Hofmann

20.1   Materials: Chemical Composition, Manufacturing Process 373

20.2   Film Manufacturing 377

20.3   Material Properties: Chemical, Thermal, Mechanical, Optical, Eco-Environmental 380

References   389

21 Glass Substrates for Industrial Inkjet Printing Applications 391
Lutz Parthier, Thomas Wiegel, Clemens Ottermann, and Fredrik Prince

21.1   Introduction: Glass a Universal Material 391

21.2   Glass Types and Main  Characteristics 391

21.3   Manufacturing  Process 392

21.4   Physical and Chemical  Properties 393

21.5   Surface Treatments 397

21.6   Glass Material 401

21.7   Structuring 405

References 407

Part Five Metrology 409

22 Measurement of Complex Rheology and Jettability of Inkjet Inks 411
Tri Tuladhar

22.1   Introduction 411

22.2   Ink Flow Behavior 413

22.3   Bulk and Dynamic Ink Properties 414

22.4   Complex Rheology  Characterization  Tools at Jetting  Conditions 416

22.5   Selective Selection of Additives to Optimize Complex Rheology during Ink  Formulations 423

22.6   Correlation of Complex Rheology with Jetting  Behavior 425

22.7   Conclusions 428

References 429

23 Printhead Health in Industrial Inkjet Printing: In-Line and Off-Line Detection of Poor Drop Formation 431
Herman Wijshoff

23.1   Introduction 431

23.2   Failure Origins 432

23.3   Sensing 435

23.4   Feedforward  Control 441

References 442

24 Quantitative Assessment of Inkjet Reliability under Industrial Conditions: Measuring All Drops during Extended High-Duty Printing 445
Ingo Reinhold and Tomáš Černý

24.1   Summary 445

24.2   Idea  and  Experimental Setup 445

24.3   Theoretical  Considerations 447

24.4   Analysis Algorithm 449

References   457

25 In-Line Resistance and Temperature Measurement of Conductive Inks 459
J.P. Teunissen, R. Abbel, R. Hendriks, and P. Groen

Reference 461

Part Six Data Flow 463

26 Data Handling in Industrial Inkjet Printing 465
Steven J. Simske

26.1   The Extent of Data 465

26.2   Preparing for the Data 466

Reference 467

Volume 2

Part Seven Machine Integration 469

27 System Approach: An Integrator's Advice on a System Approach for Industrial Inkjet Implementations 471
Werner Van de Wynckel

27.1   System Approach 471

27.2   The Demonstrator Fail 472

27.3   Automate the Right Process 472

27.4   Early Total Cost of Ownership 473

27.5   Chemical Compatibility 473

27.6   Pressures: Wanted and Unwanted 475

27.7   Temperatures Affects Not Just the Fluid 477

27.8   Ink Systems 478

27.9   Maintenance Systems 480

27.10 Motion Systems 481

27.11 Preprocesses 483

27.12 Postprocesses 484

27.13 Electronics and Software 485

27.14 Humans Are Part of the Total System 487

27.15 A Small Example: To Pin or Not to  Pin 487

27.16 Be Not Afraid of the System But Use It 488

Reference 488

28 Functional Inkjet Platforms: Modular Integration of Industrial Production Processes 489
Kai Keller and David Stüwe

28.1   Introduction 489

28.2   Role of the Integrator 490

28.3   Inkjet is Complex: There Is No “Best for Anything” 490

28.4   Important Aspects of Realizing an Inkjet Process 492

28.5   Platform Design 501

28.6   Complexity  and Performance 505

Reference 505

Part Eight   Pre- and Postprocesses 507

29 Surface Pretreatment  for  Wettability Adjustment 509
Gerhard Liebel and Matthias Beß

29.1   Substrate Surface Condition Matters! 509

29.2   Surface Pretreatment Methods 512

29.3   Industrial Use of Surface Pretreatment 518

29.4   Choosing the Right Pretreatment Method 525

29.5   Shelf Life 527

29.6   Summary 528

30 UV LED Ink Curing: UV LED Technology and Solutions for Integration into Industrial Inkjet Printing 529
Dirk Exner

30.1   What Is UV LED Curing? 529

30.2   UV LED Technology Components 529

30.3   Emission Spectrum 533

30.4   Power Specifications 535

30.5   Material Formulation 537

30.6   UV LED Benefits 537

30.7   Markets and Applications 538

30.8   Integration Considerations 540

30.9   Summary and Outlook 541

References 542

31 Electron-Beam Processing for Industrial Inkjet Printing: Cross-Linking and Curing 543
Urs V. Läuppi

31.1   EB Processes 543

31.2   Advantages of EB-Processing 544

31.3   Differences between EB and UV Curing 545

31.4   Curing or Drying 545

31.5   Operating Parameters 547

31.6   The Classic EB Processor 550

31.7   The  ebeam Lamp 550

31.8   EB for Inkjet Applications 553

31.9   Summary 555

Further Reading    556

32 Photonic Curing Enabling High-Speed Sintering of Metal Inkjet Inks on Temperature-Sensitive  Substrates 557
Vahid Akhavan, Kurt Schroder, and Stan Farnsworth

32.1   Photonic Curing of Inkjet-Printed Films 557

32.2   Technology Behind Photonic Curing 558

32.3   Inkjet Printing Combined with Photonic Curing 561

32.4   Summary  and Conclusions 564

References   565

33 Oven Drying of Inkjet-Printed Functional Fluids on Industrial Scale 567
Gerard Kaper and Ronald de Graaf

33.1   Drying Process: How to Open the Black  Box 567

33.2   Convective Drying Oven 567

33.3   Convective Drying Process 569

33.4   Oven Temperatures 571

33.5   Air Flow Speed 572

33.6   Web Temperature 573

33.7   Lower Explosion Level (LEL) 574

33.8   Condensation 574

33.9   Contamination Control 575

33.10   Conclusion 578

Part Nine Printing Strategies  579

34 Turning Industrial Application Requirements into Real Solutions 581
Tim Rosario

34.1   Application  Development 581

34.2   Productivity 582

34.3   Single-Pass Printing 583

34.4   Imaging Models 589

34.5   High Standoff  Printing 591

34.6   Summary 596

References 597

Part Ten Application Development  599

35 Inkjet  Printing  for  Printed Electronics 601
J. Pit Teunissen, R. Abbel, T. Eggenhuizen, E. Rubingh, M. Coenen, H. Gorter, and P. Groen

35.1   Technology 601

35.2   Application Examples 605

35.3   Conclusions 614

References 615

36 Inkjet-Printed Metal Lines and Sensors on 2D and 3D Plastic Substrates 617
Polzinger Bernhard, Keck Jürgen, Eberhardt Wolfgang, and Zimmermann André

36.1   Introduction 617

36.2   Inkjet  Printing  of Metal  Lines  on Injection-Molded Substrates 618

36.3   Electrical Connection of Printed Metal Lines 620

36.4   Inkjet Printing of Metal Lines on 3D  Surfaces 622

36.5   Sensors on Injection-Molded Thermoplastic Substrates 624

36.6   Challenges for Commercialization 631

36.7   Summary 632

36.8   About  Hahn-Schickard 632

References   632

37 Inkjet and Laser Hybrid Processing: An Enabling Technology for Reliable Production of Fine Interconnects in Large-Area Electronics 635
Adam Brunton and Mickey Crozier

37.1   M-Solv 635

37.2   Introduction 635

37.3   Hybrid Process Examples 636

37.4   Conclusion 645

References   646

38 Industrial 3D Inkjet Printing/Additive Manufacturing 649
Neil Hopkinson and Patrick J. Smith

38.1   Overview of Additive  Manufacturing 649

38.2   Inkjet as a Commercially Attractive Enabler in Industrial 3D Printing/ Additive  Manufacturing 649

38.3   Inkjet Printing and Reaction 651

38.4   Inkjet Printing to Enable Selective  Sintering 654

38.5   Future Outlook for Inkjet in Industrial 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing 659

References   659

39 Industrial Applications of 3D Inkjet Printing in Life Sciences 661
James W. Stasiak

39.1   Introduction 661

39.2   Inkjet Printhead Technology 662

39.3   Printing Functional Materials 664

39.4   Inkjet-Based Bioprinting 666

39.5   Commercial  Inkjet-Based  Bioprinting Technologies 669

39.6   Inkjet-Based Drug Discovery 674

39.7   Summary and Outlook 677

References 678

Part Eleven  Successful Implementations and Case Studies   681

40 Inkjet Technology within the Label Converting Market 683
Carl Smith

40.1   Inkjet Printing of Labels 683

40.2   Label Functionality 684

40.3   Not Just a Print Process, but a Manufacturing Process 685

40.4   Converting Processes 689

40.5   The Advantage of Digital  Hybrid 697

40.6   Models of Converting Using  Inkjet 702

40.7   The  Inkjet Advantage 707

40.8   Market Sectors 708

40.9   Trends in the Industry 708

40.10   Creating a Successful Integration 714

40.11   Example of Commercially Available Inkjet Label Press  – Graphium 720

Further Reading    722

41 Case Study: Digital Label Converting FFEI Ltd – Graphium 723
Carl Smith

41.1   Graphium Digital Hybrid Label  Press 723

41.2   Productivity 723

41.3   Reliability 725

41.4   Easing the Production of Complex Label Designs 726

41.5   Print Quality 727

41.6   Managing a Hybrid Production System 727

41.7   Intelligent Layout 728

42 Case Study Gallus Labelfire: Guiding Question to Choose a Hybrid Inline Label Converting System 731
Martin Leonhard

42.1   Summary 736

43 Cylindrical Packaging Decoration: A Breakthrough in Inkjet Technology 737
John Corall

43.1   Introduction 737

43.2   Background to the Client 737

43.3   Background to IIJ and Konica Minolta Ink Jet Division 738

43.4   The Link with Martinenghi 738

43.5   Ink and UV 741

43.6   Projects and Delivering 742

43.7   Realization of a Dream 745

44 Industrial Inkjet Printing in Decorative Web Print Applications 747
Patrik Lutz

44.1   Introduction 747

44.2   Technical Description of Decor  Printing  with Inkjet  Printing 748

44.3   Applications 756

44.4   Example of an Inkjet-Based Machine for Décor   Printing 757

References   759

45 Case Study at TecnoFerrari: Design of a Single-Pass Inkjet Printer for Ceramic Tile Decoration – From Machine Concept to a Complete Solution 761
Alberto Annovi

45.1   Ceramic Tiles Decoration Requirements 761

45.2   Design of a Single-Pass Inkjet Printer for Ceramic Tile Decoration 772

45.3   Roadmap for Next Future Tile Inkjet   Printing 781

Bibliography 785

46 Concepts for “Direct-to-Shape” Inkjet Printing onto Curved Surfaces 787
Debbie Thorp and Nick Geddes

46.1   Introduction 787

47 Case Study at KHS: Digital Decoration of Plastic Bottles – From Machine Concept to a Complete Solution 799
Martin Schach and Katrin Preckel

47.1   Introduction 799

47.2   Machine  Concept 802

47.3   Ink 811

47.4   Customers Requirements, Software, and User Concept 814

47.5   Industry 4.0 and Direct Print 815

48 Hymmen Digital Décor Printing: Empowering the Laminate Industry 817
Aliasgar Eranpurwala

48.1   Introduction 817

48.2   The Laminate Flooring Industry 817

48.3   Why the Shift to Digital Printing? 820

48.4   Hymmen’s Approach: The JUPITER Digital Printing  Line 821

48.5   Technical Challenges 825

48.6   Case Study 1: Roll to Roll JUPITER JPT-W-840 827

48.7   Case Study 2: Board Printing JUPITER JPT-C-2100 828

48.8   Key Features 830

48.9   Outlook:  Improvements Ahead 831

49 High-Speed Inkjet Application in Newspaper Printing 833
Peter Schulmeister

49.1   Introduction 833

49.2   Applications and Business Models 833

49.3   Newspaper  Printing 836

49.4   Requirements for Inline Digital Printing  in  Newspapers 840

49.5   Inkjet Print Technologies 841

49.6   The Manroland Web Systems Product Inkjet Integration 842

49.7 Print Quality Optimization 848

50 Inkjet for Nanoimprint Lithography 851
Whitney Longsine, Matt C. Traub, and Van N. Truskett

50.1   Introduction 851

50.2   Nanoimprint Lithography Process 853

50.3   Inkjet System Design Considerations 854

50.4   J-FIL Applications in  Semiconductors 862

50.5   Looking Forward 864

References   867

Glossary 869

Index    877

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Author Information

Werner Zapka is manager of the Advanced Application Technology team of XaarJet AB (Järfälla, Sweden) where inkjet processes are developed specifically with functional fluids for digital fabrication. In 1980 Werner Zapka earned his Ph.D. in physics at the Max-Planck-Institute in Göttingen, Germany, on design and applications of excimer lasers. He then moved to IBM Research Labs, USA, and IBM Germany, engaging himself for 14 years in research and development in semiconductor, electronic packaging and laser technology. In 1995 he joined MIT-inkjet, which was renamed in 1999 to XaarJet AB, to develop inkjet printheads and their manufacturing processes.
Since 2009 he is also appointed as Adjunct Professor at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden, where is developing smart packaging solutions by way of inkjet printing of functional fluids.
He has authored more than 60 scientific publications and holds 22 patents. Furthermore, he obtained six IBM Invention Achievement Awards and serves on the committee of the annual Digital Fabrication conferences.
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