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Tissue Engineering for Artificial Organs: Regenerative Medicine, Smart Diagnostics and Personalized Medicine, 2 Volumes

Anwarul Hasan (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-33863-4
768 pages
June 2017
Tissue Engineering for Artificial Organs: Regenerative Medicine, Smart Diagnostics and Personalized Medicine, 2 Volumes (3527338632) cover image

Description

A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field.
Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances.
An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
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Table of Contents

Volume 1

List of Contributors xiii

Foreword xxiii

Preface xxv

Part I Fundamentals 1

1 Introduction to Tissue Engineering 3
Rami Mhanna and Anwarul Hasan

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Clinical Need for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 4

1.3 History of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 5

1.4 Fundamentals of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 6

1.5 Applications of Tissue Engineering 14

1.6 Challenges in Tissue Engineering 21

1.7 The Future of Tissue Engineering 22

1.8 Conclusions 23

References 24

2 Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering 35
Samad Ahadian, Rahaf Rahal, Javier Ramón-Azcón, Raquel Obregón, and Anwarul Hasan

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Biomaterial–Tissue Interactions 37

2.3 Properties of Biomaterials 40

2.4 Scaffold Requirements for Specific Tissues 44

2.5 Classification of Biomaterials 45

2.6 Fabrication Methods of Biomaterials 61

2.7 Testing of Biomaterials 64

2.8 Challenges for Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering 65

2.9 Conclusions and Future Directions 67

Acknowledgment 69

Abbreviations 69

References 70

3 Harnessing the Potential of Stem Cells from Different Sources for Tissue Engineering 85
Divya Murali, Kunal G. Kshirsagar, Anwarul Hasan, and Arghya Paul

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 86

3.3 Unique Properties 86

3.4 Types of Stem Cells 87

3.5 Application of Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering 92

3.6 Challenges and Future Directions 101

3.7 Conclusion 102

Acknowledgments 102

References 102

4 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Scaffold-Based Tissue Engineering 111
Deepti Rana, Minal Thacker, Maria Leena, and Murugan Ramalingam

4.1 Introduction 111

4.2 Basics of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 112

4.3 Concept of Scaffold-Based Tissue Engineering 116

4.4 Cell–Scaffold Interactions 118

4.5 Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 121

4.6 Concluding Remarks 134

Acknowledgments 134

References 134

5 Biosensors for Optimal Tissue Engineering: Recent Developments and Shaping the Future 143
Jihane Abouzeid, Ghinwa Darwish, and Pierre Karam

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 Fundamentals of Biosensors 143

5.3 Biosensing Techniques 145

5.4 Real-Time Sensing in Tissue Engineering and Cell Growth 147

5.5 In Vivo Implementations and the Challenges Faced 155

5.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 158

References 159

6 Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering 169
Raquel Obregón, Javier Ramón-Azcón, and Samad Ahadian

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Bioreactors 170

6.3 Applications of Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering 175

6.4 Summary and Future Perspectives 191

Acknowledgment 191

Abbreviations 191

References 192

Part II Applications 215

7 Tissue-Engineered Human Skin Equivalents and Their Applications in Wound Healing 217
Lara Yildirimer, Divia Hobson, Zhi Yuan (William) Lin,Wenguo Cui, and Xin Zhao

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 Development of Tissue-Engineered Human Skin Equivalents 220

7.3 Application of TESs inWound Healing 226

7.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 233

Acknowledgments 234

References 234

8 Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering 243
Jiayin Fu, Pengfei He, and Dong-An Wang

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Articular Cartilage Lesions and Repair 245

8.3 Basics of Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering 248

8.4 Strategies in Current Cartilage Tissue Engineering 265

8.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 273

List of Abbreviations 275

References 276

9 Liver Tissue Engineering 297
Jessica L. Sparks

9.1 Introduction 297

9.2 Liver Biology 299

9.3 Liver Biomechanics 304

9.4 Liver Mechanobiology 308

9.5 Biophysical Stimuli in Liver Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 313

9.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 314

References 314

10 Development of Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessels 325
Haiyan Li

10.1 Introduction 325

10.2 Biology of Blood Vessels 326

10.3 Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels 329

10.4 Conclusion and Perspective 344

Acknowledgment 345

References 345

Volume 2

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

11 Engineering Trachea and Larynx 363
Marta B. Evangelista, Sait Ciftci, PeterMilad, Emmanuel Martinod, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Christian Debry, and Nihal E. Vrana

11.1 Introduction 363

11.2 Basic Anatomy and Histology of the Larynx and Trachea 364

11.3 Indications for Tracheal Resection 366

11.4 Available Remedies Following Total Laryngectomy 369

11.5 RegenerativeMedicine Strategies and Tissue Engineering Tools for Tracheal and Larynx Replacement 372

11.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 381

Declaration/Conflict of Interest 382

References 382

12 Pulmonary Tissue Engineering 389
Patrick A. Link and Rebecca L. Heise

12.1 Introduction 389

12.2 Clinical Need for Pulmonary Tissue Engineering 389

12.3 Structure–Function Relationship in the Conducting Airways and the Lung 394

12.4 Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: Approaches for the Lung 397

12.5 Conclusions, Remaining Challenges, and Future Directions 408

References 408

13 Cardiac Tissue Engineering 413
Eun Jung Lee and Pamela Hitscherich

13.1 Introduction 413

13.2 Cardiac Tissue Architecture 414

13.3 Cell Source Considerations 416

13.4 Engineering for Myocardial Tissue 422

13.5 Conclusion and Future Directions 430

References 430

14 Approaches and Recent Advances in Heart Valve Tissue Engineering 445
Anna Mallone, Benedikt Weber, and Simon P. Hoerstrup

14.1 Introduction 445

14.2 Principles of Tissue Engineering: Shaping the Valvular Construct 448

14.3 In Vitro Bioengineering of Heart Valves: Scaffold Materials 449

14.4 Cells for Valvular Bioengineering 454

14.5 Challenges and Limitations 456

14.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 457

References 457

15 Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering: Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle Replacement and Repair 465
Jorge A. Uquillas, Settimio Pacelli, Shuichiro Kobayashi, and Sebastián Uquillas

15.1 Introduction 465

15.2 Biology of Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle 467

15.3 Grafting Practices for Tendon, Ligament, and Skeletal Muscle Repair 473

15.4 Factors in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering 477

15.5 Recent Advancements in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering 494

15.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 498

References 499

16 Bone Tissue Engineering: State of the Art, Challenges, and Prospects 525
Jan O. Gordeladze, Håvard J. Haugen, Ståle P. Lyngstadaas, and Janne E. Reseland

16.1 Introduction 525

16.2 Factors Important in Tissue Engineering of Bone 526

16.3 Fabricated Tissues by 3D Printing of Suspensions of Cells on Micro-Carriers 529

16.4 Recent Advances in Bone Tissue Engineering 533

16.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 546

References 548

17 Tissue Engineering of the Pancreas 553
Masayuki Shimoda

17.1 Introduction 553

17.2 Treatment Options for T1D 554

17.3 Bioartificial Pancreas 556

17.4 Biomaterials/Encapsulation 558

17.5 Conclusion 564

References 566

18 Tissue Engineering of Renal Tissue (Kidney) 575
Raquel Rodrigues-Díez, Valentina Benedetti, Giuseppe Remuzzi, and Christodoulos Xinaris

18.1 Introduction 575

18.2 Biology of the Kidney 576

18.3 Overview of Kidney Development and Vascularization 578

18.4 Developmental Engineering 581

18.5 Bio-Scaffold-Based Technologies 587

18.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 594

Acknowledgments 595

References 595

19 Design and Engineering of Neural Tissues 603
Muhammad N. Hasan and Umut A. Gurkan

19.1 Introduction 603

19.2 Natural Biomaterials for Nerve Tissue Repair 605

19.3 Synthetic Biomaterials for Nerve Tissue Repair 623

19.4 Development of Nanofibrous Scaffolds 625

19.5 Summary and Future Direction 634

References 634

20 Neural-Tissue Engineering Interventions for Traumatic Brain Injury 655
Tala El Tal, Rayan El Sibai, Stefania Mondello, and Firas Kobeissy

20.1 Introduction 655

20.2 Neurogenesis in CNS: Resident Neural Stem Cells 657

20.3 Cell-Based and NeuroprotectionTherapeutic Strategies 658

20.4 Construct Technology: Biomaterials Approach 663

20.5 Application to Living System: Translational Approaches 668

20.6 Future Outlook: Transition to the Clinic 669

References 671

21 Bionics in Tissue Engineering 677
Thanh D. Nguyen and Brian P. Timko

21.1 Introduction 677

21.2 Electronics for Biointerfaces 678

21.3 Novel Power Sources 688

21.4 3D Printing 692

21.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 695

References 695

Index 701

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Author Information

MD Anwarul Hasan is an Assistant Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Qatar University in Doha, Qatar. He is also an Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as a visiting Scientist at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology at the Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, USA. Prior to joining his current positions, Dr. Hasan was an NSERC Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Harvard Medical School and MIT.
Dr Hasan obtained his PhD from University of Alberta, Canada in 2010 and worked at Alberta Innovates Technology Futures in Edmonton, Canada and Champion Technologies LTD in Calgary, Alberta, Canada during 2010-2011. Dr. Anwarul Hasan has authored more than 60 journal and conference papers. He is a winner of more than sixteen national and international awards. Dr Hasan's research interests include Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering particularly for cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and neural applications.
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