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Forensic Science: A Multidisciplinary Approach

ISBN: 978-3-527-33894-8
446 pages
June 2016
Forensic Science: A Multidisciplinary Approach (3527338942) cover image

Description

Concentrating on the natural science aspects of forensics, top international authors from renowned universities, institutes, and laboratories impart the latest information from the field.
In doing so they provide the background needed to understand the state of the art in forensic science with a focus on biological, chemical, biochemical, and physical methods. The broad subject coverage includes spectroscopic analysis techniques in various wavelength regimes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, electrochemical detection approaches, and imaging techniques, as well as advanced biochemical, DNA-based identification methods. The result is a unique collection of hard-to-get data that is otherwise only found scattered throughout the literature.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XIII

Preface XXI

1 Forensic Science – Chemistry, Physics, Biology, and Engineering – Introduction 1
Evgeny Katz and Jan Halámek

References 3

2 Forensic Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy 5
Claire K.Muro, Kyle C. Doty, Justin Bueno, Lenka Halámková, and Igor K. Lednev

2.1 Introduction 5

2.1.1 Chemometrics 6

2.2 Trace Evidence 8

2.2.1 Hair Analysis 8

2.2.2 Fibers 11

2.2.3 Paint Analysis 12

2.3 Ink Analysis 16

2.4 Forensic Biology and Anthropology 18

2.4.1 Body Fluids 18

2.4.2 Forensic Anthropology 22

2.5 Gunshot Residue 23

2.6 Controlled Substances 29

2.6.1 Illicit Drugs 29

2.6.2 Pharmaceuticals 32

2.7 Counterterrorism and Homeland Security 36

2.7.1 Explosives 36

2.7.2 Chemical Agents 39

2.7.3 Bioagents 39

2.8 Emerging Technologies 41

2.9 Conclusions 43

Acknowledgments 44

References 44

3 Applications of Internal Reflection Spectroscopy in Forensic Analysis 55
Ali Koçak

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Principles andTheory 56

3.3 Accessories for ATR 59

3.4 Forensic Applications of ATR 60

3.4.1 Packing Materials and Adhesive Tapes 60

3.4.2 Paint Samples 61

3.4.3 Drugs 63

3.4.4 Explosives 65

3.4.5 Soil and Minerals 66

3.4.6 Other Developments 67

3.5 Conclusion 68

References 68

4 Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Forensic Science: A Brief Introduction 71
Roshanak Aslebagh, Pooya Estifaee, Selma Mededovic Thagard, and Costel C. Darie

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Mass Spectrometry 72

4.2.1 Instrumentation 72

4.2.1.1 Ionization Source 73

4.2.1.2 Mass Analyzer 75

4.2.1.3 Detector 75

4.2.2 Tandem MS (MS/MS) 75

4.2.3 Combination of MS with Other Separation Techniques 76

4.2.4 Applications of MS 77

4.3 Applications of MS in Forensic Science 77

4.3.1 Drugs and Toxicology 77

4.3.2 ChemicalWarfare Agents and Explosives 79

4.3.3 Hair 79

4.3.4 Residues of Gunshots 80

4.3.5 Fingermarks 80

4.3.6 Dyes 80

4.3.7 Glass 81

4.3.8 Drug Packages 81

4.3.9 Paint Analysis 81

4.4 Conclusions 82

Acknowledgments 82

References 82

5 An Introduction to Forensic Electrochemistry 89
Jamie P. Smith, Edward P. Randviir, and Craig E. Banks

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Electrochemical Methods 90

5.3 Voltammetric Methods 91

5.4 Electrochemical Methods in Forensic Science 93

5.4.1 Poisons 93

5.4.2 Gunshot Residues 94

5.4.3 Drugs 96

5.4.4 Fingerprinting 99

5.4.5 DNA 100

5.5 Outlook for Forensic Electrochemistry 101

References 101

6 Electrochemical Detection of Gunshot Residue for Forensic Analysis 103
Joseph Wang and Aoife M. O’Mahony

6.1 Overview of Gunshot Residue Detection 103

6.2 Electrochemical Detection of Inorganic GSR 107

6.3 Electrochemical Detection of Organic GSR 115

6.4 Next Steps in GSR Analysis: Chemometric Data Treatment and Complementary Orthogonal Methods 118

6.5 Future Prospects for Electroanalytical Detection of GSR 121

References 122

7 From Optical to Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques in Forensic Sciences 125
Maria Ángeles Fernández de la Ossa, María Lopez-López, Matías Calcerrada, and Carmen García-Ruiz

7.1 Added Value of Imaging Techniques in Forensic Sciences 125

7.2 Optical Examination in Forensic Sciences: A Step Before Hyperspectral Imaging 126

7.3 Hyperspectral Imaging: A Flourishing Technique in Forensic Sciences 130

7.3.1 Fundamentals 131

7.3.2 Hyperspectral Imaging Applied in Forensic Sciences 139

7.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects of Hyperspectral Imaging in Forensic Sciences 145

References 146

8 Biochemical Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Applications 151
Evgeny Katz, Jan Halámek, Lenka Halámková, Saira Bakshi, Juliana Agudelo, and Crystal Huynh

8.1 Introduction 151

8.2 Biocatalytic Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Identification of Ethnicity Between Caucasian and African American 152

8.3 Biocatalytic Analysis of Biomarkers for Forensic Identification of Sex 160

8.4 Biocatalytic Assay to Determine Age of Blood Sample 166

8.5 Conclusions 173

Acknowledgment 173

References 173

9 Processing Skeletal Samples for Forensic DNA Analysis 177
Stacey Klempner, DesireeWilliams, Kelsha Sanchez, and Richard Li

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Bone Evidence in Forensic Investigations 178

9.3 The Sources of DNA from Skeletal Remains 179

9.4 Postmortem Taphonomic Effects of Skeletal Remains 181

9.5 Contamination of Challenged Bone Specimens 183

9.6 Sample Preparation and Processing of Bone Evidence for Forensic DNA Analysis 184

References 188

10 DNA Damage and Repair in Forensic Science 193
Ashley Hall, Lynn Sims, Ashley Foster, and Jack Ballantyne

10.1 Mechanisms of DNA Damage 193

10.1.1 Ultraviolet Radiation-Mediated and Oxidative DNA Damage 194

10.1.2 DNA Damage in Forensic-Type Samples 197

10.2 DNA Damage in Forensic Samples 198

10.2.1 DNA Damage at the Molecular Level 199

10.3 DNA Repair Mechanisms 206

10.3.1 Base Excision Repair/Single Strand Break Repair (BER/SSBR) 206

10.4 DNA Repair in Forensic Science 208

10.4.1 Commercialization of DNA 209

References 211

11 Biosensors in Forensic Analysis 215
Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, Lourdes Agüí, and José Manuel Pingarrón

11.1 Introduction 215

11.2 The Use of Biosensors in Forensic Toxicological Analysis 216

11.2.1 Inorganic Poisons 216

11.2.1.1 Cyanide 219

11.2.2 Organic Toxins: Alcohol, Drugs, Doping Agents 222

11.2.2.1 Alcohol 222

11.2.2.2 Illicit Drugs 224

11.2.3 Doping 230

11.2.4 Toxins 233

11.2.5 Microorganisms 238

11.3 Biosensors for Chemical and Biological Weapons 241

11.3.1 ChemicalWarfare Agents (CWAs) 241

11.3.2 Explosives 245

11.3.3 Biological Weapons 248

11.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 254

Acknowledgments 257

References 257

12 Recent Advances in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 263
Bethany A. J. Larkin and Craig E. Banks

12.1 Introduction 263

12.1.1 Blood Components 264

12.1.2 Blood Drying 266

12.1.3 Bloodstain Formation 269

12.1.4 Surfaces Interactions 273

12.1.5 Surface Manipulation 274

12.1.6 Blood Aging 277

12.1.7 Future Research 279

References 279

13 Detection of Cocaine on Paper Currency 283
Susan van der Heide and David A. Russell

13.1 Cocaine 283

13.2 Cocaine on Banknotes as Forensic Evidence 284

13.3 Methods of Analysis 287

Acknowledgments 296

References 297

14 The Forensic Analysis of Glass Evidence: Past, Present, and Future 299
BrookeWeinger Kammrath, Andrew C. Koutrakos, Meghann E. McMahon, and John A. Reffner

14.1 Glass as Forensic Evidence 299

14.2 A Brief History of Forensic Glass Analysis 300

14.2.1 Physical Properties 301

14.2.2 Optical Properties 305

14.2.3 Chemical Composition 313

14.3 Current Methods of Forensic Glass Analysis 317

14.4 Future Directions of Forensic Glass Analysis 320

14.4.1 New Developments inWindows 320

14.4.2 Future Methods of Glass Analysis 325

14.5 Conclusions 329

Acknowledgment 329

References 329

15 Forensic Examination of Trace Evidence 337
Virginia M. Maxwell

15.1 What Is Trace Evidence? 337

15.2 Major Types of Trace Evidence 342

15.2.1 Hairs 342

15.2.2 Fibers 347

15.2.3 Paint 351

15.2.4 Glass 355

15.2.5 Soil 357

15.2.6 Tape 360

15.2.7 Structural Materials 362

15.2.8 Lamp Filaments 363

15.2.9 Physical Match 364

15.2.10 Miscellaneous Trace Materials 365

15.3 Limitations and Significance of Trace Evidence 365

References 366

16 Fingerprint Spoofing and Liveness Detection 373
Peter Johnson and Stephanie Schuckers

16.1 Introduction 373

16.2 Fingerprint Spoofing 374

16.2.1 Spoofing Methods 374

16.2.2 Spoofing AFIS 376

16.2.3 Spoofing in Forensics 376

16.2.4 Documented Spoof Attempts in the Field 377

16.3 Liveness Detection 377

16.3.1 Hardware-Based Liveness Detection 379

16.3.2 Software-Based Liveness Detection 380

16.4 Summary 381

References 381

17 Engineering as a Forensic Science 383
Steven C. Batterman and Scott D. Batterman

17.1 Introduction 383

17.2 Accident Reconstruction 385

17.3 Biomechanics of Injuries 388

17.4 Products Liability 391

17.4.1 Design Defects 392

17.4.2 Manufacturing Defects 394

17.4.3 Failure toWarn and Instruct 394

17.4.4 General Product Design Considerations 395

17.5 Conclusion 397

References 397

Further Reading 398

18 Unmanned Systems Technology Use by Law Enforcement 401
Anthony Hallett and Victor Weedn

18.1 Evolution and Anatomy of Unmanned Systems 402

18.2 Law Enforcement Applications 403

18.2.1 Bomb Disposal Applications 404

18.2.2 Search and Rescue Applications 404

18.2.3 Standoff and Hostage Negotiation Applications 405

18.2.4 Crime Scene Imaging and Reconstruction Applications 405

18.3 Legal Issues 405

18.3.1 Regulations 406

18.3.2 Privacy 407

18.3.3 Weaponization 408

18.4 Unmanned Systems Deployment 409

18.4.1 Top Reasons Law Enforcement Agencies Hesitate to Deploy Drones 409

18.4.2 Deployment Models 410

18.4.3 SIDEBAR – Law Enforcement Applications 411

References 412

19 Forensic Science – Conclusions and Perspectives 415
Evgeny Katz and Jan Halámek

Index 417

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Author Information

Evgeny Katz is Milton Kerker Chaired Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, NY, USA. He obtained his PhD in Chemistry from the Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow, in 1983 and then was a senior researcher at the Institute of Photosynthesis, Pushchino, Russian Academy of Sciences, for eight years. He was a Humboldt fellow at the Technische Universität München, Germany, from 1992 to 1993, and a research associate professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1993 to 2006. Evgeny Katz has (co)authored more than 400 papers in the areas of biocomputing, bioelectronics, biosensors and biofuel cells. Thomson Reuters included him in the list of the world's top 100 chemists over the past 10 years as ranked by the impact of their published research.

Jan Halámek is Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University at Albany, State University of New York, USA. He received his PhD in Biochemistry from the Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. From 2003 to 2005 he worked as a postdoctoral fellow, earning the Marie Curie Individual Fellowship, at the University of Potsdam, Germany. Before joining the University at Albany, he was postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Biophysical Engineering at Twente University, The Netherlands, and research associate in the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, NY, USA. Jan Halámek has contributed more than 70 scientific publications and book chapters and holds three patents.
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