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Abiotic Stress Response in Plants

ISBN: 978-3-527-33918-1
456 pages
May 2016
Abiotic Stress Response in Plants (3527339183) cover image

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Understanding abiotic stress responses in plants is critical for the development of new varieties of crops, which are better adapted to harsh climate conditions. The new book by the well-known editor team Narendra Tuteja and Sarvajeet Gill provides a comprehensive overview on the molecular basis of plant responses to external stress like drought or heavy metals, to aid in the engineering of stress resistant crops.
After a general introduction into the topic, the following sections deal with specific signaling pathways mediating plant stress response. The last part covers translational plant physiology, describing several examples of the development of more stress-resistant crop varieties.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XVII

Foreword XXV

Preface XXVII

Part I Abiotic Stresses – An Overview 1

1 Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants–An Overview 3
Sarvajeet Singh Gill, Naser A. Anjum, Ritu Gill, and Narendra Tuteja

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Perception of Abiotic Stress Signals 4

1.3 Abiotic Stress Signaling Pathways in Plants 4

1.3.1 Reactive Oxygen Species 5

1.3.2 Transcription Factors 6

1.3.3 Calcium and Calcium-Regulated Proteins 7

1.3.4 MAPK Cascades 7

1.4 Conclusions, Crosstalks, and Perspectives 8

Acknowledgments 8

References 9

2 Plant Response to Genotoxic Stress: A Crucial Role in the Context of Global Climate Change 13
Anca Macovei, Mattia Donà, Daniela Carbonera, and Alma Balestrazzi

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Genotoxic Effects of UV Radiation 14

2.3 UV-B-Induced DNA Damage and Related Signaling Pathway 15

2.4 Repair of UV-B-Induced DNA Lesions: The Role of Photolyases 16

2.5 Contribution of the NER Pathway in the Plant Response to UV Radiation 17

2.6 Chromatin Remodeling and the Response to UV-Mediated Damage 18

2.7 Homologous Recombination and Nonhomologous End Joining Pathways are Significant Mechanisms in UV Tolerance 20

2.8 UV-B Radiation and Genotoxic Stress: In Planta Responses 21

2.9 Heat Stress: A Challenge for Crops in the Context of Global Climate Change 21

2.10 Conclusions 22

References 23

3 Understanding AlteredMolecular Dynamics in the Targeted Plant Species in Western Himalaya in Relation to Environmental Cues: Implications under Climate Change Scenario 27
Sanjay Kumar

3.1 Why Himalaya? 27

3.2 Climate Change is Occurring in Himalaya 31

3.3 Plant Response to Climate Change Parameters in Himalayan Flora 34

3.3.1 How to Enhance the Efficiency of Carbon Uptake? Plants at High Altitude Offer Clues 34

3.3.2 Managing Oxidative Stress the Nature’sWay 36

3.3.2.1 Engineering SOD for Climate Change 37

3.3.3 Transcriptome Analysis Offers Genes and Gene Suits for Tolerance to Environmental Cues 37

3.3.3.1 Clues from Plants at High Altitude 38

3.3.3.2 Clues from Plants at Low Altitude 39

3.3.3.3 Summing up the Learning from Transcriptome Data 42

3.4 Impact on Secondary Metabolism under the Climate Change Scenario 42

3.5 Path Forward 46

Acknowledgments 47

References 48

4 Crosstalk between Salt, Drought, and Cold Stress in Plants: Toward Genetic Engineering for Stress Tolerance 55
Sagarika Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar, Bedabrata Saha, Jayprakash Awasthi, Mohitosh Dey, Sanjib Kumar Panda, and Lingaraj Sahoo

4.1 Introduction 56

4.2 Signaling Components of Abiotic Stress Responses 57

4.3 Decoding Salt Stress Signaling and Transduction Pathways 58

4.3.1 Signal Perception, Sensors, and Signaling in Plant Cells 59

4.3.1.1 Calcium: An Active Sensor for Salt Stress 59

4.3.1.2 Role of IP3 in Signaling Events for Salt Stress 59

4.3.1.3 SOS Pathway – A Breakthrough Approach in Deciphering Salt Signaling 60

4.3.1.4 Role of pH in Salt Stress Signaling 61

4.3.1.5 ABA Signaling in Salt Stress 61

4.3.1.6 ROS Accumulation in Salt Stress 61

4.4 Drought Stress Signaling and Transduction Pathways 62

4.4.1 Drought Stress Sensors 63

4.4.1.1 Histidine Kinases (HKs) 63

4.4.1.2 Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) 64

4.4.1.3 Microtubules as Sensors 65

4.4.2 Drought Signal Transduction 65

4.4.2.1 ABA-Dependent Pathway 66

4.4.2.2 Drought Signal Effector 67

4.5 Cold Stress Signaling and Transduction Pathways 68

4.5.1 Cold Stress Sensors 68

4.5.2 Signal Transduction 69

4.5.2.1 ABA-Independent Pathway Involved in Cold and Drought Stress Responses 69

4.5.2.2 Role of Transcription Factors/Element 70

4.5.3 Cold Stress Effector 72

4.5.3.1 HSF/HSP 72

4.5.3.2 ROS 72

4.6 Transgenic Approaches to Overcome Salinity Stress in Plants 73

4.6.1 MYB-Type Transcription Factors 73

4.6.2 Zinc Finger Proteins 74

4.6.3 NAC-Type Transcription Factors 74

4.6.4 bZIP (Basic Leucine Zipper) Transcription Factors 74

4.6.5 MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) 75

4.6.6 CDPKs (Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases) 75

4.6.7 RNA-Interference-Mediated Approach and Role of siRNAs and  miRNAs in Developing Salt-Tolerant Plants 75

4.7 Conclusion 76

References 77

5 Intellectual PropertyManagement and Rights, Climate Change, and Food Security 87
Karim Maredia, Frederic Erbisch, Callista Rakhmatov, and Tom Herlache

5.1 Introduction: What Are Intellectual Properties? 88

5.2 Protection of Biotechnologies 88

5.2.1 Federal Protection 88

5.2.1.1 Patents 88

5.2.1.2 Plant Variety Protection 89

5.2.1.3 Copyright 90

5.2.1.4 Trademarks 90

5.2.2 Non-federal Protection 91

5.2.2.1 Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) 91

5.2.2.2 Confidential Disclosure Agreements (CDA) 91

5.2.2.3 Research Agreements 91

5.2.2.4 Cooperative or Inter-Institutional Agreements 92

5.3 Management Challenges of Biotechnologies 92

5.3.1 Recognizing the Value of Intellectual Property 92

5.3.2 Creating General Awareness of the Importance of Intellectual Property and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) 93

5.3.3 Developing an Intellectual Property Management System/Focal Point 93

5.3.4 Building Functional National and Institutional Intellectual Property Policies 93

5.3.5 Enforcement/Implementation of Intellectual Property Policies 93

5.3.6 Institutional Support and Commitment 94

5.4 Making Biotechnologies Available 94

5.5 Licensing of Biotechnologies 95

5.6 Intellectual Property Management and Technology Transfer System at Michigan State University 96

5.7 IP Management and Technology Transfer at Michigan State University 96

5.8 Enabling Environment for IP Management, Technology Transfer, and Commercialization at MSU 97

5.9 International Education, Training and Capacity Building Programs in IP Management and Technology Transfer 99

5.10 Impacts ofMSU’s IP Management and Technology Transfer Capacity Building Programs 100

5.11 Summary andWay Forward 102

References 103

Part II Intracellular Signaling 105

6 Abiotic Stress Response in Plants: Role of Cytoskeleton 107
Neelam Soda, Sneh L. Singla-Pareek, and Ashwani Pareek

6.1 Introduction 107

6.1.1 Cytoskeleton in Prokaryotes 108

6.1.1.1 FtsZ 109

6.1.1.2 MreB and ParM 109

6.1.1.3 Crescentin 109

6.1.2 Cytoskeleton in Eukaryotes 109

6.1.2.1 Microtubules 109

6.1.2.2 Microfilaments 109

6.1.2.3 Intermediate Filament 110

6.1.2.4 Microtrabeculae 111

6.2 Role of Cytoskeleton in Cells 111

6.3 Abiotic Stress-Induced Structural Changes in MTs 112

6.4 Abiotic Stress-Induced Structural Changes in MFs 116

6.5 Abiotic Stress-Induced Structural Changes in Intermediate Filaments 119

6.6 Abiotic Stress and Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins 119

6.7 Future Perspectives 121

Acknowledgments 122

References 122

7 Molecular Chaperone: Structure, Function, and Role in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance 131
Dipesh Kumar Trivedi, Kazi Md. Kamrul Huda, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, and Narendra Tuteja

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Heat Shock Proteins 133

7.2.1 Structure and Function 133

7.2.2 Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants 136

7.3 Calnexin/Calreticulin 138

7.3.1 Introduction 138

7.3.2 Mechanism of Calnexin/Calreticulin 139

7.3.3 Responses against Abiotic Stresses 140

7.3.4 Activation in Response Misfolded Protein 140

7.4 Cyclophilin and Protein Disulfide Isomerase 140

7.5 Other Reports Regarding Molecular Chaperones 142

7.6 Conclusion and Future Outlook 143

Acknowledgment 143

References 144

8 Physiological Roles of Glutathione in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance to Plants 151
Kamrun Nahar,Mirza Hasanuzzaman, and Masayuki Fujita

8.1 Introduction 152

8.2 Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Glutathione 153

8.3 Roles of Glutathione under Abiotic Stress Conditions 154

8.3.1 Salinity 155

8.3.2 Drought 160

8.3.3 Toxic Metals 161

8.3.4 Extreme Temperature 163

8.3.5 Ozone 164

8.4 Glutathione and Oxidative Stress Tolerance 165

8.4.1 Direct Role of Glutathione as Antioxidant 165

8.4.2 Role of Glutathione in Regulation of Its Associated Antioxidant Enzymes 166

8.5 Involvement of Glutathione in Methylglyoxal Detoxification System 167

8.6 Role of Glutathione as a Signaling Molecule under Abiotic Stress Condition 169

8.7 Conclusion and Future Perspective 171

Acknowledgments 171

References 171

9 Role of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases during Abiotic Stress Tolerance 181
Tapan Kumar Mohanta and Alok Krishna Sinha

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Classification of CDPKs 182

9.3 Substrate Recognition 184

9.4 Mechanism of Regulation of CDPKs 185

9.4.1 Ca2+-Mediated Regulation 187

9.4.2 Regulation by Autophosphorylation 188

9.4.3 Hormonal Regulation of CDPKs 188

9.4.4 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Regulation 190

9.5 Subcellular Localization of CDPKs 190

9.6 Crosstalk between CDPKs and MAPKs 191

9.7 CDPK in Stress Response 193

9.7.1 Rice CDPK in Stress Response 193

9.7.2 Arabidopsis CDPK in Stress Response 194

9.7.3 Wheat CDPK in Stress Response 195

9.8 Conclusion 196

Abbreviations 197

References 197

10 Lectin Receptor-Like Kinases and Their Emerging Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 203
Neha Vaid, Prashant K. Pandey, and Narendra Tuteja

10.1 Introduction 203

10.2 Evolution of RLKs 205

10.3 Lectin Receptor-Like Kinase 206

10.4 Classification of the LecRLK Family 206

10.5 Roles of LecRLKs 207

10.5.1 Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 209

10.5.2 Roles of LecRLKs in Development and Biotic Stresses 210

10.6 Conclusion 210

Acknowledgments 212

References 212

Part III Extracellular or Hormone-Based Signaling 217

11 Heavy-Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress in Plants: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives 219
Sanjib Kumar Panda, Shuvasish Choudhury, and Hemanta Kumar Patra

11.1 Background and Introduction 219

11.2 ROS and Oxidative Stress: Role of Heavy Metals 222

11.3 Heavy-Metal Hyperaccumulation and Hypertolerance 223

11.4 Molecular Physiology of Heavy-Metal Tolerance in Plants 224

11.5 Future Perspectives 226

References 227

12 Metallothioneins and Phytochelatins: Role and Perspectives in Heavy Metal(loid)s Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants 233
Devesh Shukla, Prabodh K. Trivedi, Pravendra Nath, and Narendra Tuteja

12.1 Introduction 233

12.1.1 Essential Heavy Metals 234

12.1.2 Nonessential Heavy Metals 234

12.1.2.1 Cadmium 235

12.1.2.2 Arsenic 235

12.2 Methods/Processes of Remediation of Soil 236

12.2.1 Heavy-Metal Tolerance and Remediation by Plants 236

12.3 Metal-Binding Ligands of Plants 238

12.3.1 Metallothioneins 238

12.3.1.1 General Classification of MTs 239

12.3.1.2 Function of Metallothioneins 241

12.3.1.3 Overexpression of Metallothioneins in Plants and Other Organisms 242

12.3.2 Phytochelatins 244

12.3.2.1 General Structure and Function of Phytochelatins 244

12.3.2.2 Biosynthesis of Phytochelatins 245

12.3.2.3 Cloning of Phytochelatin Synthase Gene 248

12.3.2.4 Expression of PC Synthase in Plants 250

12.3.2.5 Expression of PC Synthase in Transgenic Organisms Leads to Contradictory Results 251

12.3.2.6 Application of Phytochelatin in Phytoremediation 254

12.3.2.7 Artificial PCs, a Synthetic Biology Approach toward Phytoremediation 254

12.4 Conclusion 255

Acknowledgments 256

Abbreviations 256

References 256

13 Plant Response to Arsenic Stress and Role of Exogenous Selenium to Mitigate Arsenic-Induced Damages 261
Meetu Gupta, Chandana Pandey, and Shikha Gupta

13.1 Introduction 262

13.1.1 Arsenic and Selenium 262

13.1.2 Arsenic and Selenium Interaction 263

13.2 Arsenic and Selenium in Food Crop Plants 265

13.2.1 Biofortification 266

13.3 Role of Signaling Molecules in Mitigation of Arsenic and Selenium 267

13.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 270

References 271

14 Brassinosteroids: Physiology and Stress Management in Plants 275
Geetika Sirhindi, Manish Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, and Renu Bhardwaj

14.1 Background and Introduction 275

14.2 Physiological Roles of BRs 277

14.2.1 Seed Germination 277

14.2.2 BRs in Cell Division, Elongation, and Tissue Differentiation 278

14.2.3 BRs in Shoot and Root Development 279

14.2.4 BR in Flowering and Fruit Development 281

14.2.5 Brassinosteroids in Stress Management 283

14.2.6 Brassinosteroids in Biotic Stress Tolerance 284

14.3 Brassinosteroids in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 286

14.3.1 Water Stress 286

14.3.2 Salinity Stress 288

14.3.3 BR in Heavy-Metal Stress 291

14.3.4 BR in Chilling Stress 294

14.3.5 BR in Heat Stress 295

14.4 Conclusion 297

References 297

15 Abscisic Acid (ABA): Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 311
Dipesh Kumar Trivedi, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, and Narendra Tuteja

15.1 Introduction 311

15.2 Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling 312

15.3 Abscisic Acid and Transcription Factors in Abiotic Stress Tolerance 312

15.4 Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mediated by Abscisic Acid 315

15.5 Conclusion and Future Outlook 318

Acknowledgments 318

References 318

16 Cross-Stress Tolerance in Plants: Molecular Mechanisms and Possible Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems 323
Mohammad Anwar Hossain, David J. Burritt, and Masayuki Fujita

16.1 Introduction 324

16.2 Perception of Heat- and Cold-Shock and Response of Plants 326

16.3 Reactive Oxygen Species Formation under Abiotic Stress in Plants 329

16.4 Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Detoxification System in Plants 332

16.5 Antioxidant Defense Systems and Cross-Stress Tolerance of Plants 332

16.6 Methylglyoxal Detoxification System (Glyoxalase System) in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Cross-Stress Tolerance 338

16.7 Signaling Roles for Methylglyoxal in Induced Plant Stress Tolerance 340

16.8 The Involvement of Antioxidative and Glyoxalase Systems in Coldor Heat-Shock-Induced Cross-Stress Tolerance 341

16.9 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Its Role in Cross-Tolerance in Plants 343

16.10 Regulatory Role of H2O2 during Abiotic Oxidative Stress Responses and Tolerance 344

16.11 H2O2: A Part of Signaling Network 349

16.12 Involvement of Heat- or Cold-Shock Protein (HSP or CSP) Chaperones 350

16.13 Amino Acids (Proline and GB) in Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Cross-Stress Tolerance 354

16.14 Involvement of Ca+2 and Plant Hormones in Cross-Stress Tolerance 357

16.15 Conclusion and Future Perspective 358

Acknowledgments 359

Abbreviations 359

References 359

Part IV Translational Plant Physiology 377

17 Molecular Markers and Crop Improvement 379
Brijmohan Singh Bhau, Debojit Kumar Sharma, Munmi Bora, Sneha Gosh, Sangeeta Puri, Bitupon Borah, Dugganaboyana Guru Kumar, and Sawlang

BorsinghWann

17.1 Introduction 380

17.1.1 Importance of Crop Improvement 382

17.1.2 Environmental Constraints Limiting Productivity 383

17.1.3 High Temperatures 385

17.1.4 Drought 385

17.1.5 Salinity 386

17.1.6 Flooding 387

17.1.7 Role of Modern Biotechnology 388

17.2 Molecular Markers 391

17.2.1 Improved or "Smart" Crop Varieties 394

17.2.2 Molecular Plant Breeding and Genetic Diversity for Crop Improvement 395

17.3 Conclusion 397

References 400

18 Polyamines in Stress Protection: Applications in Agriculture 407
Rubén Alcázar and Antonio F. Tiburcio

18.1 Challenges in Crop Protection against Abiotic Stress: Contribution of Polyamines 407

18.2 Polyamine Homeostasis: Biosynthesis, Catabolism and Conjugation 409

18.3 Drought Stress and PA Metabolism 411

18.4 Polyamine Metabolism in Drought-Tolerant Species 413

18.5 Regulation of PAMetabolism by ABA 414

18.6 Future Perspectives 415

Acknowledgments 416

References 416

Index 419

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Author Information

An elected fellow of numerous academies, Narendra Tuteja is currently a senior scientist at ICGEB, New Delhi, India. He has made significant contributions to crop improvement under adverse conditions, reporting the first helicase from plant and human cells and demonstrating new roles of Ku autoantigen, nucleolin and eIF4A as DNA helicases. Furthermore, he discovered novel functions of helicases, G-proteins, CBL-CIPK and LecRLK in plant stress tolerance, and PLC and MAP-kinase as effectors for G proteins. Narendra Tuteja also reported several high salinity stress tolerant genes from plants and fungi and developed salt/drought tolerant plants.

Currently assistant professor at MD University, Rohtak, India, Sarvajeet Singh Gill has made significant contributions to abiotic stress tolerance. Together with Narendra Tuteja he worked on plant helicases and discovered a novel function of plant MCM6 in salinity stress tolerance that will help improve crop production at sub-optimal conditions. A recipient of the Junior Scientist of the Year Award 2008 from the National Environmental Science Academy, Sarvajeet Gill has edited several books and has a number of research papers, review articles, and book chapters to his name.
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