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Nanoelectronics: Materials, Devices, Applications, 2 Volumes

ISBN: 978-3-527-34053-8
742 pages
June 2017
Nanoelectronics: Materials, Devices, Applications, 2 Volumes (352734053X) cover image


Offering first-hand insights by top scientists and industry experts at the forefront of R&D into nanoelectronics, this book neatly links the underlying technological principles with present and future applications.
A brief introduction is followed by an overview of present and emerging logic devices, memories and power technologies. Specific chapters are dedicated to the enabling factors, such as new materials, characterization techniques, smart manufacturing and advanced circuit design. The second part of the book provides detailed coverage of the current state and showcases real future applications in a wide range of fields: safety, transport, medicine, environment, manufacturing, and social life, including an analysis of emerging trends in the internet of things and cyber-physical systems. A survey of main economic factors and trends concludes the book.
Highlighting the importance of nanoelectronics in the core fields of communication and information technology, this is essential reading for materials scientists, electronics and electrical engineers, as well as those working in the semiconductor and sensor industries.
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Table of Contents

PART I. Fundamentals on Nanoelectronics
More-than-Moore Technologies and Applications
Logic Devices Challenges and Opportunities in the NanoEra
Memory Technologies
PART II. Devices in the Nano Era
Beyond CMOS Low Power Devices: Steep-Slop Switches for Computation and Sensing
Smart Power Devices Nanotechnology
Integrated Sensors and Actuators: Their Nano-Enabled Evolution into the 21st Century
PART III. Advanced Materials and Materials Combination
Silicon Wafers as a Foundation for Growth
PART IV. Semiconductor Smart Manufacturing
Front-End Processes
Lithography for Nano-Electronics
Reliability of Nano-Electronic Devices
PART V. Circuit Design in Emerging Nanotechnologies
Logic Synthesis of CMOS Circuits and Beyond
System Design in the Cyber-Physical Era
Heterogeneous Systems
Nanotechnologies Testing
PART VI. Nanoelectronics (Enabled Sectors) and Societal Challenges
Introducing Industrial Applications
Smart Energy
Validation of Highly Automated Safe and Secure Vehicles
Nanotechnology for Consumer Electronics
PART VII. From Device to Systems
Nanoelectronics for Smart Cities
PART VIII. Industrialisation - Economics/Markets - Business Values - European Visions - Technology Renewal and Extended Functionality
Europe Positioning in Nanoelectronics
30 Years of Cooperative Research and Innovation in Europe: The Case for Micro and Nano-Electronics and Smart Systems Integration
The Education Challenge

Foreword by Andreas Wild XXV

Nanoelectronics for Digital Agenda by Paul Rübig and Livio Baldi XXXVII

Electronics on the EU’s Political Agenda by Carl-Christian Buhr XLI

Preface by Livio Baldi and Marcel H. van de Voorde XLVII

Volume 1

Part One Fundamentals on Nanoelectronics 1

1 A Brief History of the Semiconductor Industry 3
Paolo A. Gargini

1.1 From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics and Beyond 3

1.2 The Growth of the Semiconductor Industry: An Eyewitness Report 22

Acknowledgments 52

2 More-than-Moore Technologies and Applications 53
Joachim Pelka and Livio Baldi

2.1 Introduction 53

2.2 “More Moore” and “More-than-Moore” 54

2.3 From Applications to Technology 56

2.4 More-than-Moore Devices 58

2.5 Application Domains 61

2.6 Conclusions 70

Acknowledgement 71

References 71

3 Logic Devices Challenges and Opportunities in the Nano Era 73
Frédéric Boeuf

3.1 Introduction: Dennard’s Scaling and Moore’s Law Trends and Limits 73

3.2 Power Performance Trade-Off for 10 nm, 7 nm, and Below 75

3.3 Device Structures and Materials in Advanced CMOS Nodes 89

4 Memory Technologies 113
Barbara De Salvo and Livio Baldi

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Mainstream Memories (DRAM and NAND): Evolution and Scaling Limits 115

4.3 Emerging Memories Technologies 120

4.4 Emerging Memories Architectures 130

4.5 Opportunities for Emerging Memories 133

4.6 Conclusions 134

Part Two Devices in the Nano Era 137

5 Beyond-CMOS Low-Power Devices: Steep-Slope Switches for Computation and Sensing 139
Adrian M. Ionescu

5.1 Digital Computing in Post-Dennard Nanoelectronics Era 139

5.2 Beyond CMOS Steep-Slope Switches 143

5.3 Convergence of Requirements for Energy-Efficient Computing and Sensing Technologies: Enabling Smart Autonomous Systems for IoE 148

5.4 Conclusions and Perspectives 149

References 151

6 RF CMOS 153
Patrick Reynaert, Wouter Steyaert and Marco Vigilante

6.1 Introduction 153

6.2 Toward 5G and Beyond 153

6.3 CMOS @ Millimeter-Wave: Challenges and Opportunities 156

6.4 Terahertz in CMOS 159

6.5 Conclusions 161

References 162

7 Smart Power Devices Nanotechnology 163
Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Peter Moens, Mikael Östling, Jan Sonsky, and Steve Stoffels

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Si Power Devices 164

7.3 SiC Power Semiconductor Devices 176

7.4 Power GaN Device Technology 184

7.5 New Materials and Substrates for WBG Power Devices 198

References 201

8 Integrated Sensors and Actuators: Their Nano-Enabled Evolution into the Twenty-First Century 205
Frederik Ceyssens and Robert Puers

8.1 Introduction 205

8.2 Sensors 208

8.3 Actuators 214

8.4 Molecular Motors 217

8.5 Transducer Integration and Connectivity 218

8.6 Conclusion 219

References 220

Part Three Advanced Materials and Materials Combinations 223

9 Silicon Wafers as a Foundation for Growth 225
Peter Stallhofer

9.1 Introduction 225

9.2 Si Availability and Technologies to Produce Hyperpure Silicon in Large Quantities 226

9.3 The Exceptional Physical and Technological Properties of Monocrystalline Silicon for Device Manufacturing 237

9.4 Silicon and New Materials 241

9.5 Example of Actual Advanced 300 mm Wafer Specification for Key Parameters 242

Acknowledgments 242

References 242

10 Nanoanalysis 245
Narciso Gambacorti

10.1 Three-Dimensional Analysis 246

10.2 Strain Analysis 250

10.3 Compositional and Chemical Analysis 256

10.4 Conclusions 260

Glossary 261

Acknowledgments 262

References 262

Part Four Semiconductor Smart Manufacturing 265

11 Front-End Processes 267
Marcello Mariani and Nicolas Possémé

11.1 A Standard MOS FEOL Process Flow 267

11.2 Cleaning 268

11.3 Silicon Oxidation 271

11.4 Doping and Dopant Activation 272

11.5 Deposition 275

11.6 Etching 279

Bibliography 288

12 Lithography for Nanoelectronics 289
Kurt Ronse

12.1 Historical Perspective of Lithography for Nanoelectronics 289

12.2 Challenges for Lithography in Future Technology Nodes 292

12.3 Pattern Roughness: The Biggest Challenge for Geometrical Scaling 311

12.4 Lithography Options in Previous and Future Technology Nodes 313

References 315

13 Reliability of Nanoelectronic Devices 317
Anthony S. Oates and K.P. Cheung

13.1 Introduction 317

13.2 Interconnect Reliability Issues 318

13.3 Transistor Reliability Issues 322

13.4 Radiation-Induced Soft Errors in Silicon Circuits 325

13.5 Conclusions 327

Acknowledgments 328

References 328

Volume 2

Part Five Circuit Design in Emerging Nanotechnologies 331

14 Logic Synthesis of CMOS Circuits and Beyond 333
Enrico Macii, Andreas Calimera, Alberto Macii, and Massimo Poncino

14.1 Context and Motivation 333

14.2 The Origin: Area and Delay Optimization 335

14.3 The Power Wall 340

14.4 Synthesis in the Nanometer Era: Variation-Aware 345

14.5 Emerging Trends in Logic Synthesis and Optimization 350

14.6 Summary 358

References 358

15 System Design in the Cyber-Physical Era 363
Pierluigi Nuzzo and Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

15.1 From Nanodevices to Cyber-Physical Systems 363

15.2 Cyber-Physical System Design Challenges 365

15.3 A Structured Methodology to Address the Design Challenges 370

15.4 Platform-Based Design with Contracts and Related Tools 380

15.5 Conclusions 390

Acknowledgments 390

References 390

16 Heterogeneous Systems 397
Daniel Lapadatu

16.1 Introduction 397

16.2 Heterogeneous Systems Design 400

16.3 Heterogeneous Systems Integration 414

16.4 Testing the Performance and Reliability of Heterogeneous Systems 418

16.5 Conclusions 423

Acknowledgments 424

References 424

17 Nanotechnologies Testing 427
Ernesto Sanchez and Matteo Sonza Reorda

17.1 Introduction 427

17.2 Background 428

17.3 Current Challenges 433

17.4 Testing Advanced Technologies 437

17.5 Conclusions 444

References 444

Part Six Nanoelectronics-Enabled Sectors and Societal Challenges 447

18 Industrial Applications 449
L. Baldi and M. Van de Voorde

18.1 Introduction 449

18.2 Health, Demographic Change, and Well-being 450

18.3 Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Marine and Maritime and Inland Water Research, and the Bioeconomy 450

18.4 Secure, Clean, and Efficient Energy 451

18.5 Smart, Green, and Integrated Transport 451

18.6 Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency, and Raw Materials 452

18.7 Europe in a Changing World – Inclusive, Innovative, and Reflective Societies 452

18.8 Secure Societies – Protecting Freedom and Security of Europe and Its Citizens 452

19 Health 455
Walter De Raedt and Chris Van Hoof

19.1 Introduction 455

19.2 The Worldwide Context 455

19.3 Requirements and Use Cases for Emerging Wearables 459

19.4 Conclusions 467

References 468

20 Smart Energy 471
Moritz Loske

20.1 Energy Revolution – Why Energy Does Have to Become Smart? 471

20.2 Applications of Smart Energy Systems and their Societal Challenges 476

20.3 Nanoelectronics as Key Enabler for Smart Energy Systems 483

20.4 Summary and Outlook 486

References 487

21 Validation of Highly Automated Safe and Secure Vehicles 489
Michael Paulweber

21.1 Introduction 489

21.2 Societal Challenges 490

21.3 Automated Vehicles 491

21.4 Key Requirements to Automated Driving Systems 493

21.5 Validation Challenges 496

21.6 Validation Concepts 497

21.7 Challenges to Electronics Platform for Automated Driving Systems 498

21.8 Conclusion 499

References 499

22 Nanotechnology for Consumer Electronics 501
Hannah M. Gramling, Michail E. Kiziroglou, and Eric M. Yeatman

22.1 Introduction 501

22.2 Communications 503

22.3 Energy Storage 506

22.4 Sensors 509

22.5 Internet-of-Things Applications 514

22.6 Display Technologies 515

22.7 Conclusions 520

References 520

Part Seven From Device to Systems 527

23 Nanoelectronics for Smart Cities 529
Joachim Pelka

23.1 Why “Smart Cities”? 529

23.2 Infrastructure: All You Need Is Information 531

23.3 Nothing Will Work Without Energy 535

23.4 Application: What Can Be Done with Information 537

23.5 Trusted Hardware: Not Only for Data Security 546

23.6 Closing Remarks 548

Acknowledgement 548

Part Eight Industrialization: Economics/Markets – Business Values – European Visions – Technology Renewal and Extended Functionality 551

24 Europe Positioning in Nanoelectronics 553
Andreas Wild

24.1 What is the “European” Industry 553

24.2 European Strategic Initiatives 554

24.3 Policy Implementation Instruments 556

24.4 Europe’s Market Position 558

24.5 European Perspectives 564

25 Thirty Years of Cooperative Research and Innovation in Europe: The Case for Micro- and Nanoelectronics and Smart Systems Integration 567
Dirk Beernaert and Eric Fribourg-Blanc

25.1 Introduction 567

25.2 Nanoelectronics and Micro-Nanotechnology in the European Research Programs 570

25.3 A Bit of History Seen from an ICT: Nanoelectronics Integrated Hardware Perspective 571

25.4 ESPRIT I, II, III, and IV 572

25.5 The 5th Framework (1998–2002) 574

25.6 The 6th Framework (2002–2006) 575

25.7 The 7th Framework (2007–2013) 576

25.8 H2020 (2014–2020) 579

25.9 Some Results of FP7 and H2020 581

25.10 Results of the JTI ENIAC and ARTEMIS 583

25.11 An Analysis of Beyond CMOS in FP7 and H2020 584

25.12 MEMS, Smart Sensors, and Devices Related to Internet of Things 586

25.13 From FP6 to FP7: An integrated approach for micro-nanoelectronics and micro-nanosystems 587

25.14 Enabling the EU 2050+ Future: Superintelligence, Humanity, and the “Singularity” 589

25.15 EU 2050±: Driven by a Superintelligence Ambient 590

25.16 Conclusion 592

26 The Education Challenge in Nanoelectronics 595
Susanna M. Thon, Sean L. Evans, and Annastasiah Mudiwa Mhaka

26.1 Introduction 595

26.2 Traditional Programs in Nanoelectronics Education 596

26.3 Challenges in Nanoelectronics Education 600

26.4 New Cross-Discipline Applications 604

26.5 Future Education Programs 605

Acknowledgments 610

References 610

27 Conclusions 613
Robert Puers, Livio Baldi, and Marcel Van de Voorde 613

Index 617

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Author Information

Robert Puers is Professor at the Faculty of Engineering of the Catholic University Leuven, Belgium, and Chair of the Leuven Nanocenter. He is a European research pioneer in micromachining, MEMS and packaging techniques, focused on biomedical implantable systems. Robert Puers took major efforts to increase the impact of MEMS in the international research community, in education as well as in industry. To commercialize his academic research achievements, he launched three spin-off companies, ICSense, Zenso and MinDCet.

Livio Baldi is currently a freelance consultant to Lfoundry S.r.l. He graduated in electronic engineering at the University of Pavia, Italy, and joined the company SGS-ATES (now STMicroelectronics) where he held various positions inside Central R&D. Later he was in charge of cooperative research projects for STMicroelectronics, within Framework Programmes and EUREKA programs for Nanoelectronics (MEDEA and CATRENE). He participated in setting-up the ETP Nanolectronics and has been active in the ENIAC and ECSEL JTIs.

Sebastiaan E. van Nooten is currently an independent consultant to the semiconductor and semi-conductor equipment industry. After his graduation from the Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands, he joined the German company Telefunken. Subsequently, he held various positions in different companies in the European semiconductor equipment industry. Since 2007 he was engaged in several European cluster programs such as CATRENE and as project coordinator for ENIAC projects, a public-private partnership in nanoelectronics.

Marcel Van de Voorde has 40 years` experience in European Research Organisations including CERN-Geneva, European Commission, with 10 years at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany. For many years, he was involved in research and research strategies, policy and management, especially in European research institutions. He holds a Professorship at the University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands, as well as multiple visiting professorships in Europe and worldwide. He holds a doctor honoris causa and various honorary Professorships.
He is senator of the European Academy for Sciences and Arts, in Salzburg and Fellow of the World Academy for Sciences. He is a Fellow of various scientific societies and has been decorated by the Belgian King. He has authored of multiple scientific and technical publications and co-edited multiple books in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
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