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Surface Treatments for Biological, Chemical and Physical Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-34083-5
312 pages
April 2017
Surface Treatments for Biological, Chemical and Physical Applications (3527340831) cover image

Description

A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics.
Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis.
Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Surfaces in Nature 1
Mehmet Gürsoy and Mustafa Karaman

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Inspiring Natural Surface Structures 2

1.2.1 Self-Cleaning Surfaces 2

1.2.2 Adhesive Hydrophobic Surfaces 6

1.2.3 Unidirectionally Superhydrophobic Surfaces 7

1.2.4 Fog Harvesting Surfaces 9

1.2.5 Anti-reflective Surfaces 10

1.2.6 Structural Color 11

1.2.7 Drag Reduction and Antifouling Surfaces 13

1.2.8 Adhesive Surfaces 13

1.3 Conclusion 15

References 16

2 Chemical and Physical Modification of Surfaces 23
Mustafa Karaman, Mehmet Gürsoy, Mahmut Ku¸s, Faruk Özel, Esma Yenel, Özlem G. ¸Sahin, and Hilal D. Kivrak

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Vapor Deposition Processes 24

2.2.1 Physical Vapor Deposition 24

2.2.1.1 Types of PVD Processes 25

2.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition 29

2.2.2.1 CVD Reactors 31

2.2.2.2 Basic Principles of CVD: Thermodynamics, Chemistry, Heat, and Mass Transfer 33

2.2.2.3 Various Types of CVD 37

2.2.2.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition of PolymericThin Films 40

2.2.3 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) 46

2.3 Wet Coating Techniques 48

2.3.1 Sol–Gel Coating 48

2.3.1.1 Effect of pH 49

2.3.1.2 Water Content 49

2.3.1.3 The Types of Precursors 50

2.3.1.4 Temperature, Drying, and Aging 51

2.3.1.5 Sol–Gel Coatings 52

2.3.2 Electrospinning 52

2.3.2.1 Emulsion Electrospinning 55

2.3.2.2 Coaxial Electrospinning 55

2.3.2.3 Melt Electrospinning 55

2.3.3 Electrolytic Anodization 56

2.3.4 Electroplating 57

2.3.5 Electroless Plating 58

2.3.6 Electrophoretic Deposition 59

2.3.7 Dip Coating 59

References 60

3 Surface Characterization Techniques 67
Gökhan Erdoğan, Günnur Güler, Tuğba Kiliç, Duygu O. Kiliç, Beyhan Erdoğan, Zahide Tosun, Hilal D. Kivrak, Uğur Türkan, Fatih Özcan,Mehmet Gürsoy, and Mustafa Karaman

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Surface CharacterizationMethods 67

3.2.1 X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques 67

3.2.1.1 X-rays Florescent Spectroscopy 68

3.2.1.2 X-ray Diffraction Technique 69

3.2.1.3 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 71

3.2.2 Surface Characterization with FTIR Spectroscopy 72

3.2.2.1 FTIR Spectrometers 73

3.2.2.2 Methods and Sampling Techniques 74

3.2.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of FTIR Spectroscopy 76

3.2.2.4 Applications of FTIR Spectroscopy 77

3.2.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 79

3.2.3.1 Theory of NMR Spectroscopy 80

3.2.3.2 Types of NMR Spectroscopy 81

3.2.3.3 Instrumentation and Sample Handling 82

3.2.3.4 Applications of NMR 83

3.2.4 Electron Microscopes 83

3.2.4.1 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 84

3.2.4.2 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) 87

3.2.4.3 Transmission Electron Microscope 89

3.2.5 Scanning Probe Microscopy 95

3.2.5.1 Working Principle 96

3.2.5.2 Operating Modes of SPM 97

3.2.5.3 Contact Mode AFM 97

3.2.5.4 Noncontact Mode AFM 98

3.2.5.5 Intermittent Contact Mode AFM 98

3.2.5.6 Closed Cell Liquid AFM 98

3.2.5.7 STM 98

3.2.5.8 MFM 100

3.2.5.9 EFM 100

3.2.5.10 LFM 100

3.2.5.11 Nanoindentation 100

3.2.6 Contact Angle 101

3.2.7 BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) Analysis 102

3.2.8 Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy 104

References 108

4 Surface Modification of PolymericMembranes for Various Separation Processes 115

Woei-Jye Lau, Chi-Siang Ong, Nik Abdul HadiMd Nordin, Nur Aimie Abdullah Sani, Nadzirah Mohd Mokhtar, Rasoul Jamshidi Gohari, Daryoush Emadzadeh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

4.1 Introduction 115

4.2 Methods of Membrane Surface Modification 116

4.2.1 Blending 116

4.2.1.1 Polymer–Polymer Blending 116

4.2.1.2 Polymer–Inorganic Blending 117

4.2.2 Surface Coating 118

4.2.2.1 Interfacial Polymerization 118

4.2.2.2 Layer-by-Layer Coating 119

4.2.2.3 Sol–Gel Coating 120

4.2.2.4 Spin Coating 123

4.2.3 Photo-Initiated Polymerization 124

4.2.3.1 UV-Initiated “Grafting-to” Membrane Surface 124

4.2.3.2 UV-Initiated “Grafting-from” Membrane Surface 125

4.2.4 Other Surface Modification Methods 127

4.3 Advancements of Surface-Modified Membranes for Various Separation Processes 128

4.3.1 Wastewater Treatment 128

4.3.1.1 Ultrafiltration and Forward Osmosis for OilyWastewater 128

4.3.1.2 Nanofiltration andMembrane Distillation for TextileWastewater 134

4.3.2 DrinkingWater Production 142

4.3.2.1 Reverse Osmosis and Forward Osmosis for BrackishWater/Seawater Desalination 142

4.3.2.2 Adsorptive Ultrafiltration for UndergroundWater 148

4.3.3 Dense Membrane for Gas Separation Process 153

4.3.4 Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane for Organic Solvent Application 164

4.4 Conclusions 171

References 173

5 Langmuir–Blodgett Films: Sensor and Biomedical Applications and Comparisons with the Layer-by-Layer Method 181
Epameinondas Leontidis

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Langmuir–Blodgett Films: General Discussion 184

5.2.1 Deposition Methods, Film Materials, and Substrates 184

5.2.2 Applications of LB Films 187

5.3 LB Films of Nanoparticles 188

5.4 LB Films as Sensors 189

5.4.1 Types of Sensors 189

5.4.2 Gas Sensors 190

5.4.3 Sensors for Ions and Other Solution Components 193

5.4.4 Biosensors 195

5.5 LB Films in Biomedicine 196

5.6 LB and LbL Methods: a Brief Comparison 197

References 199

6 Surface Modification of Biopolymer-Based Nanoforms and Their Biological Applications 209
Susana C.M. Fernandes

6.1 Introduction 209

6.2 Nanocellulose and Nanochitin 209

6.3 The Unique Biological Properties of Nanocellulose and Nanochitin 212

6.3.1 Nanocellulose 212

6.3.1.1 Biodegradability 212

6.3.1.2 Biocompatibility 213

6.3.1.3 Low Cytotoxicity 213

6.3.2 Nanochitin 214

6.4 Functional Surface Modification 214

6.4.1 For Biomedical Application 215

6.4.1.1 To Improve Nanocellulose’s Biodegradability 215

6.4.1.2 To Expand Nanocellulose’s Biocompatibility 215

6.4.1.3 To Expand Nanochitin Applications 217

6.4.2 For Antimicrobial Applications 218

6.4.2.1 Introduction of Antimicrobial Activity to Cellulose Nanoforms 218

6.4.2.2 Expansion of Antimicrobial Activity of Chitin Nanoforms 220

6.5 Summary and Final Remarks 220

References 221

7 Enzyme-Based Biosensors in Food Industry via Surface Modifications 227
Nilay Gazel and Huseyin B. Yildiz

7.1 Introduction 227

7.2 Biosensors 228

7.2.1 Historical Perspectives of Biosensors 229

7.2.2 Parts of Biosensors: Bioreceptor and Transducer 230

7.3 Enzymes 234

7.3.1 Enzyme Commission Numbers 235

7.3.1.1 EC1 Oxidoreductases 237

7.3.1.2 EC2 Transferases 238

7.3.1.3 EC3 Hydrolases 238

7.3.1.4 EC4 Lyases 238

7.3.1.5 EC5 Isomerases 239

7.3.1.6 EC6 Ligases 239

7.3.2 Enzyme Immobilization 240

7.3.2.1 Physical Adsorption 242

7.3.2.2 Covalent Binding 243

7.3.2.3 Entrapment 243

7.3.2.4 Encapsulation 244

7.3.2.5 Cross-Linking 245

7.4 Application of Enzyme-Based Biosensors in Food Industry 245

7.5 Conclusion 247

References 247

8 Heterogeneous Catalysis fromthe Perspective of Surface Science 253
Aydin Cihanoğlu, Diego Hernán Quiñones-Murillo, and GizemPayer

8.1 Introduction to Solid Surface 253

8.1.1 Historical Perspective of Surface Science and Catalysis 253

8.1.2 Industrial and Economical Aspects of Catalysis 254

8.2 Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics 255

8.2.1 Catalysis 255

8.2.2 Individual Steps in Heterogeneous Catalysis 258

8.2.3 Rates of Reaction 258

8.2.3.1 Reaction Mechanisms and Rate Laws 259

8.2.3.2 Microscopic Reversibility Principle 260

8.2.3.3 Rule of Simplicity 260

8.2.3.4 Chain Reactions 260

8.2.3.5 Chain Transfer Reactions 261

8.2.3.6 Enzymatic Reactions 262

8.2.3.7 Inhibition of Enzymatic Reactions 262

8.2.3.8 Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions 263

8.3 Preparation of Catalysts 265

8.3.1 Precipitation 265

8.3.2 Gelation (Sol–Gel Process) 266

8.3.3 Impregnation 268

8.3.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition 269

8.3.5 Solvothermal Treatments 269

8.3.6 Ion Exchange 270

8.4 Modifications and Characterizations of Solid Surface 271

8.4.1 Modification Methods 271

8.4.2 Characterizations 276

Acknowledgment 278

References 278

Index 283

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Author Information

Mehmet Gürsoy is working as research assistant in the department of Chemical Engineering at Selçuk University, Turkey. He has worked in different universities since 2010. His research mainly focuses on functional surfaces, biomimicry, chemical vapor deposition and polymer coatings.

Dr. Mustafa Karaman is an associate professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Selçuk University, Turkey. Dr. Karaman has BS and PhD degrees from Middle East Technical University in Turkey. Dr. Karaman's main research topics are surface science, thin films and chemical vapor deposition processes. He has published many papers in the field of surface science since 2005.

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