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Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

ISBN: 978-3-527-34091-0
400 pages
September 2017
Conductive Atomic Force Microscope (3527340912) cover image

Description

The first book to summarize the applications of CAFM as the most important method in the study of electronic properties of materials and devices at the nanoscale.
To provide a global perspective, the chapters are written by leading researchers and application scientists from all over the world and cover novel strategies, configurations and setups where new information will be obtained with the help of CAFM.
With its substantial content and logical structure, this is a valuable reference for researchers working with CAFM or planning to use it in their own fields of research.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

1 Introduction, History, and Status of the CAFM 1
Chengbin Pan, Yuanyuan Shi, Fei Hui, Enric Grustan-Gutierrez, and Mario Lanza

1.1 The Atomic Force Microscope 1

1.2 The Conductive Atomic Force Microscope 4

1.3 History and Status of the CAFM 9

1.4 Editor’s Choice: On the Use of CAFM to Study Nanogenerators Based on Nanowires 16

1.5 Conclusions 20

References 20

2 Fabrication and Reliability of Conductive AFM Probes 29
Oliver Krause, Fei Hui, andMario Lanza

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Manufacturing of Conductive AFM Probes 30

2.3 How to Choose Your C-AFM Tip 36

2.4 TipWear and Sample Damage: Applicable Forces and Currents in C-AFM 38

2.5 Conclusions 43

References 43

3 Fundamentals of CAFM Operation Modes 45
Guenther Benstetter, Alexander Hofer, Donping Liu,Werner Frammelsberger, and Mario Lanza

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Tip-Sample Interaction: Contact Area, Effective Emission Area, and Conduction Mechanisms 47

3.3 Work Function Difference and Offset Voltage 56

3.4 Operation Modes 60

3.5 Case Studies 64

3.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 70

Acknowledgment 70

References 71

4 Investigation of High-k Dielectric Stacks by C-AFM: Advantages, Limitations, and Possible Applications 79
Albena Paskaleva and Mathias Rommel

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Comparison BetweenMacroscopic I–V Measurements and C-AFM 81

4.3 Influence of Displacement Currents on the Sensitivity of C-AFM Measurements 85

4.4 Applications of C-AFM 89

4.5 Conclusion 112

5 Characterization of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline HfO2 Dielectrics 119
K. Shubhakar, S. J O’Shea, and K. L Pey

5.1 Introduction 119

5.2 Experimental Details and Sample Specifications 120

5.3 Formation of Grain Boundaries and Its Local Electrical Properties in HfO2 Dielectric 121

5.4 RVS and CVS Stressing of HfO2/SiOx Dielectric Stack 124

5.5 Uniform Stressing with Successive Scanning in CAFM Mode 126

5.6 Conclusions 130

References 130

6 CAFM Studies on Individual GeSi Quantum Dots and Quantum Rings 133
RongWu, Shengli Zhang, Yi Lv, Fei Xue, Yifei Zhang, and Xingju Yang

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Conductive Properties of Individual GeSi QDs and QRs 134

6.3 Modulating the Conductive Properties of GeSi QDs 144

6.4 SimultaneousMeasurements of Composition and Current Distributions of GeSi QRs 152

6.5 Conclusions 157

References 157

7 Conductive Atomic ForceMicroscopy of Two-Dimensional Electron Systems: FromAlGaN/GaN Heterostructures to Graphene and MoS2 163
Filippo Giannazzo, Gabriele Fisichella, Giuseppe Greco, Patrick Fiorenza, and Fabrizio Roccaforte

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Nanoscale Electrical Characterization of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures 164

7.3 CAFM Characterization of Graphene and MoS2 171

7.4 Conclusions 181

Acknowledgments 182

References 182

8 Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Characterization with Scalpel SPM 187
Umberto Celano andWilfried Vandervorst

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 SPM Metrology with Depth Information 188

8.3 Scalpel SPM: A Tip-Based Slice-and-ViewMethodology 190

8.4 Applications 196

8.5 Conclusions and Outlook 206

References 207

9 Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy for Nanolithography Based on Local Anodic Oxidation 211
Matteo Lorenzoni and Francesc Pérez-Murano

9.1 Introduction to AFM Nanolithography 211

9.2 Local Anodic Oxidation 212

9.3 Kinetics of LAO 214

9.4 Measurement of Electrical Current During LAO 217

9.5 Conclusions 219

Acknowledgments 219

References 220

10 Combination of Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer and Conductive Atomic ForceMicroscope for Advanced Nanoelectronic Characterization 225
Vanessa Iglesias, Xu Jing, andMario Lanza

10.1 Introduction 225

10.2 Combination of SPA and CAFM for Local Channel Hot Carrier Degradation Analysis 227

10.3 Combination of CAFMand SPA for Resistive Switching Analyses 230

10.4 Conclusions 237

References 238

11 Design and Fabrication of a Logarithmic Amplifier for Scanning Probe Microscopes to AllowWide-Range Current Measurements 243
Lidia Aquilera and Joan Grifoll-Soriano

11.1 Introduction 243

11.2 Fabrication of a Logarithmic Preamplifier for CAFMS 244

11.3 Conclusions 258

References 261

12 Enhanced Current Dynamic Range Using ResiScope and Soft-Resiscope AFM Modes 263
L. Pacheco and N.F. Martinez

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 Conductive AFM 264

12.3 ResiScope Mode 267

12.4 Soft-ResiScope Mode 271

12.5 Conclusions 275

References 275

13 Multiprobe Electrical Measurements without Optical Interface 277
David Lewis, Andrey Ignatov, Sasha Krol, Rimma Dekhter, and Alina Strinkovsky

13.1 Introduction 277

13.2 The Multiprobe Platform: Design and Key Features 279

13.3 The Present and the Future 284

13.4 Conclusions 292

14 KPFM and its Use to Characterize the CPD in Different Materials 297
Yijun Xia and Bo Song

14.1 Introduction 297

14.2 Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy 297

14.3 Applications of KPFM 301

14.4 Conclusion and Outlook 311

Acknowledgment 312

References 312

15 Hot Electron Nanoscopy and Spectroscopy (HENs) 319
A. Giugni, B. Torre,M. Allione, G. Perozziello, P. Candeloro, and E. Di Fabrizio

15.1 Introduction 319

15.2 Coupling Schemes 321

15.3 Plasmonic Device and Optical Characterization 326

15.4 Theoretical Section 327

15.5 HENs Measurements: Plasmon-Assisted Current Maps and Ultimate Spatial Resolution 335

15.6 Kelvin Probe, HENs, and Electrical Techniques 340

15.7 Fast Pulses in Adiabatic Compression for Hot Electron Generation 347

15.8 Conclusion 348

Acknowledgments 349

References 349

Index 355

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Author Information

Dr. Mario Lanza is a Young 1000 Talent Professor and group leader at the Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials, in Soochow University, China. He obtained his PhD in 2010 at the Electronic Engineering Department of Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. In 2010 and 2011 he was postdoctoral scholar at Peking University in China, where he used the technique of conductive atomic force microscopy to characterize a wide range of two dimensional materials and nanowires. In 2012 and 2013 he was Marie Curie postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, USA, where he used CAFM to study local defects in photoelectrodes for water-splitting solar cells.
Dr. Lanza has published more than 60 publications, most of them using the CAFM to study the nanoelectronic properties of different materials and devices. Furthermore, he developed different setups to enhance the capabilities of the CAFM, including an environmental chamber and ultra durable graphene-coated probe tips. Currently his research group is focused on the nanoscale electrical characterization of different devices, including field effect transistors, non-volatile memories and solar cells.
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