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Static Electricity: Understanding, Controlling, Applying

ISBN: 978-3-527-34128-3
312 pages
December 2017
Static Electricity: Understanding, Controlling, Applying (3527341285) cover image


Written by world-renowned experts on the topic with many years of research and consultancy experience, this invaluable book provides the practitioners' perspective, outlining the dangers and benefits of static electricity in industry.
The first chapter reviews the fundamentals of understanding fires and explosions in general and electricity-induced ignition in particular, while the following chapter is dedicated to the origins of static electricity in industrial settings, such as in flowing gases and the transport of disperse systems. The major part of the text deals with measuring static electricity, elimination of unwanted charges and hazard prevention under different conditions. It concludes with an overview of practical applications in chemical and mechanical engineering. Throughout the book, real-life case studies illustrate the fundamental aspects so as to further an understanding of how to control and apply static electricity and thus reduce material damages as well as increase occupational safety.
Plus additional movie sequences on the dedicated website showing static electricity in action.
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Table of Contents

About the Authors xiii

Opening Remark xv

Preliminary Remark xvii

Preface xix

1 Basics of Fire and Explosion: Risk Assessment 1

1.1 Basic Considerations on Fire and Explosion (T1) 1

1.2 Explosive Atmosphere 3

1.3 Hybrid Mixtures ( P7) 6

1.4 Allocation of Explosion-Endangered Areas and Permissible Equipment ( P6) 7

1.5 Permissible Equipment (Equipment Protection Level) 7

1.6 Ignition Sources 9

1.7 Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) 11

1.8 Imaginary Experiment to Assess the Hazardous Potential of Flammable Liquids 15

PowerPoint Presentations 18

References 18

2 Principles of Static Electricity 19

2.1 Basics 19

2.2 Electrostatic Charging of Solids ( T2) 21

2.3 Triboelectric Series 24

2.4 Surface Resistivity 24

2.5 Electrostatic Charging of Liquids ( T2, T8) 28

2.6 Charging by Gases 31

2.7 Electric Field 33

2.8 Electric Induction ( T3) 36

2.9 Capacitance and Capacitor 38

PowerPoint Presentations 38

References 39

3 Metrology 41

3.1 Basics ( T7) 41

3.2 Appropriate Metrology for Electrostatic Safety Measures 44

3.3 Comparison: Electrostatics/Electrical Engineering 44

3.4 Selecting the Suitable Measurement Methods 45

3.5 Assignment and Summary 49

3.6 Conductivity of Liquids 51

3.7 Bulk Materials 52

3.8 Concerning the Use of Insulating Material in Endangered Areas 52

3.9 Measurement of Electrostatic Charges 52

3.10 Other Measurement Applications 68

3.11 Capacitance 77

3.12 Themes around Air Humidity 81

PowerPoint Presentations 87

Picture Credits 87

References 88

4 Gas Discharges 89

4.1 Mechanisms of Gas Discharges ( T5) 89

4.2 Electrostatic Gas Discharges 90

4.3 Types of Gas Discharges 94

4.4 Consequences of Gas Discharges 102

4.5 Listing of Traces Caused by Gas Discharges (  P11; T8) 102

4.6 How Can Dangerous Gas Discharges Be Avoided? 103

PowerPoint Presentations 111

Picture Credits 111

Video Credits 111

References 111

5 Preventing Electrostatic Disturbances 113

5.1 Electrostatics:When Sparks Fly 113

5.2 Dielectric Strength 117

5.3 Discharging Charged Surfaces 118

5.4 Potential Hazards Posed by Discharge Electrodes 134

Picture Credits 136

Video Credits 137

References 137

Further Reading 137

6 Description of Demonstration Experiments 139

6.1 Preliminary Remarks 140

6.2 Static Voltmeter 141

6.3 Field Meter 142

6.4 Van de Graaff Generator 142

6.5 Explosion Tube 142

6.6 Electrostatic Force Effects 144

6.7 Charges Caused by Separating Process 149

6.8 Charging of Particles 150

6.9 Electric Induction 153

6.10 Dissipating Properties 157

6.11 Experiments with the Explosion Tube 158

6.12 Gas Discharges 160

6.13 Fire and Explosion Dangers 168

Reference 175

7 Case Studies 177

7.1 Strategy of Investigation 177

7.2 Ignitions Due to Brush Discharges 180

7.3 Case Studies Related to Propagating Brush Discharges 192

7.4 Case Histories Related to Spark Discharges 204

7.5 Ignition Caused by Cone Discharges 212

7.6 Doubts with Electrostatic Ignitions 213

7.7 Act with Relevant Experience 219

PowerPoint Presentations 220

Video 221

References 221

8 Targeted Use of Charges 223

8.1 Applications 223

8.2 Examples of the Creative Implementation of Applications 226

8.3 Summary 251

Picture Credits 251

Video Credits 252

References 252

M Mathematics Toolbox 253

M1 Energy W of a Capacitance 255

M1.1 Minimum Ignition Energy WMIE 255

M1.2 Power P 255

M1.3 Electrical Efficiency η 256

M2 Field E; Field Strength E⃗ 256

M2.1 Homogeneous Field between Plane Plates 256

M2.2 Field of Point Charge 256

M2.3 Permittivity ε 257

M2.4 Field of Rod (Wire) Charge 257

M3 Flux Density D (Earlier: Dielectric Displacement) ⃗ 257

M4 Frequency f 258

M4.1 Wavelength λ 258

M4.2 Circular Frequency ω 258

M5 Inductance L 258

M5.1 Inductance Ls of an Air Coil 259

M6 Capacitance C 259

M6.1 Rod (Wire) across a Conductive Area 259

M6.2 Coaxial Cable/Cylinder Capacitance 260

M6.3 Conductive Sphere in Space 260

M6.4 Sphere Across a Conductive Area 260

M6.5 Shunt of Single Capacitors 261

M6.6 Plate Capacitor 261

M6.7 Series of Single Capacitors 261

M7 Force F, F⃗ 262

M7.1 Force between 2 Point Charges (Coulomb’s law) 262

M8 Charge Q 263

M8.1 Moved Charge Qm 263

M8.2 Charge of Electron Beam Qe 263

M8.3 Surface Charge Density σ 263

M8.4 Mass Charge Density Q 264

M8.5 Volume Charge Density ρ 264

M9 Potential φ 264

M10 Voltage U 265

M11 Resistance R (Universal) 267

Annex 275

1 Videos for download from www.wiley-vch.de 275

2 PowerPoint Presentations 275

2.1 Theory of Electrostatics (Visualized by Experiments) 275

2.2 Practical Examples with “Freddy” (Electrostatic Hazards in Plant areas) 276

Index 277

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Author Information

Günter Lüttgens was born in Berlin, 1933, and holds a master's degree in electrical engineering. Since graduation he mainly worked in the chemical industry in the field of electrostatics. He was primarily responsible for laboratory research, as well as plant safety, in the area of fire and explosion prevention. In 1998 he was nominated by IEC as an expert for electrostatic test methods. Since more than twenty five years he carried out lectures on static electrification and safety measures together with his wife Sylvia. He published several articles and specialist books. In 2013 he received the International Fellow Award by the European Working Party (EFCE) as a researcher and teacher in the field of "Static Electricity in Industry".

Sylvia Lüttgens was born in Geroda, 1946, was graduated a teacher and tried to direct the interest of her students to Music and English. Then she learned about static electrification and that it could be the cause for many a fire or an explosion. So she has been working together with her husband Günter, carrying out experimental lectures (up to 2015) in seminars about electrostatics, giving practical proof of the theory. Besides she is publishing articles and writing specialist books on this topic.
Together with Günter she compiled the first encyclopaedia on static electricity fifteen years ago and the third edition was published in 2013.

Wolfgang Schubert was born in 1952. He studied print technology in Leipzig and is a trained printer. He became self-employed in 1997 having previously worked in various managerial roles in the print industry and in sales and marketing for manufacturers of roll fed and sheet fed printing presses. Since then he has also been working in the specialised field of electrostatics, in sales and marketing and also in further education. He has co-authored the specialist publication Static Electricity.
In May 2016 he was publicly appointed and inaugurated by the Leipzig Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) as an expert in the fields of printing processes, printing presses, printability, runnability, and packaging printing. He also works as an expert in the field of electrostatics.
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