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Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Recent Trends

ISBN: 978-3-527-34132-0
616 pages
July 2017
Electrocatalysts for Low Temperature Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Recent Trends (3527341323) cover image


Meeting the need for a text on solutions to conditions which have so far been a drawback for this important and trend-setting technology, this monograph places special emphasis on novel, alternative catalysts of low temperature fuel cells. Comprehensive in its coverage, the text discusses not only the electrochemical, mechanistic, and material scientific background, but also provides extensive chapters on the design and fabrication of electrocatalysts.
A valuable resource aimed at multidisciplinary audiences in the fields of academia and industry.
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Table of Contents

1. Principle of low temperature fuel cells using an ionic membrane
Claude Lamy

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Thermodynamic data and theoretical energy efficiency under equilibrium (j = 0)

1.3. Electrocatalysis and the rate of electrochemical reactions

1.4. Influence of the properties of the PEMFC components on the polarization curves

1.5. Representative examples of low temperature fuel cells

1.6. Conclusions and outlook


2. Research advancements in low temperature fuel cells
N. Rajalakshmi, R. Imran Jafri, and K. S. Dhathathreyan

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

2.3. Anion exchange membrane alkaline fuel cells

2.4. Direct borohydride fuel cells

2.5. Regenerative fuel cells

2.6. Conclusions and outlook


3. Electrocatalytic reactions involved in low temperature fuel cells
Claude Lamy

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Preparation and characterization of Pt-based pluri-metallic electrocatalysts

3.3. Mechanisms of electrocatalytic reactions involved in low temperature fuel cells

3.4. Conclusions and outlook


4. Direct hydrocarbon low temperature fuel cell
Ayan Mukherjee and Suddhasatwa Basu

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Direct methanol fuel cell

4.3. Direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC)

4.4. Direct ethylene glycol fuel cell (DEGFC)

4.5. Direct formic acid fuel cell

4.6. Direct glucose fuel cell

4.7. Commercialization status

4.8. Conclusions and outlook


5. The oscillatory electro-oxidation of small organic molecules
Hamilton Varela, M. V. F. Delmonde and Alana A. Zülke

5.1. Introduction

5.2. In situ and on line approaches

5.3. The effect of temperature

5.4. Modified surfaces

5.5. Conclusions and outlook


6. Degradation mechanism of membrane fuel cells with monoplatinum and multicomponent cathode catalysts
Mikhail R. Tarasevich, Vera A. Bogdanovskaya

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Synthesis and methods of studying catalytic systems under model conditions

6.3. Characteristics of commercial and synthesized catalysts

6.4. Methods of testing catalysts within FC MEAs

6.5. Mechanism of degradation phenomena in MEAs with commercial Pt/C catalysts

6.6. Characteristics of MEAs with 40Pt/CNT-T-based cathodes

6.7. Characteristics of MEAs with 50PtCoCr/C-based cathodes

6.8. Conclusions and outlook


7. Recent developments in electrocatalysts and hybrid electrocatalyst-support systems for polymer electrolyte fuel cells
Surbhi Sharma

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Current state of Pt and non-Pt electrocatalysts-support systems for PEFC

7.3. Novel Pt electrocatalysts

7.4. Pt-based electrocatalysts on novel carbon supports

7.5. Pt-based electrocatalysts on novel carbon-free supports

7.6. Pt free metal electrocatalysts

7.7. Influence of support: Electrocatalyst-support interactions and effect of surface functional groups

7.8. Hybrid catalyst-support systems

7.9. Conclusions and outlook


8. Role of catalyst supports: Graphene-based novel electrocatalysts
Chunmei Zhang and Wei Chen

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Graphene-based cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)

8.3. Graphene-based anode catalysts

8.4. Conclusions and outlook


9. Recent progress in non-noble metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction for alkaline fuel cells
Xin Deng, Qinggang He

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Non-noble metal electrocatalysts

9.3. Conclusions and outlook


10. Anode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride and ammonia borane fuel cells
Pierre-Yves Olu, Anicet Zadick, Nathalie Job and Marian Chatenet

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Direct borohydride and ammonia borane fuel cells

10.3. Mechanistic investigations of BOR and BH3OR at noble electrocatalysts

10.4. Towards ideal anode of DBFC and DABFC

10.5. Durability of DBFC and DABFC electrocatalysts

10.6. Conclusions and outlook


11. Recent advances in nanostructured electrocatalysts for low temperature direct alcohol fuel cells
S.Ghosh, T.Maiyalagan and R.N. Basu

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Fundamentals of electrooxidation of organic molecules for fuel cells

11.3. Investigation of electrocatalytic properties of nanomaterials

11.4. Anode electrocatalysts for direct methanol or ethanol fuel cells

11.5. Anode catalysts for direct polyol fuel cells (ethylene glycol, glycerol)

11.6. Conclusions and outlook


12. Electrocatalysis of facet controlled noble metal nanomaterials for low temperature fuel cells
Shouzhong Zou, Xiaojun Liu and Wenyue Li

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Synthesis of shape-controlled noble metal nanomaterials

12.3. Applications of shape-controlled noble metal nanomaterials as catalysts for low temperature fuel cells

12.4. Conclusions and outlook


13. Heteroatom-doped nanostructured carbon materials as ORR electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells

T. Maiyalagan, S. Maheswari and Viswanathan S. Saji

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol tolerant ORR catalysts

13.3. Heteroatom-doped nanostructured carbon materials

13.4. Heteroatom-doped carbon-based nanocomposites

13.5. Conclusions and outlook


14. Transition metal oxide, oxynitride, and nitride electrocatalysts with and without supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes
Mitsuharu Chisaka

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Transition metal oxide and oxynitride electrocatalysts

14.3. Transition metal nitride electrocatalysts

14.4. Carbon-support free electrocatalysts

14.5. Conclusions and outlook


15. Spectroscopy and microscopy for characterization of fuel cell catalysts
Chilan Ngo, Michael J. Dzara, Sarah Shulda and Svitlana Pylypenko

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Electron microscopy

15.3. Electron spectroscopy: Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)

15.4. X-ray spectroscopy

15.5. Gamma spectroscopy: Mossbauer

15.6. Vibrational spectroscopy: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy

15.7. Complementary techniques

15.8. Conclusions and outlook


16. Rational catalyst design methodologies – Principles and factors affecting the catalyst design
Sergey Stolbov and Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)

16.3. Recent progress in search for efficient ORR catalysts

16.4. Physics and chemistry behind ORR

16.5. Rational design of ORR catalysts

16.6. Rationally designed ORR catalysts addressing cost-effectiveness

16.7. Conclusions and outlook


17. Effect of gas diffusion layer structure on the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel Cell
Branko N. Popov, Sehkyu Park and Jong-Won Lee

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Structure of gas diffusion layer

17.3. Carbon materials

17.4. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic treatments

17.5. Microporous layer thickness

17.6. Microstructure modification

17.7. Conclusions and outlook


18. Efficient design and fabrication of porous metallic electrocatalysts
Yaovi Holade, Anaïs Lehoux, Hynd Remita, Kouakou B. Kokoh and Têko W. Napporn

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Advances in the design and fabrication of nanoporous metallic materials

18.3. Nanoporous metallic materials at work in electrocatalysis

18.4. Conclusions and outlook


19. Design and fabrication of dealloying driven nanoporous metallic electrocatalyst
Zhonghua Zhang and Ying Wang

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Design of precursors for dealloying-driven nanoporous metallic electrocatalysts

19.3. Microstructural modulation of dealloying-driven nanoporous metallic electrocatalysts

19.4. Catalytic properties of dealloying-driven nanoporous metallic electrocatalysts

19.5. Conclusions and outlook


20. Recent advances of platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction
Kotaro Sasaki, Kurian A. Kuttiyiel, Jia X. Wang, Miomir B. Vukmirovic and Radoslav R. Adzic

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Pt ML on Pd core electrocatalysts (PtML/Pd/C)

20.3 Pt ML on PdAu core electrocatalyst (PtML/PdAu/C)

20.4. Further improving activity and stability of Pt ML electrocatalysts

20.5. Conclusions and outlook


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Author Information

Thandavarayan Maiyalagan is currently an Associate Professor of the Department of Chemistry at SRM University, Kattankulathur, India. He received his Ph.D in Physical Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, and completed postdoctoral programs at Newcastle University (UK), Nanyang Technological University (Singapore) and at the University of Texas, Austin (USA). His main research interests concern new materials and their electrochemical properties for energy conversion and storage devices, electrocatalysts, fuel cells and biosensors. He has delivered various key lectures in many national and international forums. He has published over 80 articles on the innovative design of the materials for energy conversion and storage.

Viswanathan S. Saji received his Ph.D. (2003) degree from the University of Kerala, India and was a Research Associate at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (2004-2005) and the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (2005-2007). Later, he moved to South Korea where he was a Postdoctoral Researcher at Yonsei University (2007-2008) and Sunchon National University (2009), Research Professor at Chosun University (2008-2009), Senior Research Scientist at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (2009-2010) and Research Professor at Korea University (2010-2013). In 2014, he joined the University of Adelaide, where he was an Endeavour Research Fellow in the School of Chemical Engineering. Presently, he is working as an Executive Director to CIOSHI, Kerala, India.
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