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Ferroelectrics: Principles and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-34214-3
328 pages
June 2017
Ferroelectrics: Principles and Applications (3527342141) cover image

Description

Combining both fundamental principles and real-life applications in a single volume, this book discusses the latest research results in ferroelectrics, including many new ferroelectric materials for the latest technologies, such as capacitors, transducers and memories.
The first two chapters introduce dielectrics and microscopic materials properties, while the following chapter discusses pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. The larger part of the text is devoted to ferroelectricity and ferroelectric ceramics, with not only their fundamentals but also applications discussed. The book concludes with a look at the future for laser printed materials and applications.
With over 600 references to recent publications on piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, this is an invaluable reference for physicists, materials scientists and engineers.
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Table of Contents

1 Dielectric Properties of Materials 1

1.1 Energy Band in Crystals 1

1.2 Conductor, Insulator, and Semiconductor 3

1.2.1 Conductors 4

1.2.2 Insulators 4

1.2.3 Semiconductors 4

1.3 Fermi–Dirac Distribution Function 5

1.4 Dielectrics 6

1.4.1 Polarization of Dielectrics 7

1.4.2 Dispersion of Dielectric Polarization 8

1.4.2.1 Electronic Polarization 9

1.4.2.2 Ionic Polarization 9

1.4.2.3 Orientation Polarization 9

1.4.2.4 Space Charge Polarization 9

1.4.3 Molecular Theory of Induced Charges in a Dielectric 9

1.4.4 Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor 10

1.4.5 Local Field in a Dielectric 11

1.4.5.1 Lorentz Field, E2 12

1.4.5.2 Field of Dipoles inside Cavity, E3 12

1.4.6 Molecular Description of Polarization 12

1.4.7 Dielectrics Losses 14

1.4.7.1 Dielectric Loss Angle 14

1.4.7.2 Total and Specific Dielectric Losses 15

1.4.8 Dielectrics Breakdown 17

2 Microscopic Properties of Materials 19

2.1 Phonon 19

2.1.1 One-DimensionalMonatomic Chain 19

2.1.2 One-Dimensional Diatomic Chain 21

2.1.3 Phonons in Three-Dimensional Solids 22

2.2 Phase Transition 23

2.2.1 Soft Mode 25

2.2.1.1 Zone-Center Phonons 26

2.2.1.2 Zone-Boundary Phonons 26

2.2.2 Landau PhenomenologicalTheory of Phase Transition 26

2.2.3 Displacive Phase Transition 31

2.2.4 Order–Disorder Phase Transition 32

References 34

3 Pyroelectricity and Piezoelectricity 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Pyroelectricity 38

3.2.1 Crystal Classes 38

3.2.2 History 39

3.3 Piezoelectricity 39

3.3.1 A Brief Historical Survey 41

3.3.2 Piezoelectric Materials 42

3.4 Applications of Piezoelectric Materials 43

3.4.1 Gas Lighter 43

3.4.2 Piezoelectric Sensors 44

3.4.3 Piezoelectric Actuator 45

3.4.3.1 Stack Actuator 45

3.4.3.2 Stripe Actuator 46

3.4.3.3 Piezoelectric Actuator Applications 46

3.4.4 Piezoelectric Transformer 47

3.4.5 Accelerometer 49

3.4.6 Piezoelectric Microphone 50

3.4.7 Piezoelectric Micropump 51

3.4.8 Piezoelectric Sound Diaphragm 54

3.4.9 Piezoelectric Solar Cell 56

3.4.10 Piezoelectric Generator 57

3.4.11 Piezoelectric Nanogenerator 59

3.4.11.1 Types of Piezoelectric Nanogenerator 61

3.4.11.2 Materials 64

3.4.11.3 Applications 65

3.4.12 Piezoelectric Motors 66

3.4.13 Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) 69

3.4.13.1 Applications of QCM 70

3.4.14 The Quartz Crystal Oscillator 71

References 73

4 Ferroelectricity 79

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Ferroelectrics 80

4.2.1 History of Ferroelectricity 81

4.2.2 Ferroelectric Phase Transitions 83

4.2.3 Ferroelectric Domains 85

4.2.4 Ferroelectric DomainWall Motion 86

4.3 Classification of Ferroelectric Materials 88

4.3.1 Corner-Sharing Oxygen Octahedra 88

4.3.1.1 Perovskite-Type Structures 89

4.3.1.2 Tungsten Bronze-Type Compounds 121

4.3.1.3 Bismuth Oxide Layer Structures 123

4.3.1.4 Lithium Niobate and Tantalate 126

4.3.2 Compounds Containing Hydrogen-Bonded Radicals 128

4.3.2.1 Applications 131

4.3.3 Organic Polymers 132

4.3.3.1 Polymer Research 133

4.3.3.2 Polymer Applications 135

4.3.4 Ceramic Polymer Composites 141

4.3.5 Electrets 145

4.3.5.1 Types of Electrets 145

4.3.5.2 Applications 146

4.3.6 Multiferroic Materials 147

4.3.6.1 Single-Phase Multiferroics 149

4.3.6.2 Bulk Composite Multiferroics 152

4.3.6.3 Laminated Composite Multiferroics 154

4.3.6.4 MultiferroicThin Films 155

4.3.6.5 Perspectives of Multiferroic Materials 160

References 161

5 Ferroelectric Ceramics: Devices and Applications 195

5.1 Introduction 195

5.2 Capacitors 196

5.3 Explosive-to-Electrical Transducers (EETs) 201

5.4 Composites 203

5.5 Thin Films 203

5.5.1 Piezoelectric Microsensors and Microactuators 204

5.5.1.1 Piezoelectric-Based Microdevices 204

5.5.1.2 Microcantilever-Based Piezoelectric Components 205

5.5.1.3 Membrane-Based Micropiezoelectric Components 205

5.5.2 Polar Films in Microwave Electronics 206

5.5.2.1 Polar Ceramics in Bulk AcousticWave Devices 207

5.5.2.2 Ferroelectrics for Tunable Microwave Applications 208

5.5.3 Ferroelectric Thin Films in FRAM 210

5.6 AlternativeMemories Based on Ferroelectric Materials 214

5.6.1 Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors (FeFETs) 214

5.6.2 Ferroresistive Storage 215

5.6.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for Multiprobe Mass Storage 217

5.7 Nanoscale Ferroelectrics 219

5.7.1 Nano-ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (Nano-FeFET) 220

5.7.1.1 Oxide Nanowire-Based FeFET 220

5.7.1.2 Nanotetrapod-Based FeFET 223

5.7.1.3 Carbon Nanotube-Based FeFET 224

5.7.1.4 Graphene-Based FeFET 228

5.7.2 Ferroelectric Nanogenerators 229

5.8 Electro-optic Devices 233

5.8.1 Electro-optic Modulator 233

5.8.2 Electro-optic Deflectors 237

5.8.3 Electro-optic Tunable Filter 239

5.8.4 Electro-optic Q-Switches 242

5.8.5 Variable Optical Attenuator 243

5.8.6 Polarization Controller (PC) 245

5.8.7 Variable Gain Tilt Filters (VGTFs) and Dynamic Gain Flattening Filters (DGFFs) 246

5.8.8 Electro-optic Field Sensors 248

5.9 Photoelastic Devices 254

5.9.1 Photoelastic Modulator 255

5.9.2 Photoelastic Q-Switch 257

5.10 Photorefractive Devices 260

5.10.1 PhotorefractiveWaveguides 260

5.10.2 Photorefractive Tunable Filters 267

5.10.3 Photorefractive Switches 275

5.10.4 Holographic Interferometers 280

References 287

Index 307

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Author Information

Dr. Ashim Kumar Bain received his M.Sc. (Physics) degree in 1989 from Rajshahi University, Bangladesh, and his Ph.D. (Materials Science) degree from Dniepropetrovsk State University, Ukraine, in 1994. He was a postdoctoral research fellow (1995-1998) at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India. He worked as a lecturer (1998-2000) at the IUBAT-International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and as a senior scientific officer (2000-2002) at the BCSIR, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Ashim Bain also worked as a visiting research fellow at the University of Birmingham, UK, from June 2002 to December 2002 under the Royal Society (UK) fellowship scheme. Presently he has been working as a freelance Physicist in Birmingham, UK. He has published 15 articles and two book chapters.

Prem Chand has a master's degree in physics and obtained his PhD degree from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, India. After working at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India for almost thirty years he reached the highest position of Chief Scientist. Later he has served as director of an engineering college at Delhi-NCR-Sonepat, Haryana, India. Currently, he is serving as professor & head of physics in Sri Ramaswamy Memorial (S R M) University in Delhi-NCR-Sonepat, Haryana, India. Prof. Chand has authored more than hundred scientific publications several review articles and two invited book chapters on ferroelectrics.
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