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Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers

ISBN: 978-3-527-34356-0
192 pages
December 2017
Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (3527343563) cover image

Description

The result of the authors' 40 years of experience in durability testing, this book describes the advanced testing methodology based on the viscoelasticity of matrix polymer.
After a short introduction to the viscoelastic behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics, the text goes on to review in detail the concepts of static, fatigue and creep strengths in polymer composites. An application-oriented approach is adopted such that the concepts developed in the book are applied to real-life examples.
Indispensable information for materials scientists and engineers working in those industrial sectors is concerned with the development and safe use of polymer composite-based products.
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

2 Viscoelasticity 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Concept of Viscoelastic Behavior 5

2.3 Concept of Time–Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP) 7

2.4 Master Curve of Creep Compliance of Matrix Resin 8

2.5 Generalization of TTSP for Nondestructive Deformation Properties to Static, Creep, and Fatigue Strengths of FRPs 9

2.6 Master Curve of Static Strength of FRP 11

2.7 Master Curve of Creep Strength of FRP 12

2.8 Master Curve of Fatigue Strength of FRP 13

2.9 Conclusion 15

Reference 15

3 Master Curves of Viscoelastic Coefficients of Matrix Resin 17

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2 Master Curve of Creep Compliance Based on Modified TTSP 17

3.2.1 Experimental Procedures 19

3.2.2 Reliable Long-Term Creep Compliance of Matrix Resin 20

3.3 Simplified Determination of Long-Term Viscoelastic Behavior 22

3.3.1 Relation between Storage Modulus and Creep Compliance 24

3.3.2 Formulation of Master Curves of Creep Compliance 24

3.3.3 TTSP Automatic Shifting Procedure 26

3.3.4 Experimental Procedures 26

3.3.5 Master Curve of Storage Modulus by DMA 26

3.3.6 Comparison of Master Curves of Creep Compliance 29

3.4 Conclusion 30

References 32

4 Nondestructive Mechanical Properties of FRP 33

4.1 Introduction 33

4.2 Role of Mixture 33

4.3 Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unidirectional CFRPs, Fibers, and Matrix Resin 35

4.4 Master Curves of Creep Compliance of Matrix Resin 35

4.5 Conclusion 36

References 37

5 Static and Fatigue Strengths of FRP 39

5.1 Introduction 39

5.2 Experimental Procedures 39

5.2.1 Preparation of Specimens 39

5.2.2 Test Procedures 40

5.3 Results and Discussion 42

5.3.1 Master Curve of Static Strength 42

5.3.2 Master Curve of Fatigue Strength 44

5.3.3 Characterization of Fatigue Strength for Loading Directions of Three Kinds 45

5.4 Applicability of TTSP 51

5.5 Conclusion 52

References 53

6 Formulation of Static Strength of FRP 55

6.1 Introduction 55

6.2 Formulation of Static Strength 55

6.3 Application of Formulation 57

6.3.1 Experimental Procedures 57

6.3.2 Preparation of Specimens 57

6.3.3 Test Procedures 58

6.4 Results and Discussion 60

6.4.1 Master Curve of Creep Compliance for Matrix Resin 60

6.4.2 Master Curve of Tensile Static Strength for Matrix Resin 62

6.4.3 Master Curves ofThree Kinds of Static Strengths of Unidirectional CFRP 64

6.5 Conclusion 69

References 69

7 Formulation of Fatigue Strength of FRP 71

7.1 Introduction 71

7.2 Formulation 71

7.3 Application of Formulation 72

7.3.1 Specimens and Test Methods 72

7.3.2 Creep Compliance of Matrix Resin 73

7.3.3 Master Curves of Static and Fatigue Strengths for Unidirectional CFRP 74

7.4 Conclusion 81

References 82

8 Formulation of Creep Strength of FRP 83

8.1 Introduction 83

8.2 Formulation 83

8.3 Application of Formulation 85

8.3.1 Specimens and Test Methods 86

8.3.2 Creep Compliance of Matrix Resin and Static Strength of CFRP Strand 86

8.3.3 Creep Failure Time of CFRP Strand 88

8.4 Conclusion 90

References 90

9 Application 1: Static Strengths in Various Load Directions of Unidirectional CFRP UnderWater Absorption Condition 91

9.1 Introduction 91

9.2 Experimental Procedures 91

9.3 Viscoelastic Behavior of Matrix Resin 92

9.4 Master Curves of Static Strengths for Unidirectional CFRP 96

9.5 Relation between Static Strengths and Viscoelasticity of Matrix Resin 99

9.6 Conclusion 100

References 100

10 Application 2: Static and Fatigue Flexural Strengths of Various FRP Laminates UnderWater Absorption Condition 101

10.1 Introduction 101

10.2 Specimen Preparation 101

10.3 Experimental Procedures 104

10.4 Creep Compliance 105

10.5 Flexural Static Strength 107

10.6 Flexural Fatigue Strength 109

10.7 Conclusion 121

References 122

11 Application 3: Life Prediction of CFRP/Metal Bolted Joint 123

11.1 Introduction 123

11.2 Experimental Procedures 123

11.2.1 Preparation of CFRP/Metal Bolted Joints 123

11.2.2 Tensile Static and Fatigue Tests 125

11.3 Results and Discussion 126

11.3.1 Master Curves of Creep Compliance for Transverse Direction of

Unidirectional CFRP Laminates 126

11.3.2 Load–Elongation Curves at Tensile Static Tests for CFRP/Metal Bolted Joint 128

11.3.3 Master Curves of Static Failure Load for CFRP/Metal Bolted Joint 130

11.3.4 Master Curves of Fatigue Failure Load for CFRP/Metal Bolted Joint 131

11.3.5 Fracture Appearance of CFRP/Metal Bolted Joints Under Static and Fatigue Loadings 135

11.4 Conclusion 138

References 139

12 Application 4: Life Prediction of CFRP Structures Based on MMF/ATMMethod 141

12.1 Introduction 141

12.2 Procedure of MMF/ATM Method 142

12.3 Determination of MMF/ATM Critical Parameters 143

12.3.1 Long-Term Static and Fatigue Strengths of Unidirectional CFRP 143

12.3.2 MMF/ATM Critical Parameters of Unidirectional CFRP 144

12.4 Life Determination of CFRP Structures Based on MMF/ATM Method 144

12.5 Experimental Confirmation for OHC Static and Fatigue Strengths of CFRP QIL 148

12.6 Conclusion 151

References 151

A Effect of Physical Aging on the Creep Deformation of an Epoxy Resin 153

A.1 Introduction 153

A.2 Creep Deformation for Aged Polymers 153

A.3 Experimental Procedure 156

A.4 Results and Discussion 157

A.4.1 Creep Compliance 157

A.4.2 Effect of Physical Aging on Creep Compliance 159

A.5 Conclusions 162

References 162

B Reliable TestMethod for Tensile Strength in Longitudinal Direction of Unidirectional CFRP 165

B.1 Introduction 165

B.2 Evaluation of Tensile Strength Using Post-Bonded CFRP Strand Specimen 166

B.3 Development of Co-Cured CFRP Strand Specimen 169

B.3.1 Molding of Co-Cured CFRP Strand Specimen 169

B.3.2 Improvement of Co-Cured CFRP Strand Specimen 169

B.4 Conclusions 174

References 174

Index 177

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Author Information

Yasushi Miyano and Masayuki Nakada are Professors in Materials System Research Laboratory at Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan. Their research is focused on the prediction methodology for the long-term creep and fatigue lives of polymer composites based on the time-temperature superposition principle. Prof. Miyano is fellow of the Society for the Advancement of Material & Process Engineering, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, and The Japan Society of Composite Materials. Prof. Nakada is a fellow of The Japan Society of Composite Materials.
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