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Advanced Plasma Technology

Riccardo d'Agostino (Editor), Pietro Favia (Editor), Yoshinobu Kawai (Editor), Hideo Ikegami (Editor), Noriyoshi Sato (Editor), Farzaneh Arefi-Khonsari (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-40591-6
479 pages
February 2008
Advanced Plasma Technology (3527405917) cover image

Description

A panel of internationally renowned scientists discuss the latest results in plasma technology. This volume has been compiled with both a didactic approach and an overview of the newest achievements for industrial applications. It is divided into two main sections. One is focused on fundamental technology, including plasma production and control, high-pressure discharges, modeling and simulation, diagnostics, dust control, and etching. The section on application technology covers polymer treatments, silicon solar cell, coating and spray, biomaterials, sterilization and waste treatment, plasma propulsion, plasma display panels, and anti-corrosion coatings. The result is an indispensable work for physicists, chemists and engineers involved in the field of plasma technology.
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Table of Contents

Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

1 Basic Approaches to Plasma Production and Control 1
N. Sato

1.1 Plasma Production 2

1.1.1 Under Low Gas Pressure (<0.1 torr) 2

1.1.2 Under Medium Gas Pressure (0.1–10 torr) 4

1.1.3 Under High (Atmospheric) Gas Pressure (>10 torr) 6

1.2 Energy Control 7

1.2.1 Electron-Temperature Control 7

1.2.2 Ion-Energy Control 10

1.3 Dust Collection and Removal 11

References 15

2 Plasma Sources and Reactor Configurations 17
P. Colpo, T. Meziani, and F. Rossi

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Characteristics of ICP 18

2.2.1 Principle 18

2.2.2 Transformer Model 19

2.2.3 Technological Aspects 20

2.3 Sources and Reactor Configuration 23

2.3.1 Substrate Shape 23

2.4 Conclusions 31

References 32

3 Advanced Simulations for Industrial Plasma Applications 35
S.J. Kim, F. Iza, N. Babaeva, S.H. Lee, H.J. Lee, and J.K. Lee

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 PIC Simulations 37

3.2.1 Capacitively Coupled O2/Ar Plasmas 37

3.2.2 Three-Dimensional (3D) Charge-up Simulation 42

3.3 Fluid Simulations 47

3.3.1 Capacitively Coupled Discharges 48

3.3.2 Large Area Plasma Source 49

3.4 Summary 51

References 52

4 Modeling and Diagnostics of He Discharges for Treatment of Polymers 55
E. Amanatides and D. Mataras

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Experimental 56

4.3 Model Description 57

4.4 Results and Discussion 60

4.4.1 Electrical Properties 61

4.4.2 Gas-Phase Chemistry 66

4.4.3 Plasma–Surface Interactions 71

4.5 Conclusions 72

References 73

5 Three-Dimensional Modeling of Thermal Plasmas (RF and Transferred Arc) for the Design of Sources and Industrial Processes 75
V. Colombo, E. Ghedini, A. Mentrelli, and T. Trombetti

5.1 Introduction 76

5.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Torches 77

5.2.1 Modeling Approach 77

5.2.2 Selected Simulation Results 82

5.2.2.1 High-Definition Numerical Simulation of Industrial

5.3 DC Transferred Arc Plasma Torches 85

5.3.1 Modeling Approach 85

5.3.2 Selected Simulation Results 89

References 95

6 Radiofrequency Plasma Sources for Semiconductor Processing 99
F. F. Chen

6.1 Introduction 99

6.2 Capacitively Coupled Plasmas 99

6.2.1 Dual-Frequency CCPs 100

6.3 Inductively Coupled Plasmas 103

6.3.1 General Description 103

6.3.2 Anomalous Skin Depth 106

6.3.3 Magnetized ICPs 107

6.4 Helicon Wave Sources 109

6.4.1 General Description 109

6.4.2 Unusual Features 110

6.4.3 Extended Helicon Sources 114

References 114

7 Advanced Plasma Diagnostics for Thin-Film Deposition 117
R. Engeln, M.C.M. van de Sanden, W.M.M. Kessels, M. Creatore, and D.C. Schram

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Diagnostics Available to the (Plasma) Physicist 118

7.3 Optical Diagnostics 118

7.3.1 Thomson–Rayleigh and Raman Scattering 118

7.3.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence 121

7.3.3 Absorption Techniques 122

7.3.4 Surface Diagnostics 126

7.4 Applications 127

7.4.1 Thomson–Rayleigh Scattering and Raman Scattering 127

7.4.2 Laser-Induced Fluorescence 128

7.4.3 Absorption Spectroscopy 130

7.4.4 Surface Diagnostics 133

References 134

8 Plasma Processing of Polymers by a Low-Frequency Discharge with Asymmetrical Configuration of Electrodes 137
F. Arefi-Khonsari and M. Tatoulian

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Plasma Treatment of Polymers 139

8.2.1 Surface Activation 139

8.2.2 Functionalization (Grafting) Reactions 139

8.2.3 Crosslinking Reactions 140

8.2.4 Surface Etching (Ablation) Reactions 142

8.3 Surface Treatment of Polymers in a Low-Frequency, Low-Pressure Reactor With Asymmetrical Configuration of Electrodes (ACE) 145

8.3.1 Surface Functionalization 147

8.3.2 Ablation Effect of an Ammonia Plasma During Grafting of Nitrogen Groups 148

8.3.3 Acid–Base Properties 151

8.3.4 Aging of Plasma-Treated Surfaces 155

8.4 Plasma Polymerization 158

8.4.1 Influence of the Chemical Composition of the Substrate on the Plasma Polymerization of a Mixture of CF4þH2 160

8.4.2 Plasma Polymerization of Acrylic Acid 165

8.5 Conclusions 169

References 170

9 Fundamentals on Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films 175
A. Milella, F. Palumbo, and R. d’Agostino

9.1 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Continuous Discharges 175

9.1.1 Active Species in Fluorocarbon Plasmas 176

9.1.2 Effect of Ion Bombardment 178

9.1.3 The Activated Growth Model 179

9.2 Afterglow Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films 181

9.3 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Modulated Glow Discharges 183

9.4 Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Films from Tetrafluoroethylene Glow Discharges 185

References 193

10 Plasma CVD Processes for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 197
A. Matsuda

10.1 Introduction 197

10.2 Dissociation Reaction Processes in SiH4 and SiH4/H2 Plasmas 198

10.3 Film-Growth Processes on the Surface 199

10.3.1 Growth of a-Si:H 199

10.3.2 Growth of mc-Si:H 200

10.4 Defect Density Determination Process in a-Si:H and mc-Si:H 203

10.4.1 Growth of a-Si:H and mc-Si:H with SiH3 (H) Radicals 203

10.4.2 Contribution of Short-Lifetime Species 204

10.5 Solar Cell Applications 206

10.6 Recent Progress in Material Issues for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells 207

10.6.1 Control of Photoinduced Degradation in a-Si:H 207

10.6.2 High-Rate Growth of Device-Grade mc-Si:H 208

10.7 Summary 210

References 210

11 VHF Plasma Production for Solar Cells 211
Y. Kawai, Y. Takeuchi, H. Mashima, Y. Yamauchi, and H. Takatsuka

11.1 Introduction 211

11.2 Characteristics of VHF H2 Plasma 212

11.3 Characteristics of VHF SiH4 Plasma 214

11.4 Characteristics of Large-Area VHF H2 Plasma 219

11.5 Short-Gap VHF Discharge H2 Plasma 222

References 226

12 Growth Control of Clusters in Reactive Plasmas and Application to High-Stability a-Si:H Film Deposition 227
Y. Watanabe, M. Shiratani, and K. Koga

12.1 Introduction 227

12.2 Review of Cluster Growth Observation in SiH4 HFCCP 228

12.2.1 Precursor for Cluster Growth Initiation 228

12.2.2 Cluster Nucleation Phase 230

12.2.3 Effects of Gas Flow on Cluster Growth 231

12.2.4 Effects of Gas Temperature Gradient on Cluster Growth 232

12.2.5 Effects of H2 Dilution on Cluster Growth 233

12.2.6 Effects of Discharge Modulation on Cluster Growth 234

12.3 Cluster Growth Kinetics in SiH4 HFCCP 235

12.4 Growth Control of Clusters 237

12.4.1 Control of Production Rate of Precursor Radicals 238

12.4.2 Control of Growth Reactions and Transport Loss of Clusters 238

12.5 Application of Cluster Growth Control to High-Stability a-Si:H Film Deposition 238

12.6 Conclusions 241

References 241

13 Micro- and Nanostructuring in Plasma Processes for Biomaterials: Micro- and Nano-features as Powerful Tools to Address Selective Biological Responses 243
E. Sardella, R. Gristina, R. d’Agostino, and P. Favia

13.1 Introduction: Micro and Nano, a Good Point of View in Biomedicine 243

13.2 Micro- and Nanofeatures Modulate Biointeractions In Vivo and In Vitro 246

13.3 Micro- and Nano-fabrication Technologies 249

13.3.1 Photolithography: The Role of Photolithographic Masks 249

13.3.2 Soft Lithography 255

13.3.3 Plasma-Assisted Micropatterning: The Role of Physical Masks 256

13.3.4 Novel Approaches in Plasma-Patterning Procedures 262

13.4 Conclusions 264

References 264

14 Chemical Immobilization of Biomolecules on Plasma-Modified Substrates for Biomedical Applications 269
L.C. Lopez, R. Gristina, Riccardo d’Agostino, and Pietro Favia

14.1 Introduction 270

14.2 Immobilization of Biomolecules 274

14.2.1 Immobilization of PEO Chains (Unfouling Surfaces) 274

14.2.2 Immobilization of Polysaccharides 275

14.2.3 Immobilization of Proteins and Peptides 276

14.2.4 Immobilization of Enzymes 280

14.2.5 Immobilization of Carbohydrates 281

14.3 Conclusions 282

14.4 List of Abbreviations 283

References 284

15 In Vitro Methods to Assess the Biocompatibility of Plasma-Modified Surfaces 287
M. Nardulli, R. Gristina, Riccardo d’Agostino, and Pietro Favia

15.1 Introduction 287

15.2 Surface Modification Methods: Plasma Processes and Biomolecule Immobilization 289

15.3 In Vitro Cell Culture Tests of Artificial Surfaces 290

15.4 Cytotoxicity Analysis 292

15.4.1 Viability Assays 292

15.4.2 Metabolic Assays 293

15.4.3 Irritancy Assays 294

15.5 Analysis of Cell Adhesion 294

15.6 Analysis of Cell Functions 298

15.7 Conclusions 299

References 299

16 Cold Gas Plasma in Biology and Medicine 301
E. Stoffels, I.E. Kieft, R.E.J. Sladek, M.A.M.J. Van Zandvoort, and D.W. Slaaf

16.1 Introduction 301

16.2 Experiments 303

16.3 Plasma Characteristics 307

16.4 Bacterial Inactivation 311

16.5 Cell and Tissue Treatment 314

16.6 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 317

References 317

17 Mechanisms of Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces by Low-Pressure Plasma 319
F. Rossi, O. Kylián, and M. Hasiwa

17.1 Introduction 319

17.1.1 Overview of Sterilization and Decontamination Methods 320

17.2 Bacterial Spore Sterilization 322

17.3 Depyrogenation 324

17.4 Protein Removal 324

17.5 Experimental 325

17.5.1 Experimental Setup 325

17.5.2 Biological Tests 326

17.5.3 Pyrogen Samples Detection 326

17.5.4 Protein Removal Tests 327

17.6 Results 327

17.6.1 Sterilization 327

17.6.2 Depyrogenation 329

17.6.3 Protein Removal 331

17.7 Discussion 332

17.7.1 Plasma Sterilization 332

17.7.2 Depyrogenation 338

17.7.3 Protein Removal 338

17.8 Conclusions 338

References 339

18 Application of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma: Powder Coating in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma 341
M. Kogoma and K. Tanaka

18.1 Introduction 341

18.2 Development of Silica Coating Methods for Powdered Organic and Inorganic Pigments with Atmospheric Pressure Glow Plasma 341

18.2.1 Experimental 342

18.2.2 Results and Discussion 343

18.2.3 Conclusion 347

18.3 Application to TiO2 Fine Powder Coating with Thin Film of SiO2 to Quench the Photosensitive Ability of the Powder 348

18.3.1 Experimental 348

18.3.2 Results and Discussion 349

18.3.3 Conclusion 352

References 352

19 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Thin Film Deposition in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Dielectric Barrier Discharges 353
F. Fanelli, R. d’Agostino, and F. Fracassi

19.1 Introduction 353

19.2 DBDs for Thin Film Deposition: State of the Art 354

19.2.1 Filamentary and Glow Dielectric Barrier Discharges 354

19.2.2 Electrode Configurations and Gas Injection Systems 356

19.2.3 Hydrocarbon Thin Film Deposition 357

19.2.4 Fluorocarbon Thin Film Deposition 359

19.3 Experimental Results 360

19.3.1 Apparatus and Diagnostics 360

19.3.2 Deposition of Hydrocarbon Films by Means of He–C2H4GDBDs 361

19.3.3 Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films by Means of He–C3F6 and He–C3F8–H2 GDBDs 364

19.4 Conclusion 366

References 367

20 Remark on Production of Atmospheric Pressure Non-thermal Plasmas for Modern Applications 371
R. Itatani

20.1 Introduction 371

20.2 Why Atmospheric Pressure Non-thermal Plasmas Are Attractive 372

20.3 Origin of Activities of Plasmas 373

20.4 Limits of Similarity Law of Gas Discharge 373

20.5 Reduction of Gas Temperature 374

20.6 Examples of Realization of the Above Discussion 375

20.7 Large-Area Plasma Production 376

20.8 Summery of Evidence To Date to Obtain Uniform DBDs 376

20.9 Consideration to Realize Uniform Plasmas of Large Area 377

20.10 Factors to be Considered to Realize Uniformity of DBD Plasma 377

20.11 Remote Plasmas 378

20.12 Conclusion 379

References 380

21 Present Status and Future of Color Plasma Displays 381
T. Shinoda

21.1 Introduction 381

21.2 Development of Color PDP Technologies 383

21.2.1 Panel Structure 383

21.2.2 Driving Technologies 387

21.3 Latest Research and Development 388

21.3.1 Analysis of Discharge in PDPs 388

21.3.2 High Luminance and High Luminous Efficiency 389

21.3.3 ALIS Structure 390

21.4 Conclusion 391

References 391

22 Characteristics of PDP Plasmas 393
H. Ikegami

22.1 Introduction 393

22.2 PDP Operation 394

22.3 PDP Plasma Structure 395

22.4 Plasma Density and Electron Temperature 397

22.5 Remarks 399

References 399

23 Recent Progress in Plasma Spray Processing 401
M. Kambara, H. Huang, and T. Yoshida

23.1 Introduction 401

23.2 Key Elements in Thermal Plasma Spray Technology 401

23.3 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Coating Technologies 402

23.3.1 Plasma Powder Spraying 403

23.3.2 Plasma Spray CVD 406

23.3.3 Plasma Spray PVD 407

23.3.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings 407

23.4 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Powder Metallurgical Engineering 414

23.4.1 Thermal Plasma Spheroidization 414

23.4.2 Plasma Spray CVD 415

23.4.3 Plasma Spray PVD 415

23.5 Thermal Plasma Spraying for Waste Treatments 416

23.6 Concluding Remarks and Prospects 417

References 418

24 Electrohydraulic Discharge Direct Plasma Water Treatment Processes 421
J.-S. Chang, S. Dickson, Y. Guo, K. Urashima, and M.B. Emelko

24.1 Introduction 421

24.2 Characteristics of Electrohydraulic Discharge Systems 421

24.3 Treatment Mechanisms Generated by Electrohydraulic Discharge 422

24.4 Treatment of Chemical Contaminants by Electrohydraulic Discharge 424

24.5 Disinfection of Pathogenic Contaminants by PAED 429

24.6 Municipal Sludge Treatment 430

24.7 Concluding Remarks 432

References 432

25 Development and Physics Issues of an Advanced Space Propulsion 435
M. Inutake, A. Ando, H. Tobari, and K. Hattori

25.1 Introduction 436

25.2 Performance of Rocket Propulsion Systems 437

25.3 Experimental Researches for an Advanced Space Thruster 440

25.3.1 Experimental Apparatus and Diagnostics 440

25.3.2 Improvement of an MPDA Plasma Using aMagnetic Laval Nozzle 442

25.3.3 RF Heating of a High Mach Number Plasma Flow 444

25.4 Summary 447

References 448

Index 449

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Author Information

Professor Riccardo d'Agostino is director of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Bari, Italy. His research is focused on low pressure plasma processes and diagnostics for the modification of materials. During is career, he authored 180 scientific papers and edited four books and three international proceedings. His memberships include the managing committee of Plasma Science Technique Division of IUVSTA and, as chairman, the IUPAC Committee on "Plasma Chemistry" (1989-1991). He served as co-editor of the journal Plasmas and Polymers (until 2003) and chaired numerous international conferences.

Professor Pietro Favia is Associate Professor of Chemistry and Chemistry of Materials at the Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Italy. During his career he focused on low pressure plasma processes, plasma diagnostics and surface characterization techniques. He authored about 100 papers, acted as editor of two books and served in many organizing and scientific committees of renowned international conferences on Plasma Chemistry.

Professors Favia and d'Agostino are the two editors in chief of the journal Plasma Processes and Polymers (PPP).
The co-editors, Professors Farzaneh Arefi-Konsari, Yoshinobu Kawai, Noriyoshi Sato, Hideo Ikegami, are also experienced plasma researchers. They are responsible for sub-areas within the monograph, on which they have concentrated in their respective careers.
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Reviews

"this book is worth reading for the ambitious graduate student and very interesting for the specialist in academia and industry who intends to revamp his know-how." (Plasma Process. Polym. 2008, 5)
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