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Robot Grippers

ISBN: 978-3-527-40619-7
463 pages
December 2006
Robot Grippers (3527406190) cover image
Since robotic prehension is widely used in all sectors of manufacturing industry, this book fills the need for a comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of the topic. As such, this is the first text to address both developers and users, dealing as it does with the function, design and use of industrial robot grippers. The book includes both traditional methods and many more recent developments such as micro grippers for the optolectronics industry. Written by authors from academia, industry and consulting, it begins by covering the four basic categories of robotic prehension before expanding into sections dealing with endeffector design and control, robotic manipulation and kinematics. Later chapters go on to describe how these various gripping techniques can be used for a common industrial aim, with details of related topics such as: kinematics, part separation, sensors, tool excahnge and compliance. The whole is rounded off with specific examples and case studies. With more than 570 figures, this practical book is all set to become the standard for advanced students, researchers and manufacturing engineers, as well as designers and project managers seeking practical descriptions of robot endeffectors and their applications.
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Preface V

1 Introduction to Prehension Technology 1

1.1 Grippers for Mechanization and Automation 1

1.2 Definitions and Conceptual Basics 2

1.3 Grasping in Natural Systems 10

1.4 Historical Overview of Technical Hands 14

2 Automatic Prehension 19

2.1 Active Pair MatingPair Mating 19

2.2 Strategy and Procedures 27

2.2.1 Prehension Strategy 27

2.2.2 Gripping Procedure, Conditions and Force 36

2.2.3 Gripper Flexibility 59

2.3 Gripper Classification 61

2.4 Requirements and Gripper Characteristics 63

2.5 Planning and Selection of Grippers 67

3 Impactive Mechanical Grippers 75

3.1 Gripper DrivesDrives 75

3.1.1 Electromechanical Drives 78

3.1.2 Pneumatic Drives 84

3.1.3 Electrostrictive and Piezoelectric Actuation 92

3.2 Design of Impactive Grippers 94

3.2.1 Systematics and Kinematics 94

3.2.1.1 Parallel Impactive Grippers 101

3.2.2 Angular Impactive Grippers 122

3.2.3 Radial Impactive Grippers (Centring Grippers) 131

3.2.4 Internal Grippers 132

3.2.5 Gripper with Self-blocking Capability 135

3.2.6 Rotatable Jaw Grippers 137

3.2.7 Gripper Finger and Jaw Design 138

3.2.8 Self Securing Grippers 142

3.2.8.1 Securing Through Spring Forces 142

3.2.8.2 Securing Through Object Mass 146

3.2.9 Three-finger Grippers 153

3.2.10 Four-finger Grippers and Four-point Prehension 157

4 Ingressive Grippers 161

4.1 Flexible Materials 161

4.1.1 Pinch Mechanisms 162

4.1.2 Intrusive Mechanisms 163

4.1.3 Non-Intrusive Mechanisms 166

5 Astrictive Prehension 169

5.1 Vacuum Suction 169

5.1.1 Vacuum Production 170

5.1.2 Vacuum Suckers 176

5.1.3 Passive Suction Caps 199

5.1.4 Air Jet Grippers 202

5.2 Magnetoadhesion 204

5.2.1 Permanent Magnet Grippers 204

5.2.2 Electromagnetic Grippers 207

5.2.3 Hybrid Electromagnetic Grippers 215

5.4 Electroadhesion 216

5.4.1 Electroadhesive Prehension of Electrical Conductors 216

5.4.2 Electroadhesive Prehension of Electrical Insulators 220

6 Contigutive Prehension 227

6.1 Chemoadhesion 227

6.2 Thermoadhesion 232

7 Miniature Grippers and Microgrippers 237

7.1 Impactive Microgrippers 238

7.1.1 Electromechanically Driven Impactive Microgrippers 238

7.1.2 Thermally Driven Impactive Microgrippers 240

7.1.3 Electrostatically Driven Impactive Microgrippers 245

7.2 Astrictive Microgrippers 248

7.2.1 Vacuum Microgrippers 248

7.2.2 Electroadhesive Microgrippers 249

7.3 Contigutive Microgrippers 250

8 Special Designs 253

8.1 Clasping (Embracing) Grippers 253

8.2 Anthropomorphic Grippers 257

8.2.1 Jointed finger Grippers 258

8.2.2 Jointless Finger Grippers 264

8.3 Dextrous Hands 268

9 Hand Axes and Kinematics 279

9.1 Kinematic Necessities and Design 280

9.2 Rotary and Pivot Units 285

10 Separation 291

10.1 Separation of Randomly Mixed Materials 291

10.2 Separation of Rigid Three Dimensional Objects 292

10.3 Separation of Rigid Sheet Materials 292

10.3.1 Gripping of Thin Blanks from a Magazine 292

10.3.2 Air Flow Grippers 295

10.4 Separation of Non-Rigid Sheet Materials 298

10.4.1 Roller Grippers 301

11 Instrumentation and Control 309

11.1 Gripper Sensor Technology 309

11.2 Perception Types 309

11.2.1 Tactile Sensors 310

11.2.2 Proximity Sensors 313

11.2.3 Measurement sensors 317

11.2.4 Finger Position Measurement 323

11.2.5 Measuring Procedures in the Gripper 324

11.3 Sensory Integration 326

11.3.1 Discrete and Continuous Sensing 327

11.3.2 Software and Hardware Interrupts 328

11.3.3 Sensor FusionSensor Fusion 328

11.4 Gripper Control 328

11.4.1 Control of Pneumatically Driven Grippers 329

11.4.2 Control of Electrically Driven Grippers 331

12 Tool Exchange and Reconfigurability 333

12.1 Multiple Grippers 333

12.1.1 Double and Multiple Grippers 333

12.1.2 Multiple Gripper Transfer Rails 336

12.1.3 Turrets 338

12.2 Specialized Grippers 342

12.2.1 Composite Grippers 342

12.2.2 Reconfigurable Grippers 344

12.2.3 Modular Gripper Systems 345

12.3 Gripper Exchange Systems 348

12.3.1 Tool Exchange 348

12.3.2 Task, Functions and Coupling Elements 350

12.3.3 Joining Techniques and Process Media Connection 353

12.3.4 Manual Exchange Systems 354

12.3.5 Automatic Exchange Systems 358

12.3.6 Finger Exchange Systems 362

12.4 Integrated Processing 363

13 Compliance 367

13.1 Remote Centre Compliance (RCC) 368

13.2 Instrumented Remote Centre Compliance (IRCC) 372

13.3 Near Collet Compliance (NCC) 374

13.4 Parts Feeding 375

13.5 Mechanical Compliance 377

13.6 Pneumatic Compliance 383

13.6.1 Internal Prehension Through Membrane Expansion 384

13.6.2 External Prehension Through Membrane Expansion 387

13.7 Shape Adaptive Grippers 391

13.7.1 Partially Ccompliant Shape Adaptive Grippers 391

13.7.2 Totally Compliant Shape Adaptive Grippers 393

13.8 Collision Protection and Safety 396

13.8.1 Safety Requirements 396

13.8.2 Collision Protection Systems 396

13.8.3 Failure Safety 397

14 Selected Case Studies 401

14.1 Simple Telemanipulation 401

14.2 Grippers for Sheet and Plate Components 405

14.2.1 Impactive Grippers for Sheet Metal Handling 406

14.2.2 Astrictive Grippers for Sheet Metal 409

14.2.3 Astrictive Grippers for Glass Sheet 412

14.2.4 Astrictive Grippers for Composite Material Handling 412

14.3 Prehension of Cuboid Objects 413

14.4 Prehension of Cylindrical Objects 417

14.4.1 Serial Prehension of Tubes 418

14.4.2 Prehension of Wound Coils 419

14.4.3 Prehension of Slit Coils 420

14.5 Prehension of Objects with Irregular Topology 420

14.5.1 Handling of Castings 420

14.5.2 Mounting of Dashboards for Automobiles 421

14.5.3 Prehension of Water Pumps 422

14.5.4 Astrictive Prehension of Irregular Surfaces 422

14.6 Multiple Object Prehension 423

14.6.1 Packaging of Candies 424

14.6.2 Bottle Palletization 425

14.6.3 Multiple Irregular Shaped Objects 425

14.7 Prehension of Flexible Objects 426

14.7.1 Bag and Sack Grippers 426

14.7.2 Gripping and Mounting of Outside O-rings 428

14.8 Medical Applications 430

References 433

Subject Index 443

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Gareth Monkman is Professor of Robotics and Automation at the Fachhochschule Regensburg in Germany. Besides authoring a large number of academic papers, he also holds numerous patents in the field of gripper technology.

Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Hesse works as technology consultant for manipulator technology, gives lectures at the Technical College Technikum Vienna, and has been working as editor and author for many years.

Ralf Steinmann is head of Sales and Marketing Automation at SCHUNK GmbH & Co. KG, Obersulm.

Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Henrik Schunk is CEO of SCHUNK Intec Inc., Raleigh-Morrisville (USA).
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