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Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-40717-0
612 pages
October 2010
Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications (3527407170) cover image
This richly illustrated hands-on guide is designed for researchers, teachers and practitioners. The huge selection of examples taken from science, basic teaching of physics, practical applications in industry and a variety of other disciplines spanning the range from medicine to volcano research allows readers to pick those that come closest to their own individual task at hand. Following a look at the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging, properties of the imaging systems, as well as basic and advanced methods, the book goes on to discuss IR imaging applications in teaching, research and industry. Specific examples include thermography of buildings, microsystems and the rather new field of IR imaging of gases.

Impartially written by expert authors in the field from a renowned applied science institution, who are in the unique position of having both experience in public and private research and in teaching, this comprehensive book can be used for teaching beginners in the field as well as providing further education to specialized staff, students and researchers.
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Preface XV

1 Fundamentals of Infrared Thermal Imaging 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Infrared Radiation 6

1.3 Radiometry and Thermal Radiation 14

1.4 Emissivity 32

1.5 Optical Material Properties in the IR 51

1.6 Thin Film Coatings: Tailoring Desired Optical Properties for IR Optical Components 64

2 Basic Properties of IR Imaging Systems 73

2.1 Introduction 73

2.2 Detectors and Detector Systems 73

2.3 Basic Measurement Process 97

2.4 Complete Camera Systems 101

2.5 Camera Performance Characterization 137

3 Advanced Methods in IR Imaging 157

3.1 Introduction 157

3.2 Spectrally Resolved Infrared Thermal Imaging 157

3.3 Superframing 185

3.4 Processing of IR Images 190

3.5 Active Thermal Imaging 217

4 Some Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer 239

4.1 Introduction 239

4.2 The Basic Heat Transfer Modes: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation 239

4.3 Selected Examples for Heat Transfer Problems 247

4.4 Transient Effects: Heating and Cooling of Objects 261

4.5 Some Thoughts on the Validity of Newton’s Law 271

5 Basic Applications for Teaching: Direct Visualization of Physics Phenomena 281

5.1 Introduction 281

5.2 Mechanics: Transformation of Mechanical Energy into Heat 281

5.3 Thermal Physics Phenomena 291

5.4 Electromagnetism 308

5.5 Optics and Radiation Physics 316

6 IR Imaging of Buildings and Infrastructure 329

6.1 Introduction 329

6.2 Some Standard Examples for Building Thermography 338

6.3 Geometrical Thermal Bridges versus Structural Problems 348

6.4 External Influences 356

6.5 Windows 381

6.6 Thermography and Blower-Door-Tests 386

6.7 Quantitative IR Imaging: Total Heat Transfer Through Building Envelope 391

6.8 Conclusions 394

7 Industrial Application: Detection of Gases 397

7.1 Introduction 397

7.2 Spectra of Molecular Gases 397

7.3 Influences of Gases on IR Imaging: Absorption, Scattering, and Emission of Radiation 403

7.4 Absorption by Cold Gases: Quantitative Aspects 408

7.5 Thermal Emission from Hot Gases 416

7.6 Practical Applications: Gas Detection with Commercial IR Cameras 417

8 Microsystems 445

8.1 Introduction 445

8.2 Special Requirements for Thermal Imaging 446

8.3 Microfluidic Systems 449

8.4 Microsensors 459

8.5 Microsystems with Electric to Thermal Energy Conversion 467

9 Selected Topics in Research and Industry 477

9.1 Introduction 477

9.2 Thermal Reflections 477

9.3 Metal Industry 490

9.4 Automobile Industry 498

9.5 Airplane and Spacecraft Industry 503

9.6 Miscellaneous Industrial Applications 508

9.7 Electrical Applications 522

10 Selected Applications in Other Fields 535

10.1 Medical Applications 535

10.2 Animals and Veterinary Applications 548

10.3 Sports 553

10.4 Arts: Music, Contemporary Dancing, Paintings, and Sculpture 559

10.5 Surveillance and Security: Range of IR Cameras 566

10.6 Nature 574

References 584

Index 589

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Michael Vollmer received his PhD degree for the studies of clusters on surfaces, and his ha-bilitation on optical properties of metal clusters from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Later assignments were with the University of Kassel, Germany, the university of California in Berkeley, USA, as well as with various institutions in the United States and Asia during sabbaticals. His research interests include atmospheric optics, spectroscopy, infrared thermal imaging, and the didactics of physics. Professor Vollmer has authored one science book and co-authored a scientific monograph and about 140 scientific papers.

Klaus-Peter Möllmann received his PhD from the Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany, studying strongly doped narrow band semiconductors at low temperatures and later, for his habilitation, MCT photo detectors. He subsequently held positions with the Humboldt Uni-versity and with several businesses in industry. Professor Möllmann's research interests include MEMS technology, infrared thermal imaging, and spectroscopy. He is the co-author of about 100 scientific and didactical papers.
Both authors are professors of experimental physics at the University of Applied Sciences in Brandenburg, Germany.

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“This hardcover, richly illustrated hands-on guide is specifically written in an understandable style for practitioners in the field of IR imaging, for physics and science teachers and for researchers.”  (Mikroniek, 1 January 2013)

"This book is an excellent reference and practical handbook for infrared thermal imaging. It is appropriate for practitioners as well as imaging professionals and graduate students in the fields of image science, optics and applied thermal physics." (Optics & Photonics News, 23 November 2011)

"Readers who may want to repeat the experiments will appreciate the colour IR photos that are equipped with temperature scales from which one may learn which settings to use in order to achieve the best visibility of the phenomena to be observed. . . One can only wish that future authors of similar books will try to meet the standards set by this one." (European Journal of Physics, 2011)


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