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Acoustic Microscopy: Fundamentals and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-40744-6
291 pages
September 2008
Acoustic Microscopy: Fundamentals and Applications (3527407448) cover image


This only and up-to-date monograph on this versatile method covers its use in a range of applications spanning the fields of physics, materials science, electrical engineering, medicine, and research and industry.
Following an introduction, the highly experienced author goes on to investigate acoustic field structure, output signal formation in transmission raster acoustic microscopes and non-linear acoustic effects. Further chapters deal with the visco-elastic properties and microstructure of the model systems and composites used, as well as polymer composite materials and the microstructure and physical-mechanical properties of biological tissues.
A handy reference for materials scientists, electrical engineers, radiologists, laboratory medics, test engineers, physicists, and graduate students.
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Table of Contents

Foreword (C. F. Quate) XI

Preface (Yu. V. Gulyaev) XV

Introductory Comments 1

Introduction 5

1 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy. Physical Principles and Methods. Current Development 9

1.1 Basics of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Condensed Media 9

1.2 Physical Principles of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy 13

1.3 Acoustic Imaging Principles and Quantitative Methods of Acoustic Microscopy 15

1.4 Methodological Limitations of Acoustic Microscopy 18

2 Acoustic Field Structure in a Lens System of a Scanning Acoustic Microscope 21

2.1 Calculation of the Focal Area Structure with Due Regard for Aberrations and Absorption in a Medium 21

2.2 The Field of a Spherical Focusing Transducer with an Arbitrary Aperture Angle 24

2.3 Analysis of Acoustic Field Spatial Structure with a Spherical Acoustic Transducer 29

2.4 Experimental Study of the Focal Area Structure of a Transmission Acoustic Microscope 37

2.5 Formation of a Focused Beam of Bulk Acoustic Waves by a Planar System of Transducers 39

2.6 About the Possibility of Using Scholte–Stoneley Waves for Surface Waves’ Acoustic Microscopy 46

3 Output Signal Formation in a Transmission Raster Acoustic Microscope 53

3.1 Outline of the Problem 53

3.2 Transmission Acoustic Microscope: Formation of the Output Signal as a Function of Local Properties of Flat Objects. General Concepts 54

3.3 General Representation of the Output Signal of the Transmission Acoustic Microscope 56

3.4 Formation of the A(z) Dependence for Objects with a Small Shear Modulus 58

4 Quantitative Acoustic Microscopy Based on Lateral Mechanical Scanning 65

4.1 Methods of Quantitative Ultrasonic Microscopy with Mechanical Scanning: Review 65

4.2 Ray Models of V (z) and V (x) QSAM Systems 66

4.3 Wave Theory of V (z) and V (x) QSAM Systems 68

4.4 Angular Resolution of QSAM Systems 71

4.5 Application of the V (x) QSAM System to LSAW Measurement 73

4.6 Temperature Stability of the V (x) QSAM System 78

5 Acoustic Microscopy and Nonlinear Acoustic Effects 81

5.1 Nonlinear Acoustic Applications for Characterization of Material Microstructure 81

5.1.1 Schematic of Experiment 81

5.1.2 Visualization by Nonlinear Acoustic Methods 86

5.1.3 Parametric Representation of Acoustic Nonlinearity 89

5.2 Peculiarities of Nonlinear Acoustic Effects in the Focal Area of an Acoustic Microscope 92

5.3 Temperature Effects in the Focal Area of an Acoustic Microscope 94

5.4 Effects of Radiation Pressure on Samples Examined with an Acoustic Microscope 101

5.5 The Theory of Modulated Focused Ultrasound Interaction with Microscopic Entities 108

5.5.1 Shell Model of a Cell 109

5.5.2 Interaction of a Cell with a High-Frequency Field within the Framework of the Shell Model. Equation for the Radiation Force 111

5.5.3 Oscillations of a Microparticle under the Action of a Nonlinear Force 112

6 Investigation of the Local Properties and Microstructure of Model Systems and Composites by the Acoustic Microscopy Methods 119

6.1 Study of the Viscoelastic Properties of Model Collagen Systems by the Acousto-Microscopic Methods. Experimental Setup 119

6.2 Microstructure Investigations of Multilayer Photographic Film Structures Using Scanning Acoustic Microscopy Methods 124

6.3 Investigation of the Microstructure Peculiarities of High-temperature Superconducting Materials by Scanning
Acoustic Microscopy Methods 127

6.4 Application of Acoustic Microscopy to the Study of Multilayer Reinforced Fiber–Glass Graphite Composites 137

7 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy of Polymer Composite Materials 141

7.1 Acoustic Methods for the Investigation of Polymers 142

7.2 Methods for Studying and Visualizing the Dispersed Phase in Polymer Blends 144

7.3 Objects of Investigation 146

7.4 Basic Requirements Imposed on Polymer Mixtures and Methods for their Study by Acoustic Microscopy 147

7.5 Investigation into the Mechanisms of Acoustic Contrast in Polymers 147

7.6 Acoustic Imaging of the Spatial Phase Distribution in Polymer Mixtures 158

7.7 Investigation of the Structure and Homogeneity of the Mixture Components Distribution within each other. Measure of Homogeneity 159

7.8 Numerical Processing of Acoustic Images of Granulated Structures 163

7.9 Exploring the Microstructure of Polymer Blends in an Acoustic Microscope and Comparison with other Techniques 165

7.9.1 Studies of the Microstructure of Individual Particles in a Blend 165

7.9.2 Studies of Film Structure and the Homogeneity of Phase Distribution in Polymer Blend Films 167

7.9.3 Assessment of the Component Distribution in Polymer Blends at Various Sizes of the Mixture Particle Fractions 168

7.9.4 Investigation of the Distribution Homogeneity and the Physical and Mechanical Polymer Blend Properties 171

7.9.5 Examination of the Polymer Film Structure via Surface Defects 174

7.10 Application of Acoustic Microscopy Techniques for Investigation of the Multi-layered Polymer System Structure 175

7.11 Using the Short-pulse Ultrasound Scanning Technique to Measure the Thickness of Individual Components of Multi-layer Polymer Systems 178

8 Investigation of the Microstructure and Physical–Mechanical Properties of Biological Tissues 187

8.1 Application of Acoustic Microscopy Methods in Studies of Biological Objects 187

8.2 Selection of Immersion Media for Acoustic Microscopy Studies of Biological Objects 191

8.3 Imaging and Quantitative Data Acquisition of Biological Cells and Soft Tissues with Scanning Acoustic Microscopy 194

8.3.1 Introduction 194

8.3.2 Brief Description of the System 195

8.3.3 Contrast Factor for Acoustic Imaging of Biological Cells and Tissues 197

8.3.4 Thermal Insult 200

8.3.5 Shock Wave Insult 201

8.3.6 Velocity Measurement for Biological Tissue 205

8.3.7 Concluding Remarks 210

8.4 Methods for Tissue Preparation and Investigation 211

8.5 Acoustic Properties of Biological Tissues and their Effect on the Image Contrast 212

8.6 Investigation of Soft Tissue Sections 213

8.6.1 Skin 213

8.6.2 Eye Sclera 215

8.6.3 Liver 217

8.6.4 Cardiac Muscle 218

8.7 Investigation of Hard Mineralized Tissues 219

8.7.1 Bone Tissue and the Bone–Implant System 219

8.7.2 Dental Tissue 222

8.8 Acoustic Properties of Collagen 232

8.8.1 The Effect of Collagen Anisotropy on Propagation of an Ultrasound Wave 232

8.8.2 Experimental Investigation into Acoustic Properties of an Isolated Collagen Thread 238

References 241

Additional Reading 260

Index 271

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Author Information

Roman Gr. Maev received his Ph.D. from the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1973 and his D.Sc. in acoustic microscopy from the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, in 2002. From 1994 to 1997, he held a post as Director of the Acoustic Microscopy Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, then established the Centre for Imaging Research and Advanced Material Characterization at the University of Windsor, Canada. He is currently a Full Faculty Professor at the Physics Department at the same University and since 2001 the Chairholder of the NSERC/DaimlerChrysler/Industrial Research Chair in Applied Solid State Physics and Material Characterization. Professor Maev's research interests focus on the fundamentals of condensed matter, physical acoustics, ultrasonic imaging, and acoustic microscopy. He has published numerous books, more than 300 scientific papers, and holds twenty patents.
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?In his book, Acoustic Microscopy: Fundamentals and Applications, Roman Maev has written an authoritative account of the fundamentals and applications of the technique.? (Physics Today, October 2009)
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