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Quantum Nanoelectronics: An Introduction to Electronic Nanotechnology and Quantum Computing

ISBN: 978-3-527-40749-1
472 pages
April 2009
Quantum Nanoelectronics: An Introduction to Electronic Nanotechnology and Quantum Computing (3527407499) cover image
A tutorial coverage of electronic technology, starting from the basics of condensed matter and quantum physics. Experienced author Ed Wolf presents established and novel devices like Field Effect and Single Electron Transistors, and leads the reader up to applications in data storage, quantum computing, and energy harvesting.
Intended to be self-contained for students with two years of calculus-based college physics, with corresponding fundamental knowledge in mathematics, computing and chemistry.
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Preface XV

1 Introduction and Review of Electronic Technology 1

1.1 Introduction: Functions of Electronic Technology 6

2 From Electronics to Nanoelectronics: Particles, Waves, and Schrödinger.s Equation 41

2.1 Transition from Diffusive Motion of Electron Fluid to Quantum Behavior of Single Electrons 41

2.2 Particle (Quantum) Nature of Matter: Photons, Electrons, Atoms, and Molecules 46

2.3 Particle-Wave Nature of Light and Matter, De Broglie Formulas Lambda = h/p, E = hv 52

2.4 Maxwell's Equations 54

2.5 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 57

2.6 Schrödinger Equation, Quantum States and Energies, Barrier Tunneling 58

2.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 67

2.8 Fermions, Bosons, and Occupation Rules 69

2.9 A Bose Particle System: Thermal Radiation in Equilibrium 70

3 Quantum Description of Atoms and Molecules 75

3.1 Schrödinger Equation in Spherical Polar Coordinates 75

3.2 Indistinguishable Particles and Their Exchange Symmetry 87

3.3 Molecules 95

4 Metals, Semiconductors, and Junction Devices 129

4.1 Metals 129

4.2 Energy Bands in Periodic Structures 136

4.3 pn Junctions, Diode I-V Characteristic, Photodetector, and Injection Laser 150

4.4 Semiconductor Surface: Schottky Barrier 158

4.5 Ferromagnets 159

4.6 Piezoelectrics, Pyroelectrics, and Superconductors 166

5 Some Newer Building Blocks for Nanoelectronic Devices 175

5.1 The Benzene Ring, a Conceptual Basis 176

5.2 The Graphene sheet, a Second Conceptual Basis 177

5.3 Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials 187

5.4 Gold, Si, and CdS Nanowires and a Related Device 193

5.5 "Endohedral" C60 Buckyballs ~0.5 nm and Related Fullerene Molecules 198

5.6 Quantum Dots 199

5.7 Quantum Wells and the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Metal (2DEG) 205

5.8 Photonic Crystals 210

5.9 Organic Molecules and Conductive Polymers 213

6 Fabrication and Characterization Methods 223

6.1 Introduction 223

6.2 Surface Structuring 223

6.3 Specialized Vapor Deposition Processes 228

6.4 Silicon Technology: The INTEL-IBM Approach to Nanotechnology 233

6.5 Advanced Patterning and Photolithography 239

6.6 Use of DNA Strands in Guiding Self-Assembly of Nanometer-Size Structures 243

6.7 Scanning Probe Sensing and Fabrication Methods 245

7 The Field Effect Transistor: Size Limits 251

7.1 Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field-Effect Transistor 251

7.2 Small Size Limits for the MOSFET 255

7.3 Present Status of MOSFET Fabrication and Performance 258

7.4 Alternative to Bulk Silicon: Buried Oxide BOX 261

7.5 Alternative to Bulk Silicon: Strain Engineering 262

7.6 The Benzene Molecule as a Field Effect Transistor 263

8 Devices Based upon Electron Tunneling: Resonant Tunnel Diodes 267

8.1 Introduction 267

8.2 Physical Basis of Tunneling Devices 267

8.3 Resonant Tunneling Diodes and Hot Electron Transistors 275

8.4 Superconducting (RSFQ) Logic/Memory Computer Elements 279

8.5 Epitaxial MgO-Barrier Tunnel Junctions: Magnetic Field Sensors 285

9 Single-Electron Transistors, Molecular and Hybrid Electronics 289

9.1 Introduction to Coulomb and Molecular Devices 289

9.2 Single-Electron (Coulomb) Transistor SET 290

9.3 Single Molecules as Active Elements in Electronic Circuits 297

9.4 Hybrid Nanoelectronics Combining Si CMOS and Molecular Electronics: CMOL 301

9.5 Carbon Nanotube Crossbar Arrays for Ultradense, Ultrafast, Nonvolatile Random Access Memory 302

9.6 Carbon Nanotube-Based Electromechanical Switch Arrays for Nonvolatile Random Access Memory 306

9.7 Proposed 16-bit Parallel Processing in a Molecular Assembly 307

10 Devices Based on Electron Spin and Ferromagnetism for Storage and Logic 311

10.1 Hard and Soft Ferromagnets 312

10.2 The Origins of Giant Magnetoresistance 313

10.3 Magnetic Random Access Memory 319

10.4 Hybrid Ferromagnet-Semiconductor Nonvolatile Hall Effect Gate Devices 320

10.5 Spin Injection: The Johnson-Silsbee Effect 321

10.6 Imaging a Single Electron Spin by a Magnetic Resonance AFM 323

10.7 Magnetic Logic Devices: A Majority Universal Logic Gate 327

10.8 Magnetic Domain Wall Racetrack Memory 329

11 Qubits Versus Binary Bits in a Quantum Computer 333

11.1 Introduction 333

11.2 Electron and Nuclear Spins and Their Interaction 337

11.3 A Spin-Based Quantum Computer Using STM 340

11.4 Double-Well Potential Charge Qubits 341

11.5 Ion Trap on a GaAs Chip, Pointing to a New Qubit 351

11.6 Adiabatic Quantum Computation 353

12 Applications of Nanoelectronic Technology to Energy Issues 365

12.1 Introduction 365

12.2 Solar Energy and Its Conversion 367

12.3 Hydrogen Production (Solar) for Energy Transport 390

12.4 Storage and Transport of Hydrogen as a Potential Fuel 403

12.5 Surface Adsorption as a Method of Storing Hydrogen in High Density 404

13 Future of Nanoelectronic Technology 411

13.1 Silicon Devices 411

13.2 Solar Energy Conversion with Printed Solar Cells 416

13.3 Emergence of Nanoimprinting Methods 420

13.4 Self-Assembly of Nanostructured Electrodes 421

13.5 Emerging Methods in Nanoelectronic Technology 424

References 426

Exercises 429

Abbreviations 439

Some Useful Constants 443

Index 445

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Edward L. Wolf is Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic University in New York City. His long-term teaching experience ranges from undergraduate courses to the direction of thesis research. His research activities cover solid state physics, scanning tunneling microscopy, electron tunneling spectroscopy and superconductivity. Edward Wolf holds industrial and academic appointments. The former Director of the National Science Foundation is Fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored over 100 refereed publications as well as a monograph on the principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. The second edition of his successful textbook 'Nanophysics and Nanotechnology' has been published recently.
In 2007, Professor Wolf was honored with the "Jacobs Excellence in Education Award" by the Polytechnical University of New York.
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