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Health Physics in the 21st Century

ISBN: 978-3-527-40822-1
586 pages
May 2008
Health Physics in the 21st Century (3527408223) cover image
Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come.

After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions. Throughout, the author summarizes the relevant technology and scientific basis, while providing over 200 problems plus solutions to illustrate and amplify the text.

Twelve appendices add further background material to support and enrich the topics addressed in the text, making this invaluable reading for students and lecturers in physics, biophysicists, clinical, nuclear and radiation physicists, as well as physicists in industry.

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Preface XIX

Acknowledgments XXI

A Note on Units XXIII

I Overview of Volume I 1

1 Introduction 3

II Fission and Fusion Energy 7

2 Fission Power Production 9

2.1 Overview 9

2.2 Basic Health Physics Considerations 9

2.3 Fission Reactor History 13

2.4 Generation II Power Reactors 13

2.5 Generation III and IV Radiological Design Characteristics 21

2.6 Generation III 22

2.7 Generation IV 30

2.8 Generic Health Physics Hazards 40

2.9 Specific Health Physics Hazards 41

2.10 Advanced Reactor ALARA Measures 49

2.11 Radiological Considerations During Reactor Accidents 49

2.12 Beyond Design Basis Events 53

2.13 Other Events 56

2.14 Probabilistic Risk Assessment 56

2.15 Semi-Infinite Cloud Model 57

2.16 Normal Operations 58

2.17 Outage Operations 60

2.18 Abnormal Operations 61

2.19 Emergency Operations 61

3 Fusion Power Production 71

3.1 Overview 71

3.2 Fusion Process Candidates 72

3.3 Physics of Plasmas 73

3.4 Plasma Properties and Characteristics 75

3.5 Plasma Confinement 79

3.6 Overview of an Initial Fusion Power Facility 81

3.7 ITER 83

3.8 ITER Safety Characteristics 84

3.9 General Radiological Characteristics 85

3.10 Accident Scenarios/Design Basis Events 87

3.11 Radioactive Source Term 90

3.12 Beyond Design Basis Events 90

3.13 Assumptions for Evaluating the Consequences of Postulated ITER Events 90

3.14 Caveats Regarding the ITER Technical Basis 92

3.15 Overview of Fusion Energy Radiation Protection 94

3.16 D-T Systematics 95

3.17 Ionizing Radiation Sources 97

3.18 Nuclear Materials 100

3.19 External Ionizing Radiation Hazards 100

3.20 Uncertainties in Health Physics Assessments Associated with External Ionizing Radiation 106

3.21 Internal Ionizing Radiation Hazards 108

3.22 Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 109

3.23 Maintenance 113

3.24 Accident Scenarios 117

3.25 Regulatory Requirements 117

3.26 Other Radiological Considerations 120

3.27 Other Hazards 121

3.28 Other Applications 121

3.29 Conclusions 123

Problems 124

III Accelerators 131

4 Colliders and Charged Particle Accelerators 133

4.1 Introduction 133

4.2 Candidate Twenty-First Century Accelerator Facilities 133

4.3 Types of Twenty-First Century Accelerators 137

4.4 Planned Accelerator Facilities 160

4.5 Common Health Physics Issues in Twenty-First Century Accelerators 181

4.6 Other Applications 190

5 Light Sources 199

5.1 Overview 199

5.2 Physical Basis 200

5.3 Overview of Photon Light Sources – Insertion Devices 201

5.4 X-Ray Tubes 202

5.5 Overview of Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Their Evolution 203

5.6 X-Ray Radiation from Storage Rings 204

5.7 Brightness Trends 206

5.8 Physics of Photon Light Sources 206

5.9 Motion of Accelerated Electrons 209

5.10 Insertion Device Radiation Properties 211

5.11 FEL Overview 215

5.12 Physical Model of a FEL 216

5.13 FEL Characteristics 220

5.14 Optical Gain 220

5.15 Accessible FEL Output 224

5.16 X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers 224

5.17 Threshold X-Ray Free Electron 225

5.18 Near-Term X-Ray FELs 226

5.19 Gamma-Ray Free-Electron Lasers (GRFEL) 226

5.20 Other Photon-Generating Approaches 227

5.21 X-Ray Induced Isomeric Transitions 231

5.22 Gamma-Ray Laser/Fission-Based Photon Sources 232

5.23 Photon Source Health Physics and Other Hazards 234

5.24 Evaluation of Radiation Dose 237

5.25 General Safety Requirements 238

5.26 Radioactive and Toxic Gases 238

5.27 Laser Safety Calculations 239

IV Space 249

6 Manned Planetary Missions 251

6.1 Overview 251

6.2 Introduction 251

6.3 Terminology 252

6.4 Basic Physics Overview 253

6.5 Radiation Protection Limitations 255

6.6 Overview of the Space Radiation Environment 255

6.7 Calculation of Absorbed and Effective Doses 260

6.8 Historical Space Missions 260

6.9 LEO and Lunar Colonization 268

6.10 GCR and SPE Contributions to Manned Planetary Missions 269

6.11 Other Planetary Missions 280

6.12 Mars and Outer Planet Mission Shielding 286

6.13 Electromagnetic Deflection 288

6.14 Space Radiation Biology 295

6.15 Final Thoughts 296

7 Deep Space Missions 303

7.1 Introduction 303

7.2 Stellar Radiation 303

7.3 Galaxies 314

7.4 Deep Space Radiation Characteristics 317

7.5 Overview of Deep Space Missions 319

7.6 Trajectories 319

7.7 Candidate Missions 321

7.8 Propulsion Requirements for Deep Space Missions 322

7.9 Candidate Propulsion Systems Based on Existing Science and Technology 323

7.10 Technology Growth Potential 325

7.11 Sources of Radiation in Deep Space 327

7.12 Mission Doses 327

7.13 Time to Reach Alpha Centauri 333

7.14 Countermeasures for Mitigating Radiation and Other Concerns During Deep Space Missions 334

7.15 Theoretical Propulsion Options 335

7.16 Spatial Anomalies 339

7.17 Special Considerations 339

7.18 Point Source Relationship 340

V Answers and Solutions 351

VI Appendixes 453

A Significant Events and Important Dates in Physics and Health Physics 455

B Production Equations in Health Physics 465

B.1 Introduction 465

B.2 Theory 465

B.3 Examples 468

B.4 Conclusions 471

C Key Health Physics Relationships 473

D Internal Dosimetry 483

D.1 Introduction 483

D.2 Overview of Internal Dosimetry Models 483

D.3 MIRD Methodology 485

D.4 ICRP Methodology 487

D.5 Biological Effects 487

D.6 ICRP 26/30 and ICRP 60/66 Terminology 490

D.7 ICRP 26 and ICRP 60 Recommendations 490

D.8 Calculation of Internal Dose Equivalents Using ICRP 26/30 491

D.9 Calculation of Equivalent and Effective Doses Using ICRP 60/66 493

D.10 Model Dependence 495

D.11 Conclusions 495

E The Standard Model of Particle Physics 497

E.1 Overview 497

E.2 Particle Properties and Supporting Terminology 497

E.3 Basic Physics 498

E.4 Fundamental Interactions and Their Health Physics Impacts 503

E.5 Cross-Section Relationships for Specific Processes 508

F Special Theory of Relativity 509

F.1 Length, Mass, and Time 509

F.2 Energy and Momentum 512

G Muon Characteristics 515

G.1 Overview 515

G.2 Stopping Power and Range 515

H Luminosity 519

H.1 Overview 519

H.2 Accelerator Physics 519

I Dose Factors for Typical Radiation Types 523

I.1 Overview 523

I.2 Dose Factors 523

I.3 Dose Terminology 524

J Health Physics Related Computer Codes 525

J.1 Code Overview 525

J.2 Code Utilization 528

K Systematics of Heavy Ion Interactions with Matter 531

K.1 Introduction 531

K.2 Overview of External Radiation Sources 531

K.3 Physical Basis for Heavy Ion Interactions with Matter 532

K.4 Range Calculations 535

K.5 Tissue Absorbed Dose from a Heavy Ion Beam 536

K.6 Determination of Total Reaction Cross Section 537

L Curvature Systematics in General Relativity 539

L.1 Introduction 539

L.2 Basic Curvature Quantities 539

L.3 Tensors and Connection Coefficients 541

L.4 Conclusions 552

References 552

Index 553

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Joseph John Bevelacqua, PhD, CHP, is the President of Bevelacqua Resources. A theoretical nuclear physicist by training, Dr. Bevelacqua is a Certified Health Physicist and Certified Senior Reactor Operator and has over 30 years of professional experience. This experience includes the medical, fuel cycle, accelerator, power reactor, environmental, and non-ionizing areas. He was a key player in the Three Mile Island and Hanford cleanup activities, and is an active researcher with over 75 publications. His research areas include heavy ion cancer therapy, theoretical physics, and health physics applications. He recently received California University's Professional Excellence Award for his accomplishments.
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"It will be quite a fascinating and rewarding for those brave enough to let this book take them where no health physics text has gone before." (Healthy Physics, December 2008)

"The charts, graphs, and explanations are abundant and clear in this weighty, recommended pick." (The Midwest Book Review, September 2008)

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