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Theory of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

ISBN: 978-3-527-40836-8
366 pages
April 2012
Theory of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (3527408363) cover image
Aimed at the senior undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook fills the gap between general introductory texts offering little detail and very technical, advanced books written for mathematicians and theorists rather than experimentalists in the field.
The result is a concise course in atmospheric radiative processes, tailored for one semester. The authors are accomplished researchers who know how to reach their intended audience and provide here the content needed to understand climate warming and remote sensing for pollution measurement. They also include supplementary reading for planet scientists and problems.
Equally suitable reading for geophysicists, physical chemists, astronomers, environmental chemists and spectroscopists.
A solutions manual for lecturers will be provided on
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Preface XI

1 Introduction1

1.1 Brief Survey of Atmospheric Radiation 1

1.2 A Broadbrush Picture of the Atmospheric Radiation Budget 3

1.3 Solar and Terrestrial Thermal Infrared Spectra in a Cloudless Atmosphere 6

1.4 The Greenhouse Effect 7

1.5 Relevance to the Interpretation of Spaceborne Observations 9

2 Notation and Math Refresher 11

2.1 Physical Dimensions and Prefixes 11

2.2 Some Rules and Conventions 13

2.3 Vector Algebra Brief 13

2.4 Dirac Delta-Function 18

2.5 Geometry 20


2.6 Orthogonal Functions 22


2.7 Quadrature Formula 26


3 Fundamentals 29


3.1 Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation 29


3.2 Basic Radiometric Quantities 36


3.3 Blackbody and Graybody Radiation: Basic Laws 43


4 Interactions of EM Radiation and Individual Particles 59


4.1 Overview 59


4.2 Complex Index of Refraction 60


4.3 Decomposition of Electric Field Vector 62


4.4 Complex Amplitude Scattering Matrix 63


4.5 Stokes Vector 64


4.6 Degree of Polarization 66


4.7 Mueller Matrix 67


4.8 Optical Properties of Individual Particles 70


4.9 Spherical Particles (Lorenz–Mie Theory) 75


4.10 Rayleigh Scattering and Oscillating Electric Dipole 84


4.11 Scattering by Nonspherical Individual Particles 93


4.12 Geometric-Optics Method for Light Scattering by Large Particles 99


4.13 Rainbow and Halo 122


5 Volumetric (Bulk) Optical Properties 133


5.1 Particle Size Distribution 133


5.2 Volumetric (Bulk) Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction 136


6 Radiative Transfer Equation 143


6.1 Optical Thickness 144


6.2 Lambert–Bouguer Law 144


6.3 General Formulation of the RTE 147


6.4 1D RTE for a Horizontally Homogeneous Atmosphere 156


7 Numerical and Approximate Solution Techniques for the RTE 173


7.1 Legendre and Fourier Expansions 173


7.2 Equations for Fourier Modes of Diffuse Radiance 187


7.3 Method of Successive Order of Scattering (MSOS) 191


7.4 Adding-DoublingMethod (A-DM) 193


7.5 Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM) 205


7.6 Spherical Harmonics Method (SHM) 209


7.7 Monte Carlo Method (MCM) 212


7.8 Two-Stream Approximation (TSA) 222


8 Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases 233


8.1 Interactions of Photons and Gas Molecules 233


8.2 Examples of Energy Transitions 237


8.3 Line Spectra for Single-Atomic Gases 239


8.4 Molecular Absorption/Emission Line Spectra 244


8.5 Examples of Atmospheric Gas Spectra 252


8.6 Approximations of Absorption/Emission Line Shapes 256


8.7 Spectral Transmissivity and Absorptivity 260


9 Terrestrial Radiative Transfer 275


9.1 Downward Spectral Radiation 276


9.2 Upward Terrestrial Spectral Radiation 287


9.3 Example of Simulated Spectra 288


9.4 Broadband Terrestrial Radiative Transfer 291


Appendix A Abbreviations, Symbols, and Constants 301


A.1 Acronyms 301


A.2 Subscripts and Superscripts 302


A.3 Greek Symbols 305


A.4 Latin Symbols 306


A.5 Physical Constants 309


A.6 Mathematical Constants 309


References 311


Index 319

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Manfred Wendisch is a full professor and director of the Institute of Meteorology at the University of Leipzig, Germany, and holds a permanent guest professor appointment at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. In 2011, Professor Wendisch was elected as a member of the Saxonian Academy of Sciences.

Ping Yang is a professor and the holder of the David Bullock Harris Chair in Geosciences, the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A & M University, USA.Professor Yang received a Best Paper Award from the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Center in 2000 and the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER grant award in 2003.

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“My first impression of Wendisch and Yang’s new is that the authors did a very good job of organizing a wide range of material, some of which is quite advanced, and presenting it in a compact package.”  (American  Meteorological Society, 1 June 2014)

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