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Handbook of Ultra-Wideband Short-Range Sensing: Theory, Sensors, Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-40853-5
844 pages
December 2012
Handbook of Ultra-Wideband Short-Range Sensing: Theory, Sensors, Applications (3527408533) cover image
Ranging from the theoretical basis of UWB sensors via implementation issues to applications, this much-needed book bridges the gap between designers and appliers working in civil engineering, biotechnology, medical engineering, robotic, mechanical engineering, safety and homeland security.
From the contents:
* History
* Signal and systems in time and frequency domain
* Propagation of electromagnetic waves (in frequency and time domain)
* UWB-Principles
* UWB-antennas and applicators
* Data processing
* Applications
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Preface XV

List of Contributors XIX

1 Ultra-Wideband Sensing – An Overview 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Ultra-Wideband – Definition and Consequences of a Large Bandwidth 7

1.2.1 Basic Potentials of Ultra-Wideband Remote Sensing 9

1.2.2 Radiation Regulation 10

1.2.2.1 Implication of UWB Radiation on Biological Tissue 14

1.3 A Brief History of UWB Technique 16

1.4 Information Gathering by UWB Sensors 17

References 27

2 Basic Concepts on Signal and System Theory 31

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 UWB Signals, Their Descriptions and Parameters 32

2.2.1 Classification of Signals 32

2.2.1.1 Types of Stimulus Signals 32

2.2.1.2 Random Process 33

2.2.1.3 Analogue and Digital Signals 34

2.2.2 Signal Description and Parameters of Compact Signals in the Time domain 35

2.2.2.1 Basic Shape Parameters 35

2.2.2.2 Lp-norm 38

2.2.2.3 Shape Factors 40

2.2.2.4 Time Position 41

2.2.2.5 Integral Values of Pulse Duration 42

2.2.3 Statistical Signal Descriptions 43

2.2.3.1 Probability Density Function and Its Moments 43

2.2.3.2 Individual Signal 44

2.2.3.3 Random Process 45

2.2.4 Signal Description of Continuous Wave (CW) UWB Signals 49

2.2.4.1 Auto-Correlation Function 50

2.2.4.2 Cross-Correlation Function 52

2.2.5 Frequency Domain Description 54

2.2.5.1 The Fourier Series and Fourier Transformation 55

2.2.5.2 Some Properties and Parameters of a Spectrum 59

2.2.5.3 Time-Bandwidth Products 61

2.2.6 Doppler Scaling and Ambiguity Function 65

2.3 Some Idealized UWB Signals 71

2.3.1 Rectangular Unipolar and Bipolar Pulse Trains 72

2.3.2 Single Triangular Pulse 72

2.3.3 Sinc Pulse 73

2.3.4 Gaussian Pulses 75

2.3.5 Binary Pseudo-Noise Codes 79

2.3.6 Chirp 86

2.3.7 Multi-Sine 88

2.3.8 Random Noise 91

2.4 Formal Description of Dynamic Systems 94

2.4.1 Introduction 94

2.4.2 Time Domain Description 96

2.4.2.1 Linearity 96

2.4.2.2 The Impulse Response Function or the Time Domain Green’s Function 97

2.4.2.3 Extraction of Information from the Impulse Response Function 103

2.4.3 The Frequency Response Function or the Frequency Domain Greens Function 107

2.4.3.1 Properties of the Frequency Response Function and the Utility of the Frequency Domain 109

2.4.3.2 Parameters of the Frequency Response Function 111

2.4.4 Parametric System Descriptions 112

2.4.4.1 Differential Equation 112

2.4.4.2 The Laplace Transform 114

2.4.4.3 Transfer Function 115

2.4.4.4 State Space Model 118

2.4.5 Time Discrete Signal and Systems 124

2.4.5.1 Discrete Fourier Transform 125

2.4.5.2 Circular Correlation and Convolution 126

2.4.5.3 Data Record Length and Sampling Interval 127

2.5 Physical System 132

2.5.1 Energetic Interaction and Waves 132

2.5.2 N-Port Description by IV-Parameters 135

2.5.3 N-Port Description by Wave Parameters 138

2.5.4 Determination of N-Port Parameters 142

2.6 Measurement Perturbations 146

2.6.1 Additive Random Noise and Signal-to-Noise Ratio 146

2.6.1.1 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 148

2.6.1.2 Sliding Average 149

2.6.1.3 Synchronous Averaging 151

2.6.1.4 Matched Filter/Correlator 152

2.6.1.5 Device Internal Noise 157

2.6.1.6 Quantization Noise 158

2.6.1.7 IRF and FRF Estimation from Noisy Data 166

2.6.2 Narrowband Interference 168

2.6.3 Jitter and Phase Noise 170

2.6.3.1 Trigger Jitter 170

2.6.3.2 Phase Noise 173

2.6.3.3 Cycle Jitter 175

2.6.3.4 Oscillator Stability 177

2.6.4 Linear Systematic Errors and their Correction 178

2.6.5 Non-Linear Distortions 189

2.6.6 Dynamic Ranges 191

2.7 Summary 195

References 195

3 Principle of Ultra-Wideband Sensor Electronics 199

3.1 Introduction 199

3.2 Determination of the System Behaviour by Pulse Excitation 201

3.2.1 Basic Principle 201

3.2.2 Pulse Sources 203

3.2.2.1 Monolithically Integrated Pulse Sources 203

3.2.2.2 Tunnel Diode 204

3.2.2.3 Avalanche Transistor 204

3.2.2.4 Step Recovery Diode (Snap-Off Diode) 206

3.2.2.5 Non-Linear Transmission Line 206

3.2.3 Voltage Capturing by Sub-Sampling (Stroboscopic Sampling) 207

3.2.3.1 Preliminary Remarks 207

3.2.3.2 Principles of Voltage Sampling 208

3.2.3.3 Timing of Data Capturing by Sub-Sampling 223

3.2.4 Voltage Capturing by 1 bit Conversion 236

3.2.5 Peculiarities of Sensors with Pulse Excitation 240

3.3 Determination of the System Behaviour by Excitation with Pseudo-Noise Codes 243

3.3.1 Generation of Very Wideband PN-Codes 243

3.3.2 IRF Measurement by Wideband Correlation 247

3.3.3 The Sliding Correlator 248

3.3.4 Basic Concept of Digital Ultra-Wideband PN-Correlation 251

3.3.4.1 Digital Impulse Compression 255

3.3.4.2 Transformation into the Frequency Domain 257

3.3.4.3 Removal of Stationary Data 258

3.3.5 Some Particularities of PN-Sequence Devices 262

3.3.6 System Extensions of Digital PN-Correlator 266

3.3.6.1 Improving the Sampling Efficiency 266

3.3.6.2 MiMo-Measurement System 275

3.3.6.3 Up–Down-Conversion 278

3.3.6.4 Equivalent Time Oversampling 283

3.3.6.5 Beam Steering and Doppler Bank 287

3.3.6.6 Transmitter–Receiver Separation 293

3.4 Determination of the System Behaviour by Excitation with Sine Waves 296

3.4.1 Introduction 296

3.4.2 Measurement of the Frequency Response Functions 297

3.4.2.1 Homodyne Receiver 297

3.4.2.2 Heterodyne Receiver 299

3.4.3 Sine Wave Sources of Variable Frequency 302

3.4.4 Operational Modes 306

3.4.4.1 Stepped Frequency Continuous Wave (SFCW) 306

3.4.4.2 Continuous Frequency Variation 317

3.5 The Multi-Sine Technique 323

3.6 Determination of the System Behaviour with Random Noise Excitation 330

3.6.1 Time Domain Approaches 334

3.6.2 Frequency Domain Approaches 338

3.7 Measuring Arrangements 341

3.7.1 Capturing of Voltage and Current 341

3.7.2 Basic Measurement Circuit 343

3.7.3 Methods of Wave Separation 347

3.7.3.1 Wave Separation by Time Isolation 347

3.7.3.2 Wave Separation by Directional Couplers 351

3.7.3.3 Wave Separation by Voltage Superposition 351

3.7.3.4 Capturing of E- and H-Field 353

3.8 Summary 354

References 356

4 Ultra-Wideband Radar 363

4.1 Introduction 363

4.2 Distributed System – the Measurement Problem 363

4.3 Plane Wave and Isotropic Waves/Normalized Wave 368

4.4 Time Domain Characterization of Antennas and the Free Space Friis Transmission Formula 379

4.4.1 Introduction 379

4.4.2 Antenna as Transmitter 382

4.4.3 Antenna as Receiver 384

4.4.4 Transmission Between Two Antennas – The Scalar Friis Transmission Formula 385

4.5 Indirect Transmission Between Two Antennas – The Scalar Time Domain Radar Equation 388

4.5.1 Wave Scattering at Planar Interfaces 388

4.5.2 Wave Scattering at Small Bodies 391

4.6 General Properties of Ultra-Wideband Antennas 405

4.6.1 Canonical Minimum-Scattering Antenna 409

4.6.2 Spectral Domain Antenna Parameters 412

4.6.3 Time Domain Antenna Parameters 417

4.6.3.1 Effective Centre of Radiation 420

4.6.3.2 Boresight Direction and Canonical Position 424

4.6.3.3 Time Domain Directive Gain Pattern 425

4.6.3.4 Spherical Deformation Pattern 425

4.6.3.5 Fidelity and Fidelity Pattern 425

4.6.3.6 Structural Efficiency Pattern 426

4.6.4 Parametric Description of Antenna and Scatterer 427

4.6.5 Distance and Angular Dependence of Antenna Functions and Parameters 430

4.6.6 The Ideal Short-Range UWB Radar Equation 435

4.6.7 Short-Range Time Domain Antenna Measurements 440

4.6.7.1 Transmission Measurement Between Two Antennas 440

4.6.7.2 Direct Measurement of Antenna Impulse Response 443

4.6.7.3 Impulse Response Measurement by Backscattering 445

4.6.7.4 Measurement of Antenna Backscattering 446

4.7 Basic Performance Figures of UWB Radar 446

4.7.1 Review on Narrowband Radar Key Figures and Basics on Target Detection 446

4.7.2 Range Resolution of UWB Sensors 455

4.7.3 Accuracy of Range Measurement 459

4.7.3.1 Statement of the Problem 459

4.7.3.2 Noise- and Jitter-Affected Ultra-Wideband Signals 463

4.7.3.3 Noise and Jitter Robustness of Various UWB Sensor Concepts 468

4.7.3.4 Short-Pulse Excitation and Dual Ramp Sampling Control 469

4.7.3.5 Analogue Short-Pulse Correlation and Dual Sine Timing 470

4.7.3.6 Ultra-Wideband CW Stimulation and Dual Pulse Timing 471

4.7.3.7 Random Uncertainty of Time Position Estimation 473

4.7.3.8 Time Position Error Caused by Drift and Its Correction 483

4.8 Target Detection 487

4.8.1 Preliminary Remarks 487

4.8.2 Target Detection Under Noisy Conditions 489

4.8.2.1 Detections Based on a Single Measurement 490

4.8.2.2 Detection Based on Repeated Measurements 496

4.8.3 Detection of Weak Targets Closely Behind an Interface 507

4.8.3.1 Modelling of the Receiving Signal 509

4.8.3.2 Hidden Target Detection 510

4.8.3.3 Blind Range Reduction 512

4.9 Evaluation of Stratified Media by Ultra Wideband Radar 519

4.9.1 Measurement arrangement and Modelling of Wave Propagation 519

4.9.2 Reconstruction of Coplanar Layer Structure 526

4.10 Ultra-Wideband Short-Range Imaging 530

4.10.1 Introduction 530

4.10.2 The Basic Method of Short-Range Imaging 531

4.10.3 Array-Based Imaging 535

4.10.3.1 Ultra-Wideband Radar Array 538

4.10.3.2 Point Spread Function and Image Resolution 539

4.10.3.3 Steering Vector Design 544

4.10.3.4 Sparse Scene Imaging 552

4.10.3.5 Array Configurations and Remarks on UWB Radar Imaging 562

4.10.4 Shape Reconstruction by Inverse Boundary Scattering 565

4.10.4.1 Shape Reconstruction by Quasi-Wavefront Derivation 565

4.10.4.2 Shape Reconstruction Based on Tangent Planes 568

4.10.4.3 Planar Interface Localization by Mono-Static Measurements 568

4.10.4.4 Bi-Static Measurement 572

4.10.4.5 Estimation of Reconstruction Errors 574

References 578

5 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves in Time and Frequency 585

5.1 Introduction 585

5.2 The Fundamental Relations of the Electromagnetic Field 586

5.2.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Related Relations 587

5.2.2 Boundary Conditions 592

5.2.3 Energy Flux of Electromagnetic Radiation 593

5.2.4 Radiation Condition 594

5.2.5 Lorentz Reciprocity 594

5.3 Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Matter 596

5.4 Plane Wave Propagation 601

5.4.1 The Electromagnetic Potentials 602

5.4.2 Time Harmonic Plane Wave 604

5.4.3 fp-Space Description and Dispersion Relation 606

5.4.4 Propagation in Arbitrary Direction 608

5.4.5 Time Domain Description of Wideband Plane Wave 611

5.4.6 Scattering of a Plane Wave at a Planar Interface 614

5.5 The Hertzian Dipole 617

5.5.1 The Dipole as Transmitter 618

5.5.2 Far-Field and Normalized Dipole Wave 622

5.5.3 The Dipole as Field Sensor and Self-Reciprocity 624

5.5.4 Interfacial Dipole 625

5.6 Polarimetric Friis Formula and Radar Equation 631

5.7 The Concept of Green’s Functions and the Near-Field Radar Equation 636

References 647

6 Examples and Applications 651

6.1 Ultra-Wideband Sensing – The Road to New Radar and Sensor Applications 651

6.1.1 Potential of Ultra-Wideband Sensing – A Short Summary 651

6.1.2 Overview on Sensor Principles 654

6.1.3 Application of Ultra-Wideband Sensing 655

6.2 Monolithically Integration of M-Sequence-Based Sensor Head 663
Martin Kmec

6.2.1 Introduction 663

6.2.2 Technology and Design Issues 663

6.2.2.1 Sensor IC Technology Choice 663

6.2.2.2 Design Flow 666

6.2.2.3 Architecture-Specific Circuit Definitions 667

6.2.2.4 Technology Figure-of-Merits 667

6.2.3 Multi-Chip and Single-Chip Sensor Integration 668

6.2.4 The UWB Single-Chip Head 672

6.2.4.1 Architecture and Design Philosophy 672

6.2.4.2 Implemented Circuit Topology 674

6.2.4.3 Single-Chip Floor Plan 676

6.2.5 Particular Single-Chip Blocks 678

6.2.5.1 Stimulus Generator 678

6.2.5.2 The Synchronization Unit 679

6.2.5.3 Transmitter I/O Buffers 680

6.2.5.4 Ultra-Wideband Receivers 681

6.2.6 Single-Chip Test Prototypes 685

6.3 Dielectric UWB Microwave Spectroscopy 688
Frank Daschner, Michael Kent, and Reinhard Knöchel

6.3.1 Introduction 688

6.3.2 Time Domain Reflectometer for Dielectric Spectroscopy 690

6.3.2.1 Probe 690

6.3.2.2 Instrument Requirements 690

6.3.2.3 Sequential Sampling 691

6.3.2.4 System Design 692

6.3.2.5 Hardware Effort 693

6.3.3 Signal Processing 693

6.3.3.1 Principal Component Analysis and Regression 694

6.3.3.2 Artificial Neural Networks 697

6.3.4 Summary 698

6.4 Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering Using M-Sequence-Based UWB Sensors 700

Ralf Herrmann and Frank Bonitz

6.4.1 Assessment of Sewer Pipe Embedding 701

6.4.1.1 Pipe Inspection Sensor 702

6.4.1.2 Test Bed and Data Processing 702

6.4.1.3 Measurement Example for the Bedding of a Plastic Pipe 704

6.4.2 Inspection of the Disaggregation Zone in Salt Mines 706

6.4.2.1 M-Sequence UWB Sensor for Detection of Salt Rock Disaggregation 707

6.4.2.2 Data Processing for Detection of Disaggregation 707

6.4.2.3 Example Measurement: A 3D View of Salt Rock Disaggregation in an Old Tunnel 709

6.4.2.4 Example Measurement: Subsidence Analysis in a Fresh Tunnel Stub 712

Acknowledgements 714

6.5 UWB Cardiovascular Monitoring for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging 714
Olaf Kosch, Florian Thiel, Ulrich Schwarz, Francesco Scotto di Clemente, Matthias Hein, and Frank Seifert

6.5.1 Introduction 714

6.5.2 Impact of Cardiac Activity on Ultra-Wideband Reflection Signals from the Human Thorax 716

6.5.3 Compatibility of MRI and UWB Radar 717

6.5.3.1 Measurements on a Stratified Human Thorax Phantom 717

6.5.3.2 Design Considerations for MR Compatible Ultra-Wideband Antennas 718

6.5.4 Interpretation of Physiological Signatures from UWB Signals 720

6.5.4.1 Simultaneous ECG/UWB Measurements 720

6.5.4.2 Appropriate Data Analysis and Resulting Multiple Sensor Approach 722

6.5.4.3 Physiological Interpretation 722

6.5.5 MR Image Reconstruction Applying UWB Triggering 724

6.5.6 Outlook and Further Applications 724

Acknowledgement 726

6.6 UWB for Medical Microwave Breast Imaging 726
Marko Helbig

6.6.1 Introduction 726

6.6.1.1 Non-Contact Breast Imaging 727

6.6.1.2 Contact-Mode Breast Imaging 728

6.6.2 Breast and Body Surface Reconstruction 728

6.6.2.1 Method 728

6.6.2.2 Detection and Elimination of Improper Wavefronts 732

6.6.2.3 Exemplary Reconstruction Results and Influencing Factors 735

6.6.3 Contact-Based Breast Imaging 740

6.6.3.1 UWB Breast Imaging in Time Domain 740

6.6.3.2 Measurement Setup Based on Small Antennas 741

6.6.3.3 Imaging Results of Phantom Trials 743

Acknowledgement 744

6.7 M-Sequence Radar Sensor for Search and Rescue of Survivors Beneath Collapsed Buildings 745
Egor Zaikov

6.7.1 Principle and Challenges 746

6.7.2 The Radar System 748

6.7.3 Pre-Processing and Breathing Detection 749

6.7.3.1 Breathing Enhancement by Its Periodicity 752

6.7.3.2 Signal Enhancement in Propagation Time 753

6.7.4 Non-Stationary Clutter Reduction 756

6.7.5 Localization of Breathing People 758

6.7.6 Conclusions and Future Work 761

Acknowledgement 762

6.8 Multiple Moving Target Tracking by UWB Radar Sensor Network 762
Du9san Kocur, Jana Rovakova, and Daniel Urdzík

6.8.1 Introduction 762

6.8.2 Shadowing Effect 764

6.8.3 Basic Concept of UWB Sensor Network for Short-Range Multiple Target Tracking 765

6.8.4 Experimental Results 767

6.8.5 Conclusions 771

6.9 UWB Localization 772
Rudolf Zetik

6.9.1 Classification of UWB Localization Approaches 772

6.9.1.1 Two-Step Localization versus Imaging 773

6.9.1.2 Active versus Passive Approach 774

6.9.1.3 Time of Arrival versus Time Difference of Arrival 775

6.9.2 Active Localization 777

6.9.3 Passive Localization 779

6.9.3.1 Detection of Targets 779

6.9.3.2 Passive Localization of Targets 780

6.9.3.3 Measured Example 781

6.9.4 Imaging of Targets 783

6.9.5 Further Challenges 787

References 789

Appendix 801

Symbols and Abbreviations 803

Symbols 803

Notations 810

Structure of Multi-Dimensional Data 811

Abbreviations 812

Index 817

Online Annex (available at Wiley homepage)

A Mathematical Basics

A.1 Some Useful Improper Integrals

A.2 Dirac Delta Function and Doublets

A.3 Some Definitions and Calculation Rules for Statistic Variables

A.4 Coordinate Systems

A.5 Some Vector Operations and Useful Identities

A.6 Some Matrix Operations and Useful Identities

A.7 Quadric Surfaces and Curves

A.7.1 Ellipse

A.7.2 Hyperbola

A.7.3 Intersection of Two Circles

B Signals and Systems

B.1 Fourier and Laplace Transform

B.2 Properties of convolution

B.3 Spectrum of Complex Exponential (FMCW-signal)

B.4 Product Detector

B.4.1 ACF of Band-Limited White Gaussian Noise

B.4.2 CCF between a Perturbed and Unperturbed Version of the same Signal

B.4.3 ACF of a Perturbed Deterministic Signal

B.4.4 IQ-Demodulator

B.5 Shape Factors

B.5.1 Generalised Shape Factors of Triangular Pulse

B.5.2 Generalised Shape Factor of M-Sequence

B.6 Conversion between N-Port Parameters

B.7 Mason Graph

B.8 S-Parameters of Basic Circuits

B.9 M-Sequence and Golay-Sequence

B.9.1 M-Sequence

B.9.2 Complementary Golay-Sequence

C Electromagnetic Field

C.1 Time Domain Reciprocity relation

C.2 Scattering of Plane Waves at a Planar Interface

C.3 Scattering of a Plane Wave at a Sphere

D Colored Figures and Movies

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Jürgen Sachs earned a Doctorate (Dr.-Ing.) in Electrical Engineering (surface acoustic wave devices) and a Dipl.-Ing. degree in Electrical Engineering (semi-conductor technology and components). Since 1985, he is Senior Lecturer at TU Ilmenau, Germany. He teaches "Basics of Electrical Measurement Technology", "Methods of measurement for the information and communication technique", and "Eatellite navigation and radar". He is head of several research projects, and inter alia coordinator of European projects for humanitarian demining. His research areas cover RF-signal analysis and RF-system identification; Surface Penetrating Radar, Impulse Radiating Antennas; Ultra wideband (UWB) methods and their application in high resolution radar and impedance spectroscopy, digital processing of UWB-signals; UWB-Array-processing; and humanitarian anti-personal mine detection.
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