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Imaging gaseous detectors and their applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-40898-6
356 pages
February 2013
Imaging gaseous detectors and their applications (3527408983) cover image
Describing advanced detectors and their visualization and investigation techniques, this book presents the major applications in nuclear and high-energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements.
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Preface XI

Color Plates XIII

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Exploring the Universe by Detecting Photons and Particles 1

1.2 Detectors of Photons and Charged Particles 3

1.2.1 Vacuum Detectors 4

1.2.2 Gaseous Detectors 8

1.2.3 Liquid Detectors 8

1.2.4 Solid-State Detectors 11

1.2.5 Combination of Imaging Detectors with Scintillators 15

1.2.6 Hybrid Imaging Detectors 17

1.2.6.1 Vacuum Hybrid Detectors 17

1.2.6.2 Gaseous Hybrid Detectors 18

1.2.6.3 Liquid Hybrid Detectors 18

References 19

2 Basic Processes in Gaseous Detectors 21

2.1 Interaction of Charged Particles and Photons with Matter 21

2.1.1 Ionization Energy Loss 21

2.1.2 Interaction of Photons with Matter 25

2.1.2.1 Interaction of Photons with Gases 26

2.1.2.2 Interaction of Photons with Liquids 32

2.1.2.3 Interaction of Photons with Metals and Other Solid Materials 34

2.2 Drift of Electrons and Ions in Gases 38

2.2.1 Drift of Electrons 38

2.2.2 Drift of Ions 41

2.3 Some remarks on the Diffusion 42

2.3.1 Diffusion of Ions in Electric Fields 42

2.3.2 Diffusion of Electrons in Electric Fields 42

2.3.3 Drift and Diffusion of Electrons Moving in Electric and Magnetic Fields 44

2.4 Avalanche Multiplication in Gases 45

References 50

3 Traditional Position-Sensitive Gaseous Detectors and Their Historical Development: from the Geiger Counter to the Multi-wire Proportional Chamber (1905 till 1968) 53

3.1 Geiger and Spark Counters 54

3.1.1 Single-Wire Counters 54

3.1.1.1 Geiger Counters 56

3.1.2 Proportional Counters 60

3.1.2.1 Energy Resolution 60

3.1.2.2 Position Resolution 63

3.1.3 Physics Processes in Single-wire Counters 66

3.1.4 A Peculiar Type of Proportional Counter: the Gas Scintillation Counter 71

3.2 Parallel-Plate Spark and Streamer Detectors 76

3.2.1 Spark Counters 76

3.2.2 Streamer Chambers 80

3.3 Further Developments: Pulsed High frequency Detectors 81

References 82

4 The Multi Wire Proportional Chamber Era 85

References 90

5 More in Depth about Gaseous Detectors 91

5.1 Pulse-Shape Formation in Gaseous Detectors in Absence of Secondary Effects 91

5.1.1 Parallel-Plate Geometry 91

5.1.2 Cylindrical Geometry 93

5.1.3 MWPC Geometry 95

5.2 Townsend Avalanches and Secondary Processes 99

5.2.1 Role of Photon Emission 99

5.2.1.1 Emission Spectra 99

5.2.1.2 Photoeffect on the Cathode 104

5.2.1.3 Gas Photoionization 108

5.2.2 Role of the Positive Ions 113

5.2.2.1 Ion Recombination on the Cathode in Vacuum 114

5.2.2.2 Recombination on the Cathode in Gas 117

5.2.3 Role of Excited and Metastable Atoms 121

5.3 Discharges in Gaseous Detectors 124

5.3.1 Slow Breakdown 125

5.3.2 Fast Breakdown 127

5.3.3 Self-Quenched Streamers in Gas-Filled Wire Detectors 131

5.4 Features of Operation of Wire Detectors at High Counting Rates 136

5.5 Afterpulses and the Cathode-‘‘Excitation’’ Effect 138

References 143

6 New Ideas on Gaseous Detectors Conceived during the Early Years of the ‘‘Multi Wire Proportional Chambers’’ Era (1968–1977) 145

6.1 Drift Chambers 145

6.2 Time Projection Chamber 148

6.3 First Designs of Resistive-Plate Chambers 153

6.3.1 Comparison between RPCs and MWPCs 156

6.4 Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors 157

References 158

7 Developments in MWPCs, PPACs, and RPCs after 1977 161

7.1 Modern Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors 161

7.1.1 PGDs Working on the Principle of Gas Photoionization 161

7.1.2 PGDs with Solid Photocathodes 161

7.1.3 PGDs for the Detection of UV Light 163

7.1.4 Detection of Visible Light 164

7.2 RICH Detectors 165

7.2.1 Earlier Ideas and First Designs 165

7.2.2 Present Status: RICH Detectors Based on Photosensitive MWPCs 167

7.2.3 TEA and TMAE-Based MWPCs for RICH Devices 168

7.2.4 CsI Based MWPC for RICH 169

7.3 Special Designs of MWPCs and Parallel-Plate Detectors 171

7.3.1 Position-Sensitive Gas Scintillation Chambers and Optical Readout 171

7.3.2 Optical Imaging Gaseous Detectors 174

7.3.3 Cluster Counting 176

7.3.4 MWPCs with a Very High Energy Resolution 179

7.4 Parallel-Plate Avalanche Chambers 182

7.4.1 Important Discoveries in the Physics of Breakdown processes 184

7.4.1.1 Random Avalanche Overlapping 185

7.4.1.2 Recently Discovered Phenomena Involved in Breakdowns at High Counting Rates: Cathode-Excitation Effect and Electron Jets 188

7.4.1.3 Cathode-‘‘Excitation’’ phenomenon in PPACs 190

7.4.1.4 More About Jets 191

7.5 Santonico’s (Spark/Streamer) RPCs 192

7.6 Avalanche RPCs 195

7.6.1 ‘‘Streamer Suppression’’ in Gas Mixtures Used in RPCs 198

7.6.2 Microgap and Multigap RPCs 201

7.6.3 High Counting Rate RPCs 204

7.6.4 High Position Resolution RPCs 206

7.6.5 Cathode-Excitation Effect in RPCs 207

References 210

8 Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 215

8.1 Introduction 215

8.1.1 Main Directions in the Design of Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 216

8.1.2 Microstrip (Microwire)-Type Gaseous Detectors 216

8.1.3 Microdot (Micropin)-Type Detectors 217

8.1.4 Hole-Type Detectors 217

8.1.5 Parallel-Plate-Type Detectors 219

8.2 Signal-Readout Techniques 221

8.3 Efforts in the Design Optimization of Micropattern Detectors 223

8.3.1 Main Trends in the Development 223

8.3.2 How Far Can We Go? 224

8.4 Gain Limit 225

8.4.1 Gain at Low Counting Rates 226

8.4.2 Gain at High Counting Rates 230

8.4.3 Slow breakdowns in micropattern detectors 234

8.5 Position Resolution 235

8.6 Recent Promising Developments in Micropattern Gaseous Detectors 236

8.6.1 Detection of Visible Photons 236

8.6.2 Latest Developments in Micropattern Detectors 240

8.6.2.1 Robust Designs of GEM-Type Detectors: Thick GEM and its modification for Resistive GEM 240

8.6.2.2 MICROMEGAS with Resistive Electrodes 244

8.6.2.3 MSGCs and Microdot Detectors with Resistive Electrodes 245

8.7 Conclusions 246

References 246

9 Applications of Imaging Gaseous Detectors 251

9.1 High-Energy and Nuclear Physics 251

9.1.1 Large-Scale Experiments Using Gaseous Detectors Prior the Large Hadron Collider Era 251

9.1.2 LHC Detectors 262

9.2 Application to Astrophysics 268

9.2.1 Flight Experiments 268

9.2.2 Ground Experiments 269

9.2.3 Underground Experiments 273

9.3 Applications to Medicine and Biology 275

9.3.1 X-Ray Scanners 275

9.3.2 Stationary 2D X-Ray Imaging Detectors 277

9.3.3 Beta Imaging Systems 283

9.3.4 Crystallography 283

9.3.5 TOF PET 285

9.4 Application to Homeland Security 286

9.4.1 X-Ray Scanners 286

9.4.2 Muon Tomography 288

9.5 Plasma Diagnostics 290

9.6 New Areas of Application for Gaseous Imaging Detectors 299

9.6.1 Detection of Flames and Dangerous Gases with Imaging Gaseous Detectors: Recent Developments 300

9.6.2 Hyperspectroscopy 302

9.6.3 Detection of Alpha Emitting Elements in Air 305

References 308

10 Conclusions 313

Acknowledgments 317

References 317

Index 319

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Dr. Eugenio Nappi is Director of Research at the INFN (Italian Institute for Research in Nuclear Physics). Since the beginning of his career, he has had a keen interest in the experimental aspects of CERN's physics program of ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions at the SPS and subsequently, in the conception and development of the ALICE experiment at the LHC. He is the author and co-author of more than 200 papers published in international journals as well as member of the International Scientific Advisory and Organizing Committees in several conferences and workshops on nuclear physics instrumentation.

Prof. Vladimir Peskov is a chief scientist at the Institute for Chemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). He worked in the Physics Laboratory RAS led by P. L. Kapitza where he discovered and studied a new type of plasma instability. In 1986 he obtained an Associate Scientist position at CERN in G. Charpak's group and later spent most of his career working at various Scientific Institutions (CERN, Fermi National Laboratory, NASA and the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden) on the instrumentation for high energy physics, astrophysics and medicine. He is the author and co-author of more than one hundred publications and twelve International Patents, member of the International Scientific Advisory and Organizing Committees in several conferences and workshops on instrumentation for high energy physics.

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"Each of us will find in this book some corner of our own memory, the significance of our own gaseous detector in recent and current experiments, together with a touch of the new in exploring the many possible applications of gas counters in medicine, biology or homeland security and – when closing the book – the compelling need to stay in the lab. Chapeau!."  (CERN Courier, 26 April  2013)  

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